More Than 20 Unique Facts About How do Bones Work?

At a certain age, the kids start to ask lots of questions about the world they are living in and this includes their bodies and the organs they have inside. Why do we have bones in our bodies and how do they work? There are lots of skeleton facts for the kids that we would like to share. Do you want to know what the bones are responsible for or what they are made of? 

Let us take you through this journey. Think about it, will your body stand straight in the same posture it would without having those strong bones inside? Most probably no, it will appear like a piece of jelly and you will not be able to stand and walk around. 

Aaron was exploring the world of bones since he was watching Scooby-Doo and saw this skeleton which appeared on the screen in front of him. He started asking himself questions like why do we have bones in our bodies and then he did his research and came up with some good answers.

What are Bones?

  • Everyone has 300 bones at birth and these bones grow together to make 206 bones. The adult has all the bones that make up our skeleton.
  • Bones provide support for our bodies and form our shape. Although the bones are very light, they’re strong enough.
  • Our bones grow and change throughout life. For example when we are a kid, we grow taller as we get older. But after childhood your bones stopped growing taller, but bones will keep on growing in other ways.

What are Organs that Bones Protect?

Bones protect the body’s organs such as:

  • The skull: protects the brain (cerebellum, cerebrum, brainstem), forms the shape of the face, and orbits the eyes. 
  • The spinal cord: carries signals between the brain and the whole of the body, it is responsible for movement “sit, stand, walk”, and sensation. It is protected by the backbone, or spinal column. 
  • The ribs: in the upper part, it forms a cage that encloses the heart and lungs, and in the lower part, it protects the pelvis that protects the bladder, liver, part of the intestines, and the reproductive organs in women.

Some bones have a unique function, such as:

  • The jaw: it is found in our mouth, holding our teeth firmly in its position, so we can chew easily.
  • The ears: have special tiny bones that transmit sound so that we can hear well. They are considered as the hardest bones in our body.

What are Bones made up of?

The adult human bones “skeleton” is made up of 206 bones, including bones of the skull, spine, ribs, legs and arms. Bones’ framework consists of a protein called collagen, and a mineral called calcium phosphate that makes the bones so hard and strong, but also flexible. 

Our bones also contain lots of calcium. Calcium is so essential for our bones to keep strong. It is also so important for the electricity of our heart and our muscles and many other cells.

Healthy bones need a balanced diet, which includes cheese, milk, and other dairy foods, soya beans, green leafy vegetables, such as broccoli, and cabbage. Healthy bones also need enough vitamin D, which is found in “egg yolks, mushrooms, fatty fish, seafood, and sunlight. When your skin is exposed to sunlight, it makes vitamin D. You also should drink enough water to keep your tissues healthy, and exercise regularly to keep your bones and joints healthy.

What is the Skeletal System?

Our musculoskeletal system consists of bones, ligaments, joints, cartilage, muscles, tendons, and soft tissues. All work together to support your body’s shape and support freedom of movement. Without our skeletal system our bodies became like jelly.

Our joints connect tissue and muscles to work together to make your body parts able to move from one place to another.

The Different Parts of Bone Tissue Include:

1- Periosteum: it’s a dense outer shell covering over the bone’s surface that has a hard, smooth layer that protects the tissue inside it. It contains blood vessels and nerves. It provides blood flow to the bone which helps a bone to heal quickly, grow fast, fight any infection, and stay healthy. 

2- Cortical or Compact Bone: it’s a hard, thick shell, it seems like a turtle’s shell. The outside of the bone is called the cortical bone. Our skeleton is mostly cortical bone. It has a great function, it protects body parts below it and holds up muscles around it.

3- Spongy or Cancellous Bone: it is like sponge or honeycombed material that is found inside most bones. Some Cancellous bones have a lot of Cortical bone, but it is not as dense as it. And some bones have less.  

4- Bone marrow: it is like a jelly, it is found inside the cavities of some bones such as pelvis. It is found deeply inside our bones. It is found between the cortical and spongy bones. It is responsible for producing all blood cells such as red cells, white cells, and platelets.

