Zodiac: 12 Signs, Myths and Personality Traits

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Updated on: Educator Review By: Michelle Connolly

The zodiac is defined as astronomical plans that clarify the location of the sun, the moon, and the principal planets in the solar system, as it clarifies the astronomical ties among them. It is believed that the signs determine the personality and nature of the individual by studying the moon’s location and the locations of the planets, namely: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Saturn, and Jupiter. Twelve astronomical signs are distributed depending on the date of birth, and each belongs to one of the four elements of the earth: the earth, water, air, and fire.

Astronomical horoscope dates and attributes are among essential topics that attract many worldwide to read and know all their secrets. Some people start their day by learning their luck in the signs and believe that all of this is true, and they begin to act in their day with everything that their daily sign says is posed pessimistic or optimistic.

The horoscopes are divisions of the zodiac circle, or the sun’s path, and consist of 12 astronomical signs, which are gatherings of visual stars through which the sun, moon, and planets pass through. The signs carry the names of things, animals, religious figures, and legends. Each has thirty arc degrees and is on the sun’s path: the Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, and Pisces.

Constellations Origin

The origin of astronomical signs dates back to the Babylonian era. It is mentioned that Europe has circulated through the sciences of the Greeks and the Romans, and there are some ancient plans in which there are signs of the heavenly signs, and at the coming of the 4th century BCE, there was the science of the Babylonian stars, which applied the Babylonian culture, which links the system of stars, planets, and the time of human birth,

Greek philosophy indicated that the universe consists of four elements: fire, earth, air, and water. In the 2nd century BCE, Ptolemy I of Alexandria described the astronomical sciences in a book entitled Tetrabiblos and astrology spread in that period because of this book. It lay in the Middle East and Europe.

Astrology is a group of traditions, systems, and beliefs regarding the relative conditions of heavenly bodies. Astrologers believe that the movement of celestial bodies significantly affects life above the surface of the earth and directly corresponds to human events. Some consider this science a myth or a false science. Astrology has played an essential role in forming culture, astronomy, and multiple specialities. The desire to know what will happen in the future is the primary motivation for astronomical monitoring and follow-up of stars’ news.

History of zodiac

In early Roman times, the year consisted of 10 months. Four were full months of 31 days (March, May, July and October), and the other six were hollow ones of 30 days (April, June, August, September, November and December). Ending in December, the 304-day Roman calendar was flawed, having an uncounted winter gap.

To fill this gap, King Numa Pompilius added two months, 29-day January and 28-day February, following December at the end of the year, by shortening the full months to 29-day months, making a total of 354 days a year. But, interestingly, the Romans superstitiously dreaded even numbers, and thus, an extra day was added to January, making a 12-month calendar of a total odd number of 355 days a year.

Even then, the calendar needed to keep in line with the seasons. So, Emperor Augustus later reformed the calendar to become the Julian calendar of 365.25 days we use to this day.

From time immemorial, observing the sky, early humans noticed patterns that repeated themselves in the movement of the sun, moon, planets and even stars. With the advent of agriculture and marine navigation, humans needed an accurate study of these cycles so that the sky would become our first hours and compasses, and astronomy appeared.

From time immemorial, observing the sky, early humans noticed patterns that repeated themselves in the movement of the sun, moon, planets and even stars. With the advent of agriculture and marine navigation, humans needed an accurate study of these cycles so that the sky would become our first hours and compasses, and astronomy appeared.

In order to establish an accurate calendar of the sun’s cycle, the annual path of the sun or the zodiac was divided into twelve equal parts with an amplitude of 30 astronomical degrees, each of which is known by the constellation that occupies it and the twelve constellations appeared.

When the Babylonians adopted the system for the first time, they made its start coincide with the vernal equinox on 21 March, when the constellation of Aries began to penetrate the east, applying to the path of the sun for about a month.

What are horoscopes?

The zodiac astronomy that contains many secrets that many people do not know about and do not know the sign they belong to from the ground up. The number of zodiac signs around the world is 12 signs, and each sign has a certain number of days during the month. The type of each sign is determined according to the date of birth of a person.

The difference between the zodiac and astronomy

Although science and astronomy shared some ancient scientific basics, they gradually separated from each other, so each became a separate science in the late 17th century. During the contributions of scholars who studied the impact of the movement of the heavenly bodies on biological applications, which necessitated the development of astronomy and its separation to become an independent science of itself, its theories were tested by scientific methods.

