Verbs and Adverbs. 6 Familiar Types and More

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Verbs and adverbs
Verbs and adverbs

Verbs and Adverbs

Verbs are essential in the English sentence structure. They are crucial to the functioning of language. Verbs are defined in the English dictionaries. Almost every sentence has a verb. They are used to describe actions.

Verbs have various forms in the English language. For example, There are transitive and intransitive verbs. Also, there are different types of verbs. Some of these common forms are linking verbs and regular verbs.

Adverbs are also important to the meaning and the structure of the sentence in English. What is the definition of an adverb? What is the purpose of an adverb in the sentence? Are there types of adverbs? Do they come in a certain order in the sentence? Are they related to the verb?

What is The Definition of a Verb?

A verb is a word (such as jump, think, happen, or exist) that is usually one of the main parts of a sentence and that expresses an action, an occurrence, or a state of being.It is the main word in the sentence. Sentences are not complete without the verb.

What Are The Types of Verbs?

There are 15 types of verbs in the English Language. Each Type has a specific function. There are four common types. Also, there are less common types. Some of the most common types are linking verbs and helping verbs. Other less common types are lexical verbs and delexical verbs.

Main Verbs

Main verbs are also called lexical verbs. They show the action or the state of being of the subject. They have meaning on their own. There are thousands of main verbs in the English language. Let’s check some examples:

a- Sarah watches T.V.

b- John plays  tennis.

c- I love pizza.

d- They jump high.

Linking Verbs

Linking verbs connects the subject to an idea of the predicate. So, they link between the subject and information about the subject. When they are used, they say what someone or something is. Verb ‘be’ functions as a linking verb. There are other verbs that can be used as linking verbs like, ‘look’ and ‘seem’

Let’s Check the following examples:

The kid is naughty.

– He seems sad.

– They look happy.

Helping Verbs:

Helping verbs are also called auxiliary verbs. They don’t have a meaning on their own. They only help the main verbs to show the actions and to express their full meaning. They add detail to the main verb and also clarify how time is conveyed.

There are three groups of the helping verbs:

1- Primary helping verbs: be, do, have

These verbs change form to match the subject. They function as helping verbs if they form the tense, ask a question, emphasize something or replace the main verb if it was already mentioned before. Let’s check some examples:

a- We are fishing. (form a tense)

b- Do you have enough money? (form a question)

c- I do love cats. (emphasize meaning)

d- He listens carefully more than she does. (replace a verb already mentioned before)

2- Modal Helping Verbs

They are used to modify the meaning of the main verb. They express necessity or possibility. The following is a list with the modal verbs and some examples to show how they are used in the sentence:

Can, could

I can’t speak French.

May, might

The teacher may arrive late.

Will, would

Would you like some juice?

Shall, should

You should study well.

Must, ought to

We must go now.

3- Semi-Modal Helping Verbs

Need, dare and used to are semi-modal verbs. They function in the same way as modal verbs. They are like auxiliary verbs that add information to the main verb but can’t stand alone. They are somehow different from modal verbs as they change to agree with the subject and change tense. Let’s check some examples:

  • We need to visit our grandparents.
  • The students don’t dare come late to class.
  • They used to watch cartoon movies before going to bed.

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs:

They are considered as main verbs. Transitive verbs take a direct object while intransitive verbs don’t take a direct object to express a complete thought. Some verbs function as both transitive and intransitive. Let’s check the following examples:

  • The kids visited the zoo. (transitive verb)
  • We are watching T.V . (transitive verb)
  • The baby is laughing. (intransitive verb)
  • May I set? (Intransitive)
  • They played football. (transitive)
  • They played outside. (intransitive)

Regular and Irregular Verbs:

They are considered as main verbs. They are more related to vocabulary than to grammar. The difference between them is the ending of each verb in the past and past participle forms. The regular verbs end in -d,-ed, or -ied while the irregular ones have various endings according to the verb. Let’s check some examples:

Regular Verbs

Irregular Verbs

Play, played,played

Have, had, had

Work, worked, worked

Go, went, gone

Dynamic and Stative Verbs

They are also considered as main verbs. Dynamic verbs usually describe an action and can be used in the continuous form. While stative verbs refer to a state or condition and can’t be used in the continuous form. They describe a state that lasts for sometime. Here’s a list with some stative verbs:

like

love

hate

need

want

prefer

agree

mind

sound 

hear

own

disagree

satisfy

doubt

wish

dislike

deserve

know

realize

mean

support

believe

remember

recognize

appear

taste

promise

please

think

be

have

see

seem

Some verbs can function as both dynamic and stative. The verbs ‘be’, ‘think’, ‘have’, ‘see’ and ‘taste’ are examples of these verbs. Let’s have a look at the following sentences:

  • I think this pizza is delicious. (stative/opinion)
  • I’m thinking about the next week’s exam. (dynamic)

Finite and Non-Finite Verbs:

Finite verbs change their form when there is a change in the number or the person of the subject. They also change the form when they change the tense of the sentence. Non- finite verbs don’t change the form when there is a change in the number of the subject or the tense of the sentence. Let’s see some examples:

  • My little sister ‘wants’ to be a hostess. (finite)
  • Your duty is ‘to study’ well. ‘Non-finite)

Delexical Verbs

Delexical verbs are action words when they are added to nouns they have a little meaning of their own. Some of these common verbs are ‘have’, ‘go’, ‘take’, ‘do’ ‘make’ and ‘give’. The meaning of the action is found more on the noun not on the verb. Let’s look at some examples:

  • I have breakfast at 8:00 am.
  • You need to take a break.
  • The principal will make her speech.
  • Sue gave Sally a piece of advice. 
  • They go swimming on weekends.
  • It’s his turn to do the laundry.

