Grapes: The Fruit of Wonders

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Updated on: Educator Review By: Michelle Connolly

The grapes plant is a fruit-bearing vine belonging to the Vitis genus, Vitaceae family, one of the plants that have been cultivated since ancient times, as fossils of its leaves, seeds, and fruits were found. Grapes have various uses besides being eaten fresh, in making juices, jams, vinegar, jelly or jelly, and raisins. Grapes are available in different shapes, sizes, and colours. They have multiple flavours that range from sweet to sour.

Grape is one of the favourite fruits for many people because it’s soft texture and delicious taste distinguish it; in addition to the great benefit that accrues to the body as a result of eating it, it grows specifically in the summer in the form of a wooden tree to a hundred fruits or grains, this tree or clusters, like other plants, need special care and attention because they are exposed to many pests and diseases.

Grapes are among the vineyards that grow broadly and commonly. This is due to its diversity and portability, and information about grapes can be identified through the following:

  • Grapes are grown in large amounts, amounting to more than 72 million tons annually around the world, and only approximately 12% of this production is used for fresh consumption.
  • Research indicates that ancient civilisations cultivated grapes.
  • According to archaeologists, there is evidence that the growth of grapes dates back to approximately 6500 BCE.
  • Grapes were also considered one of the most important foods that existed within social rituals in ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome.
  • One cup of grapes contains approximately 100 calories, and it provides around 30% of the daily needed values of vitamin K and vitamin C.
  • Grapes can be made into dried raisins naturally under sunlight.

Kinds of Grapes

Man has known the cultivation of grapes for thousands of years, and its cultivation has spread around the world. It is estimated that there are approximately 10,000 types of it, and perhaps the most important of these types are the following:

Moon Drops

Moon Drops is a dark purple grape that tends to be black. Its taste is sweet but not too sweet. Its flavour is very similar to that of grape jelly. As for the shape of the grain, it is cylindrical and complex from the inside, which allows it to stay for several days in the refrigerator without spoiling.

What distinguishes this type of grape is that its pulp is free of seeds, in addition to its crunchy texture, and it is grown in the central regions of California in the United States of America. Moon drops grapes are grown in late July until the end of September.


Concord is a grape whose grains are purple, tending to dark blue. It can be used in numerous food businesses, including the production of jams and juices as well as several baked items. It is one of the fruit antioxidants.

This type of grape is characterised by its sweet taste of distinctive flavours. The Outer skin is light and easy to peel, and the n contains many seeds inside, and a pleasant smell characterises it, and it is cultivated in the United States of America in many states such as; New York, Michigan and other places. Concord grape planting times are at the beginning of August and extend until September.

Pinot Noir

Pinot Noir is a grape with dark black skin that grows in conical clusters. It is one of the crops that prefer cold climates, and the reason is t is exposed to strong sunlight, which can lead to wilting. It needs a little sunlight to complete its growth.

This type of thin outer skin characterises this type of grape n an aroma similar to the smell of ripe cherries and wild strawberries. Pinot Noir grapes are mainly used in winemaking. The season for its cultivation is from the beginning of August until the month of September.


Lemberger is one of the crops that are grown in large quantities in Germany, Hungary and Italy, where this type is mainly used in the wine industry. It is one of the crops that bloom in the winter season, as tiny buds appear at the beginning of the spring season and take a long time to ripen.

It is worth noting that the Limburger grape is distinguished by its complete grains of a dusty blue colour, and it has a distinctive flavour and a sweet and sour taste. As for the preferred times for planting this crop, it is from the beginning of the month of August until the month of September.

Sweet Jubilee

Sweet Jubilee is one of the species that is distinguished by its large grains and oval shape. Its colour is black, and it grows in clusters. It is sweet in taste and has a pure grape flavour. It is cultivated in the central regions of California in the United States of America. The preferred times for planting this type of grape are mostly from mid-August to early September.


Valiant is a tricky grape; its vine is strong and remarkably fruitful, it has a blue-purple colour very similar to the Concord grape, its skin is soft and can be removed easily, its pulp is rich in sugar, and its berries are medium in size. This grape can be eaten fresh or in juices, jams and jellies.

It is cultivated in Alaska because it can withstand harsh climatic conditions represented by low temperatures and harsh soils. It is also grown in Canada and is preferable to be cultivated from the end of August until September.