Accordingly, astronomy is the science concerned with studying the universe and external space and the movement of heavenly bodies. In contrast, the science of constellations is interested in exploring how the movement affects the movement of celestial bodies on people and their impact on events and courses. Astronomy is a science that does not depend on any scientific foundations. Some consider it a hobby or practice outside any studied scientific logic, so it should be independent of life decisions.

Astronomical constellations according to the date of birth

  • Aries (21 March – 19 April)
  • Taurus (20 April– 20 May)
  • Gemini (21 May– 20 June)
  • Cancer (21 June – 22 July)
  • Leo (23 July – 22 August)
  • Virgo (23 August – 22 September)
  • Libra (23 September – October)
  • Scorpio (23 October – 21 November)
  • Sagittarius (22 November – 21 December)
  • Capricorn (22 December – 19 January)
  • Aquarius (22 January – 22 February)
  • Pisces (19 February – 20 March)

Astronomical constellations Elements

There are four horoscope elements; fire, dust, air and water

Fire horoscopes: (Aries – Leo – Sagittarius)

  • Their common advantages are courage, self-confidence, the ability to creativity, their love for freedom and their passion for optimism.
  • Their common disadvantages are nervousness, extravagance, and the extent of dealing with others.

Earth horoscopes: (Taurus – Virgo – Capricorn)

  • Their common advantages are their love of insistence, wisdom, challenge, and patience. They are calm, passionate about learning new things, and are characterised by arity and spontaneity.
  • Their common disadvantages are being showy, opinionated, and stubborn. They never admit their wrong or mistaken.

Air horoscopes: (Gemini – Libra – Aquarius)

  • Their common advantages are decency and respect for others. They are honest, ideal and fun. Enjoying life and loving culture are among their best traits.
  • Their common disadvantages are anxiety as one of their worst characteristics, curiosity and interference in what is not their business, gossip, and lack of focus.

Water horoscopes: (Cancer – Scorpio – Pisces)

  • Their common advantages are tenderness, romance, sincerity, tenderness, loyalty, commitment, and love to help people.
  • Their common disadvantages are mood and rushing in reactions and surrender easily, laziness and extra jealousy.

Astronomical constellations characteristics

Aries (21 March – 19 April)

The 1st constellation in the zodiac is a bold and ambitious sign, so the love of challenge characterises it. This constellation was named after a flying ram who rescued the children of cloud nymph, Nephele and carried them across the seas before being sacrificed to the gods.

After arriving safely, the ram shed its golden fleece towards Phrixus, Nephele’s son, who hung it inside the sacred grove, and flew up to the heavens to turn into a star.

Taurus (20 April – 20 May)

The 2nd constellation in the zodiac is located between Aries and Gemini, named after Zeus. He transformed into a nice white bull to kidnap Europa, the daughter of the Phoenicia King.

A sign of relaxation in quiet places and tends to rural areas to distinguish them with calm and peace, as it is a sign that tends to soft sounds, subtle scents and fresh flavours.

Gemini (21 May – 20 June)

The 3rd constellation in the zodiac is linked to several stories; some associate it with the brothers Romulus and Remus, the founders of the Roman State. However, the most famous tale relates them to the Dioscuri. This title identifies the half-brothers: Castor and Pollux, the patron gods of ships, horses and mounted knights, and passengers’ guardians. One of them is the son of Zeus, the king of the gods. After the murder of his brother in a battle, Zeus gave him a choice to be alone or live with his brother in the heavens. He chose to stay with his brother.

The most vital characteristic of Gemini is that they always feel they have a twin with two characters, as it always becomes so busy that they want to clone themselves to accomplish everything on time.

Cancer (21 June – 22 July)

The 4th constellation in the zodiac is represented as a crab concerning the crab in Greek mythology, which was killed by Heracles, the mythical hero, in one of his Twelve Labors. One of the myths narrates that Heracles, in one of his Labors fighting the Lernaean Hydra (a mythical monster in the shape of a multi-headed snake), was attacked by a crab defending the Hydra, but Heracles crushed it immediately. The crab was rewarded by Hera, Heracles’ first enemy, by placing it in the constellation.

The character of Cancer is a very intuitive personality, and her psychological ability is apparent in material spaces. For example, the Cancer owner derives his energy from the room in which he sits.

Leo (23 July – 22 August)

The 5th constellation in the zodiac is characterised by its enthusiasm for kings and queens from the sacred forest. It is represented as a lion concerning the myth of the Nemean Lion, which Heracles killed. It was not an ordinary lion; it was so fierce with massive fur, and it terrified the people of the countryside of ‘Nemea’. When Heracles killed it, Hera, Heracles’ enemy, rewarded it and placed it in the constellation.