There are two types of bone marrow, yellow and red. Yellow bone marrow is mainly fat cells. Red marrow is essential for our body to produce red and white blood cells. 

There are Three Different Types of Blood Cell Made by Bone Marrow:

  • Red blood cells: carry oxygen all over the body.
  • White blood cells: Fight any infection inside the body “immune system”.
  • Platelets: help in stopping bleeding.
Bone Contains Three Unique Types of Cells “only found in bones”:
What does “OSTEO” mean?

“OSTEO” is a Greek word for bone.

1- Osteoblasts: found on the surface of the new bone. They are responsible for creating new bones and helping repair damage. They also control the amount of calcium into and out of the bone.

The new bone, which was created is called “osteoid”, it is made of bone collagen and other protein. They also control the deposition of calcium and minerals. 

2- Osteocytes: also come from osteoblasts. Some of the osteoblasts turn into osteocytes while creating a new bone, and the osteocytes then get surrounded by new bone. It is not separated, they send out long branches that connect to the other osteocytes.

3- Osteoclasts: are large cells that dissolve the bone. They are found on the surface of the bone mineral next to the dissolving bone. Their function is to break down bones. They help to form and shape bones. They come from the bone marrow. They are important for healthy bone progressing and bone modifying.

The Bones of our Body Come in Different Shapes and Sizes. There are Four Different Types of Bone in the Human Body:

1- Long Bone: long, flat, and thin shape. Long bones help muscles to allow free movement.

Such as the bones of the arms, legs and forearm. 

2- Short Bone: squatty, and cubed shape. They consist primarily of spongy bone, which is covered by a thin layer of compact bone. It is important for stability and movement. 

Such as the bones that make up the wrists, the ankles and tarsals in the ankles.

3- Flat Bone: thin, and flattened surface. It protects the internal organs. It is considered as a shield that provides protection. 

Such as ribs, shoulder blades, skull bones and breast bones.

4- Irregular Bone: it has a different shape and size, so it does not fit any of the other types of bones. It has a complex shape. It primarily spongy bones. It is covered with a thin layer of compact bone. 

Such as the bones of the spine, and some of the bones in the skull.

Facts About Bones

  • The adult human body has 206 bones, While babies are born with 300 bones.
  • During adulthood our bones stop growing in length, but bone density and strength change.
  • Periosteum layer is very thick in children and gets thinner as we get older.
  • A broken bone may heal faster if it has more cancellous bone inside.
  • Osteocytes cells can sense pressures or cracks in the bone.
  • Our foot has 26 bones, and 54 bones in our hands, fingers and wrists. 
  • The stapes, in the middle ear, is the smallest bone of our skeleton. This bone is also sometimes called the stirrup because of its Y shape.
  • Stapedius is the smallest muscle which is found deep inside the ear. 
  • The only bone in the human body not connected to another is the hyoid, located at the base of the tongue.
  • Bones are made up of calcium, collagen, phosphorus, sodium, and other minerals. The combination of collagen and calcium makes bone strong and flexible.
  • Bones are filled with a spongy tissue.
  • The longest bone in your body is in your leg. The femur, which holds from your hip to your knee.
  • The hyoid bone is the only bone in our body that doesn’t connect to a joint.  The hyoid is in our throat, which is responsible for holding your tongue in its position.
  • Most people have 12 ribs, but some have 13. This extra rib is called a cervical rib. It may cause neck pain. 
  • The biggest joint in your body is your knee.
  • Teeth are stronger than bones. 
  • Bones naturally heal the breaks and produce new bone cells. 
  • Bone is living tissue. It can be renewed and healed. 
  • Knee is the biggest joint in your body.
  • Children’s bones heal faster than adults’ bones. 
  • The spine is made up of 33 bones.
  • Finger bones are known as phalanges. It has three types: proximal phalanges, intermediate phalanges and distal phalanges.