Champagne is called black Corinth, and it was found for the first time in the continent of Asia and Greece, and later, it was planted in the United States of America. Grapes are used in the production of dried raisins, as a crunchy texture and a balanced sweet taste with little acidity characterise them.

Moreover, due to its use in the production of raisins, when dried, the percentage of sugar is concentrated in it, and it becomes sweeter, with a small percentage of acidity. It is also used in making jams and some types of sweets, and the stems of this type are often eaten because they are very soft and difficult to remove.

It should be noted that the champagne grape is characterised by its smaller size than the berries, and it is preferable to plant it from the beginning of June until September.

Crimson Seedless

Crimson Seedless is a kind of pale red grape, sometimes with green stripes, and what distinguishes it is that it is seedless, as it can be served with some cheese dishes, and is characterised by its somewhat sour taste and thick skin.

Undoubtedly, its thick peel helps keep its juice, and it is one of the types with a long shelf life. This type of grape blooms in the winter and is grown on a large scale in the state of California in the United States of America. As for the planting season, it starts from the beginning of August. Until the month of November.


Kyoho is a large grape, the size of a single peach fruit, dark purplish-black in colour, with a fishy skin and a large inedible seed in the middle of the fruit, similar in taste to Concord grapes, and is the largest grape that can be found in nature.

It should be noted that the name Kyoho is of Japanese origin and translates as (Giant Mountain Grape). This type grows in Mount Fuji and is offered to the Japanese as a kind of dessert or juice, as it is mixed with other flavours with a distinctive taste. Its cultivation season is from July to August.

Cotton Candy

Cotton Candy is a grape that resembles the taste of cotton candy, and its colour is green. It is one of the pure types that have not undergone any genetic modification, as it was crossed from two other types to remove acidity, so it has a sweet taste that resembles cotton candy.

Cotton candy grapes are grown in California in the United States of America, and the best season for planting is from mid-August to late September.


Riesling is one of the species that grows in cold regions, and its cultivation is widespread in many countries, such as; Austria, Germany, and the United States of America. It is mainly used in the wine industry because it is rich in sweet and sour flavours. It is cultivated from the beginning of August to the end of September.

This grape is distinguished by its small grains, which are present in dense and full clusters. Its green skin, round shape, and moderate size determine it. It is worth noting that its flavour and sweetness intensity vary according to the type of soil in which it is grown, as well as the geographical location of the crop.

Moon Balls

Moon Balls are one of hybrid grapes, it has a green circular shape and a large size, and it has a thick outer skin, unlike the soft, sweet-tasting pulp. It is worth noting that it grows in South Africa, and it is preferable to plant it from the beginning of February until March.

Its other name must be mentioned, which is the ruby grape. Its grain is distinguished by its richness in flavours and juiciness. It is solid on the outside and fragile on the inside. It is also rich in vitamins such as vitamins (A, C, and K) and antioxidants, in addition to containing water by up to 82%. Hence, it is classified as a healthy food.


Sultana is a white grape with small, oval berries. It is native to Turkey. It is often grown in Australia and California. It is used in the commercial raisin industry. It is also used in the wine industry, especially the small and seedless variety, Thomson Seedless.

It is coloured light green, and as soon as it is dried, the sugar content is highly concentrated in it. It is preferable to plant it from the beginning of July until September.

Fry Muscadine

Fry Muscadine It is one of the large species, as the size of one grain reaches the size of a cherry tomato and is golden brown, especially when it is ripe. As for its texture, it is coherent and solid on the outside, and it is grown in the state of Georgia in the United States of America, especially during the month of September.

It is worth noting that the Muscadine grape is one of the types that have a distinctive quality, as it is a variety that is resistant to icy climatic conditions and diseases. It does not contain much sugar, as its sugar content reaches 21%, and its origin is due to a variety produced in 1972.