They are happy with their condition and the royal situation in its fun and costly characteristics or artificial and emotional characteristics. The lion sign is also famous for its love for itself and its glorification of it significantly.

Virgo (23 August – 22 September)

The 6th constellation in the zodiac is logical, practical and systematic in its lifestyle. This terrestrial mark is perfection in the heart, indicating that it is not afraid of improving skills. It is symbolised as a young maiden carrying a sheaf of wheat, symbolising the fertility goddess, Persephone, the daughter of Zeus, associated with a famous myth in Greek mythology.

One of the myths narrates that Hades, the Greek god of the underworld, kidnapped Persephone, kept her a virgin and proposed to Zeus, his brother, to marry her. Zeus approved; however, her mother, Demeter, the goddess of the harvest, refused to give her daughter to the god of the dead and asked Zeus to bring her back.

Before the departure of Persephone, Hades fed her the favourite Pomegranates. However, according to the rules, those who eat from the underworld must remain there. So, Persephone had to live in the underworld with Hades. Only in order not to upset her mother, Demeter,  she used to live with her on earth for a limited period of the year, the time of Spring and harvest.

Libra (23 September – 22 October)

The 7th constellation in the zodiac is always an exciting sign. A scale symbolises it; referring to the equal division between day and night, or by a lady carrying a scale; referring to Astraea, goddess of justice, daughter of Zeus, whom gods rewarded and placed in the constellation. Its mark symbolises balance and harmony, and it is also known from the Libra that it is obsessed with consistency and fights to create and make balance in its life.

Scorpio (23 October – 21 November)

The 8th constellation in the zodiac is, according to Greek myths, Earth goddess Gaea sent a scorpion to kill Orion because he killed all the animals on earth, and he was proud of it. In honouring this scorpion, gods placed it in the constellation as a scorpion.

Because of his passion and strength, the Scorpio is often mistakenly associated with fire. Nevertheless, it is a water sign and its watermark, and this sign lies in its power from the psychological and emotional field.

Sagittarius (22 November – 21 December)

The 9th constellation in the zodiac always indicates the search for knowledge, and a fiery sign indicates the bow. According to Greek mythology, the sign is symbolised by a Centaurus, a creature whose upper part is human and whose lower part is a horse. Heracles killed one of these creatures with a poisoned arrow by mistake, so gods rewarded the Centaurus and placed it among the stars. The Sagittarius sign.

Capricorn (22 December – 19 January)

The 10th constellation of the zodiac is an earthen sign whose mark is the goat of the sea, and it is a legendary creature with a goat and a fishtail, as it is skilled in moving in the material and emotional fields. Greek traditions mentioned that he was the son of Hermes, known by the name of Aegipan and that he helped Zeus demolish his enemy Typhon so that he rewarded him by eternising him among the stars and giving him the title Capricornus.

Capricorn was often presented in Greek traditions with his upper body in the shape of a goat and the lower part, under the water, as a fishtail, representing that he had to hide in a river while attempting to demolish Typhon, the enemy of the Greek gods.

Aquarius (20 January – 18 February)

The 11th sign of the zodiac is an air sign, and its mark is the water holder, giving water, healing and life on the ground. Myths contradict this sign; some mentioned that it represented the Trojan boy Ganymedes, whom Zeus loved, kidnapped to the sky of Olympus, appointed as his cupbearer and put among the stars.

Other myths mention that this constellation was under Hera’s protection, representing the Greek King, Deucalion, who survived massive floods sent by god Zeus to destroy humanity. His ruling period was characterised by heavy rain, so he was presented as a water pourer. Another myth narrated that this sign represented the Athenian King Cecrops, the first to pour libations in honouring the Greek gods, so he was placed in the heavens representing the water pourer.

Pisces (19 February – 20 March)

The 12th constellation of the zodiac and the last one. Its symbolic symbols praise in two opposite directions, representing the continuous division of the whale’s interest between imagination and reality. Its mark also indicates that he absorbed the joys, fears, pain and hopes that he learned from all the signs that preceded it.

This constellation is related to the myth of Aphrodite and her son Eros who jumped into the sea to escape the monster Typhon. Then, two fishes appeared and rescued them safely—in a different version. They were transformed into two fishes during their escape. To show gratitude, Aphrodite transformed the two fishes into a constellation in the sky to become the last one in the zodiac.

To sum up, astronomical horoscope dates and attributes are among essential topics that attract many worldwide to read and know all their secrets but be careful not to mix myths with facts.

If you found this article interesting, you may also like reading about Stones, Apollo, and Mythology.


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