————————————————————————————–

Question About Bones:

  • The largest bone in the our body is:
  1.  Skull
  2.  Ribs
  3.  Femur 
  4.  Spine 

Answer: 3

  •  The long bones has:
  1. long, flat, and thin shape
  2. squatty, and cubed shape
  3. thin, and flattened surface
  4. different shape and size

Answer: 1

  • The difference between a “broken” bone and a “fractured” bone is:
  1. Pain
  2. Soreness
  3. Ache
  4. No difference

Answer: 4

  • What we can know, when we see a skeleton:
  1. Age
  2. Gender
  3. Sex
  4. a, b, c

Answer: 4

  •  Babies are born with:
  1. 206 bones
  2. 210 bones
  3. 300 bones
  4. 150 bones

Answer: 3

  • The most common site of bone break seen in hospital emergency rooms is in the:
  1.  Wrist/hand/fingers
  2.  Skull
  3.  Ankle/Foot/Toes
  4.  Hip

Answer: 1

  • Nutrients necessary for healthy bones include:
  1.  Calcium and vitamin D
  2.  Zinc and magnesium
  3.  Protein
  4. All of the above

Answer: 4

  • Which of the following have a bad effect on bone health:
  1. Smoking
  2. Never exposure to the sun
  3. Drink Pepsi
  4. All of the above

Answer: 4

  • Osteopenia is:
  1. bone capacity
  2. bone fracture
  3. bone disease
  4.  Low bone mass

Answer: 4

  • The skeleton protects:
  1. vital organs
  2. heart
  3. teeth
  4. joints

Answer: 1

  • The floating bone at the knee is called the:
  1. Rubella 
  2. Patella
  3. femur
  4. jaw

Answer: 2

  • The large flat bones at the top of the back are called:
  1. Scaphoids
  2. Scapulas
  3. Oesophagus
  4. Clavicles 

Answer: 3

  • The vertebrae which the ribs are attached to are called:
  1. Thoracic
  2. Lumbar
  3. Cervical
  4. Heart

Answer : 1

  • Vertebrae which allow some side movement are called:
  1. Lumbar
  2. Thoracic
  3. Cervical
  4. Spine

Answer: 2

  • The bones of embryos are made largely of:
  1. Cartilage
  2. Tissue
  3. Membrane
  4. Cervical

Answer: 1

  • Important vitamin for creating bones is:
  1. Sodium
  2. Nitrates
  3. Calcium
  4. Vitamin A

Answer: 3

  • The humerus is a:
  1. Irregular bone
  2. Long bone
  3. Flat bone
  4. Short bone

Answer: 2

  •  The Axial Skeleton consists of:
  1. Skull
  2. Vertebral Column
  3. Ribs and Sternum
  4. All of the above

Answer: 4

  • Name the longest and heaviest bone of the body?
  1. Femur
  2. Fibula
  3. Malleus
  4. Incus

Answer: 1

  • Name the thinnest bone of the human body?
  1. Stapes
  2. Tibia
  3. Ilium
  4. Fibula

Answer: 4

  • Name the biggest muscle?
  1. Gutters maximus
  2. Gluteus maximus
  3. Stapedius
  4. None of the above

Answer: 2

  • Name the smallest muscle?
  1. Gutters maximus
  2. Gluteus maximus
  3. Stapedius
  4. None of the above

Answer: 3

  • Finger bones are also known as………..?
  1. Girdles
  2. Phalanges
  3. Metacarpal
  4. Carpal

Answer: 3

  • How many types of Joints are present in our body?
  1. 1
  2. 3
  3. 5
  4. 7

Answer: 2

  • The record of heart is known as ……..?
  1. Electro-Cardiogram (ECG)
  2. Electroencephalogram (EEG)
  3. Electro-Myogram (EMG)
  4. None of the above

Answer: 1

  • The record of electrical activity of muscle is known as ……..?
  1. Electro-Cardiogram (ECG)
  2. Electroencephalogram (EEG)
  3. Electro-Myogram (EMG)
  4. None of the above

Answer: 3

  • Which type of bone break leads to death in older adults?
  1.  Skull fracture
  2.  Spine fracture
  3.  Hip fracture
  4.  Leg fracture

Answer: 3 

  • Name the only movable bone in the skull of man?
  1. Ethmoid bone
  2. Mandible bone
  3. Nasal bone
  4. Lacrimal bone

Answer: 2

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