The Nutritional Value of Grapes

The following table shows the nutrients present in 100 grams of fresh green or red grapes:

The Nutritional Value of Grapes
Nutrition ItemNutritional Value
Water80.54 µL
Calories69 cal.
Carbohydrates18.1 gr
Sugars15.48 gr
Fibre0.9 gr
Protein0.72 gr
Fat0.16 gr
Calcium10 mg
Iron0.36 mg
Magnesium7 mg
Beta-carotene39 mcg
Potassium191 mg
Sodium2 mg
Zinc0.07 mg
Vitamin C3.2 mg
Vitamin B60.086 mg
Folate2 mg
Vitamin A66 IU
Vitamin E0.19 mg

The Benefits of Grapes

Here is a mention of some of the nutrients found in grapes:

Based on its content of nutrient

Based on its content of nutrients

  1. Rich in antioxidants: These substances aid in the repair of cell damage brought on by free radicals that result in oxidative stress, a condition associated with several chronic illnesses, such as diabetes, cancer, and heart disease. Grapes’ antioxidant content increases and other beneficial plant compounds reach 1,600 combinations.
  2. Anthocyanins in seeds and peels: These are found in high concentrations in grape peels and seeds, and it should be noted that red grapes contain a higher number of antioxidants. This is due to its content of Anthocyanins, which are responsible for the red colour. Another example of the antioxidants found in grapes is resveratrol, which is classified as a polyphenol compound. It should also be noted that grapes contain some other antioxidant compounds.
  3. A source of vitamin K: Grapes contain vitamin K. As registered, one cup of it, which equals 151 grams, covers 28% of the recommended amount of this vitamin. It has several benefits when it comes to bone health and helps blood clotting, which may cause haemorrhaging and increase the risk of osteoporosis, but more studies are still needed to prove this.
  4. A source of vitamin C: Grapes contain vitamin C, and one cup of it, which equals 151 grams, covers the equivalent of 27% of the recommended amount of this vitamin which helps to strengthen the body’s immunity and repair tissues, like wound healing.
  5. A source of potassium: one cup of green or red grapes, which weighs 151 grams, contains 8% of the recommended amount of this vitamin, which is necessary for heart and kidney functions, transmission of nerve signals, and muscle contraction.

The benefits of grapes according to the degree of effectiveness

  1. Reducing the risk of heart disease: Eating grapes and other polyphenols-rich foods reduces cardiovascular disease risk. As for people who suffer from heart disease, a study found that the polyphenolic compounds in red grapes improve endothelial function in patient’s blood vessels and coronary heart disease.
  2. Improving Cognitive Function: A study found that taking a grape supplement for 12 weeks could improve cognitive and physiological functions, as it has improved attention, memory, and language, enhancing the neuropsychological state in healthy older adults.
  3. Reducing the symptoms of ageing in the skin: Research showed that eating a product that contains grape peel extract and other substances for two months can improve some indicators related to ageing, such as skin elasticity, but it does not improve skin moisture or appearance.
  4. Reducing blood pressure: It is now proven that grapes can lower high blood pressure to its normal levels.
  5. Reducing the risk of complications from metabolic syndrome: One research found that eating whole grapes men can improve some risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome. It has been noted that eating whole grapes freeze-dried for a period of 30 days reduces blood pressure and increases blood flow. Still, it should be noted that there is no evidence about the benefit of grapes in reducing the risk of diabetes or other conditions associated with metabolic syndrome.
  6. Reducing the risk of retinal degeneration: It is one of the diseases associated with blindness, which is characterised by a defect in photoreceptor dysfunction and death. Eating a diet fortified with grapes improves the retina’s structure and functions by preserving the photoreceptors from oxidative stress damage.
  7. Reducing constipation: Grapes contain water and fibre, which helps the body maintain moisture, regulate bowel movement, and reduce the risk of constipation.

Other benefits of grapes include the following:

8. Reducing cough.

9. Relieving diarrhoea.

Grape Disadvantages

There are some cautions when it comes to grape consumption. Here are the most important of them:

The degree of safety of grapes

Eating grapes in the quantities available in food is often safe, but avoiding serving whole grapes to children five years of age or under is worth noting. This is to prevent the risk of suffocation or suffocation, and therefore it is recommended to cut grapes into halves or quarters before serving them to children. As for large quantities of grapes, it is likely to be safe to eat them. These quantities of fresh grapes, dried grapes, or raisins can cause diarrhoea.

Grapes can also cause allergic reactions to some people and their products and other side effects, such as vomiting, nausea, indigestion, stomach upset, coughing, dry mouth, sore throat, headache, infection, and muscle problems. As for pregnant and breastfeeding women, there is not enough information about the degree of safety of using grapes in large quantities, and therefore it is advised to avoid these large amounts of it and eat it only in the amounts found in food.

Cautions for the consumption of grapes

Here is a mention of some cases in which you should be careful when using grapes:

  1. Bleeding conditions: Grapes can slow down the blood clotting process, which increases the risk of bleeding for those who have the ability to bleed severely, but it should be noted that there is no evidence to prove this in humans.
  2. People undergoing surgery: Grapes can slow down the blood clotting process, which may cause more bleeding during and after the surgery, so you should stop eating large amounts of grapes at least two weeks before the surgery.

How to grow grapes?

Grapes can be grown by following the following notes:

  1. Soil: When planting grapes, it is necessary to ensure that the soil is suitable for that, that it has good drainage and sufficient moisture, and that it has a pH of 6 to 6.5 and 2-3% of organic matter can be added to it, that is, 9 kg of nitrogen can be distributed per 4200 square meters. Almost from the soil, the ideal type of soil is loamy, prepared at a depth of approximately 30 cm.
  2. Trellis: The trellis must be built before planting so the grapes can grow upwards.
  3. Soaking with water: The grapevine roots must be soaked for two to three hours before planting.
  4. Climate: The cultivation of grapes requires the passage of a minimum number of cold-free days, and it must be exposed to the sun entirely or ensure that it has been exposed to the morning sun at least, and it must also reach it with good air.
  5. Cultivation: when planting, the distance between the grapevine and the other should be a distance of one meter and 800 cm to three meters, and each vine must be dug 12 cm deep and 12 cm wide, then immersed in ten centimetres of the soil, and when the roots appear, the broken ones are trimmed, and the vine is placed in a deeper hole A little bit from the previous one, and cover it with 15 cm of soil, then the upper part is pruned so that it is formed from two or three buds.
  6. Irrigation: The grapes grown indoors must be well watered, while those grown outdoors only need irrigation during severe and prolonged drought periods.


The grapes are ready for harvest when they have a soft texture and sweet taste, and their colour becomes dark green to transparent yellow and thinner, but these may vary according to the types of grapes. Therefore, the best way to know when it is ripe is to taste it, and it is preferable to eat it as soon as possible after harvesting—although it can be stored in the refrigerator for two weeks from harvesting. So, what are the most important diseases and pests that affect the grape tree, and how can it be protected from them?

Common problems

Among the common problems related to grape cultivation:

Pests Affecting the Grape Tree

The grape tree, from its roots to its clusters, is exposed to many pests that cause diseases and problems such as permanent damage, the most prominent of which are the following:

  1. Grape worm: It is an insect that feeds on grapes, whether ripe or unripe, which leads to rotting and, consequently, damage.
  2. Red spider: The red spider causes leaves to become mottled, pale, and covered in a band or webbing.
  3. Downy mildew: It is a disease that affects the grape tree, specifically its leaves and fruits, and leads to a change in colour to grey in addition to cracking and rotting.
  4. Powdery mildew: It is a disease caused by a specific type of fungus, which affects fruits and leaves, leading to rotting, knowing that this disease can move from one cluster to another.
  5. Dehydration results from the absorption of the water contained in the fruits, specifically by the bee insect, which leads to their drying out and, thus, damage.
  6. Mealybugs: They are tiny organisms located in inaccessible places, such as certain parts of the leaves or under the bark, and they cause black mould on the leaves.

How to protect the grape tree from diseases?

There are several ways and means through which the grape crop can be protected from exposure to many diseases and thus damage, rot and loss. The most important of these methods are the following:

  1. Make sure to prune the grapevine branches; it negatively affects growth by weakening it by indirectly affecting the leaves and fruits.
  2. Clean around the grapevines of weeds and strange weeds, thus, eliminating many insects. Keep the tree’s fruits, leaves, and branches sprayed with insecticides. To kill everything that causes diseases, such as fungi and aphids.
  3. Promote the growth of its fruits through the use of fertilisers, incredibly natural.
  4. Wrap the clusters with plastic bags as they ripen; to prevent them from drying out, make sure there are small holes that pass air into the fruits.
  5. Always inspect the trees and remove the leaves showing strange signs of corpuscular disease in order to prevent their spread to the rest of the leaves and clusters.

Grapevine Pruning

The grape tree needs pruning regularly in order to eliminate dead and damaged branches, ensure that sunlight reaches the different parts of the plant, control its growth well, improve the quality of the fruits, and preserve their health, and the pruning of the grape tree takes place in its various stages, as follows:

Young plant

The grape tree is pruned in the spring, which is the time of planting the grape tree, by reducing the number of buds it bears to 3 buds, and with time, the plant will begin to grow so that the green petals appear on it again, and when the length of the petal ranges from 20-30 cm, farmers choose the best among them, and trim the rest.

The best petal is the strong, almost erect petal, which emerges from the old stem and not from the roots under the ground, and this petal is supported by a peg from above and below to ensure that it remains straight and to protect it from breaking.

A one-year-old plant

The plant reaches the trellis wire when it is one year old, and the petals are pruned at the first bud above the wire and then tied to the peg and the wire.

Lateral petals grow above the trellis wire as well, so 3-4 buds are left on the petals closest to the wire, then the next ones are cut and attached to it, and the lateral petals on the stem are pruned and then tied to the wire and stake.

If the plant does not grow sufficiently during the first year, three buds are left on the petals, and the method of pruning the modern plant is repeated. New petals are left on the wire in the summer, while those sprout from the lower stem or root are pruned.

Mature plant

Pruning of a mature plant is done in several ways, as follows:

Reed system

It is to choose a tree trunk to work on and to determine what buds must be kept, as it must leave 1-2 reeds (slender wooden stems or branches) near the head of the plant on both sides, which in turn contains between 8 – 10 closely spaced buds, then tied with wire, and the remaining reeds cut off, 1-2 sprigs each containing two buds are also kept; To provide new branches to choose from when pruning the following year.

knives system

It is similar to the first system, but it contains two reliable levels for pruning, namely: level of the height of the wire and is levelled at an altitude of 76 cm above the wire, where the buds of the second level are potent, and they are shaded on the first level.

Cordon system

A single cane containing 2-3 buds is placed on each side of the stem, thus forming permanent arms and a base on which to produce new clubs each year.

Grapevine pruning time

The grape tree can be pruned in late winter, and it is better to prune it in the spring, specifically in March and April, because the process of pruning the grape tree during the winter season may cause it to be exposed to frost and thus the buds and branches will dry out.

What is the time required for the fruiting of the grape tree?

Grape trees are plants that strike their roots deep in the ground and live for long periods. The grape trees are between 50-100 years old, depending on the type of grapes cultivated.

In the first year of the life of the grape tree, branches and branches begin to grow, and there is no production of fruits. The grape tree may start bearing fruits in the second year of its life, but the fruits are small in size and inedible. In the third year, the tree will begin to produce good fruits suitable for harvesting and eating if it is correctly cared for and pruned, and the grape tree continues to bear fruit for many years.

What conditions are suitable for growing grapes?

For the grapes to grow correctly in suitable conditions, some things must be taken into account, such as:

  1. Choose suitable soil for growing grapes, which usually has a pH between 6.0-6.5 and must have good water drainage and humidity.
  2. Add organic materials to the soil by 2-3%, especially those containing nitrogen, and if the soil pH is more than 6.8, it is possible to add sulfur to reduce its acidity.
  3. Caution when removing weeds from the vicinity of the grapevine; Because the grapevine has shallow roots, the best way to get rid of weeds is to use a cover crop made of wheat or barley.


Raisins are highly beneficial dried fruits and contain many nutrients the body needs. Raisins contain several vitamins and minerals. Raisins help soften the intestines and treat constipation.

Raisins are used for women who follow diets, as eating two tablespoons of raisins between meals helps you get rid of body fat and makes the body’s ability to eat less. Two tablespoons of raisins can be eaten with a glass of milk instead of dinner, as it provides the body with energy during the night, which is Calorie-free, which leads to weight gain.

To prepare raisins at home, you will need the following ingredients:

  • Four kilos of fully ripe grapes – it must be considered that good grapes make good raisins of high quality.
  • Two tablespoons of natural lemon juice.
  • One spoonful of vegetable oil.

How to prepare

  1. Chop the grapes into grains, which can be left in clusters as desired. Wash the grapes with cold water several times until they are well-washed.
  2. Prepare the grapes. After that, they are soaked in boiling water; add the lemon juice, and leave the grapes in boiling water for one minute.
  3. Take the grapes out of the water and drain them entirely from the water.
  4. Put the coffee in a dry place, away from moisture, and leave it in the open air for one day until it dries completely.
  5. Prepare the raisins and put them in a bowl.
  6. Add a tablespoon of oil and pour it over the raisins to give them a bright, oily colour,
  7. To keep it in a good and fresh condition for a long time without sticking to each other and rotting.
  8. Raisins are kept for a long time by placing them in unique, dry boxes far from water.
  9. It is worth noting that every four kilos of grapes bring about one kilo of raisins.
  10. Raisins are used to decorate many sweets, as it gives a beautiful taste to sweets.

Grapes come in many types, including red, white and black, each giving a kind of raisin. It is preferable to specify the type of grape to get high-quality raisins, and to get good raisins; one must choose grapes that contain a percentage of water and not be dry.

Common Questions about Grapes

There are several inquiries about grapes. Here are the most famous among them:

What is the difference between black and green grapes?

As we mentioned earlier, grapes can have several colours, such as red, black, green, pink, yellow, purple, and white grapes, which represents the green colour fact, and it should be noted that red grapes contain a high amount of anthocyanin compound, which gives this colour to the grapes.

In addition, red grapes have more potent antioxidant effects and lower blood lipid levels than those provided by white or green grapes in adults who suffer from high levels of fats in the blood, which contributes to reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. It was also found that purple grapes and Concord grapes contain the most antioxidants compared to red and green grapes.

What are the benefits of grapes for bodybuilders?

Grape is one of the types of fruits that can be included in the diets of bodybuilders, as it may improve the performance of athletes, as it has been shown that grape extract enhances the balance of oxidative stress and antioxidants in athletes during the competition period.

It also improves performance in athletes’ handballs. This may be due to the ability of the grape extract to protect the body from damage during the exercise period, but more studies are still needed on this relationship.

Are grapes beneficial for the diet?

There are not many studies looking into the benefits of grapes for weight loss, but it was found that resveratrol found in grape peel extract can reduce fat accumulation and the risk of obesity by regulating the fat metabolism in the body, which grape peel extract was used to study its effect in weight, Phytochemicals found in one type of grape, called Muscadine grape.

Are grapes beneficial for pregnant women?

Grapes are among the fruits that can be eaten moderately during pregnancy, as they contain folate, vitamin C, vitamin K, fibre, pectin, and organic acids, all of which may contribute to the biological changes that occur during pregnancy. Grapes also contain antioxidants that boost the body’s immunity; Flavanols, Anthocyanins, Tannin, Geraniol and Linalool help reduce the risk of infection.

What are the benefits of grapes for the menstrual cycle?

There is no information about the benefits of fresh grapes for the menstrual cycle, but eating a grape seed extract product can relieve bloating and pain.

What are the benefits of dried black grapes?

Dried black grape extract can have a good effect in reducing the risk of cancer. As it significantly inhibited the activity of some cancerous tissue enzymes in the colon, more studies are still needed to confirm this.

What are the benefits of grape vinegar?

Apple cider vinegar and grape vinegar significantly reduce levels of total cholesterol and LDL-c compared to other types of vinegar. They also contain more significant amounts of organic acids and phenolic compounds, and therefore these types of vinegar can reduce the risk of diabetes and lower cholesterol levels in the blood.

What are the benefits of red grape vinegar?

Red grape vinegar is one of the well-known types of vinegar. Balsamic vinegar is produced from concentrated red and white grape juices cooked, but there are no studies on the benefits of red grape vinegar.

What are the benefits of Raisins?

Raisins are dried grapes that come in many different types, and they are distinguished by being rich in many nutrients, such as fibre, potassium, antioxidants, and others.

What are the benefits of grape molasses?

Grape molasses contains many nutrients that are beneficial to health, the most important of which are potassium, iron, phosphorus, and others. It is a natural product that has not been subjected to many manufacturing processes.

If you enjoyed this article, you might also like these articles as well: Food to Help You StudyFast Food: Risks and Benefits, Food Culture in Japan, and Ecosystems and Food Chains.

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