Modal Verbs

Modal verbs are used to express certainty, possibility, impossibility,. They are also used to talk about ability, to ask permissions and to make requests and offers. They don’t change form when the number or the person of the subject changes. The modal verbs are:

May

Might

Will

Would

Shall

Should

Can

Could

Must

 

Let’s look at the following sentences:

  • Sue can’t swim.
  • May I ask a question?
  • Can I have a tissue,  please?
  • Would you help me?

Phrasal Verbs

Phrasal verbs are very common in the English language and are made up of a verb and a particle or two particles. The particle always changes the meaning of the verb. There are two kinds of particles, separable and inseparable.

 With separable particles, the verb and the particle can be apart or together. However the  and the verb have to be separated if we use a pronoun. With inseparable particles, the particle and the verb can’t be separated. Phrasal verbs with two particles are inseparable.  Let’s look at some sentences:

  • I’ll pick you up from the school. (separable)
  • You need to look after the baby. (inseparable)
  • We are looking forward to the vacation. (two particles/inseparable)

What Are The Different Forms of a Verb?

Verbs have different forms in the English language. There are five main forms.  These forms make all the tenses and other verb structures, in all moods, aspects and voices. These forms are base form, present tense form, past tense form, present participle form and past participle form. 

The base form is the same as the entry in the dictionary. It doesn’t have any endings. It doesn’t include any prefixes or suffixes. It can be used after the infinitive, modal auxiliary or verbs of seeing and hearing. It is also used to create other conjugated forms. Let’s check some examples:

  • The kids play in the garden every evening.
  • Men live in a fantasy world.

The present tense form of a verb is created when we use the present simple tense. We need to pay attention to the subject verb agreement. The present tense form of the verb in the present simple tense with a singular subject has different endings according to the base form of the main verb. Let’s check the following:

This table shows the conjugation of the verb in the present tense form

Add -es to the base form

The base form ends in

-s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, -o, -z

Ex: John watches T.V every night. 

Add -ies to the base form and cross the y

The base form ends in 

Consonant+y

Ex: The baby always  cries 

Add -s to the base form 

The base form doesn’t end in any of the above mentioned cases

Ex: Miranda sings well.

Verb ‘Be’

Irregular verb:

Am, is, are

Ex: – The door is red.

  • They are happy.
  • I’m so excited.

Verb ‘Have’

Irregular verb:

has, have

Ex: – Sue has a car.

  • We have a quiz.

The past tense form of the verb is created when we form the past simple tense. The base form of the verb has different endings in the past simple tense. There are also many irregular verbs that don’t follow any spelling rules. Let’s check the following table for the different conjugations of the verbs.

Add -ed to the base form of the verb

The base form ends in -s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, -o, -z

Ex: She washed the dishes yesterday.

Add -ied to the base form and cross the y

The base form ends in 

consonant+y

Ex: I carried all the books.

Add -d to the base form

The base form ends in -e

Ex: They tasted the food. 

Double the consonant and add -ed

The one syllable base form ends in vowel + consonant

Ex: He cancelled the meeting.

Double the consonant and add -ed

The final syllable of the base form is stressed and ends in vowel + consonant.

Ex: he preferred to stay at home.

Here is a list with some irregular verbs:

Base Form

Past Tense Form

Be

Was, were

have

had

do

did

say

Said

pay

paid

cut

cut

put

put

teach

taught

tell

told

break

broke

take

took

sing

sang

run

ran

get

got

ring

rang

The present participle form of a verb is used in the past, present, and future progressive verb tenses. They are often used as adjectives. They are sometimes used as adverbs. They can also be used as nouns. Certain participles can be used to describe the cause of the people’s feelings like ‘excited’ and ‘bored’.

The present participle form is created by adding -ing to the base form of the verb. There are some spelling rules to create the base form to some of the verbs. Here is a list of some verbs in the present participle form:

Add -ing to the base form

Ex: The kid is doing his homework.

Present progressive

Double the consonant then add -ing( if the base form is one syllable, V + C)

Ex: Planning is a good skill.

Noun

Double the consonant and add -ing (if the final syllable of base form is stressed, V + C)

Ex: They are unwrapping the box.

Present progressive

Cross the -e then add -ing

Ex: It is a boring movie.

Adjective

The past participle form of the verb is used in the present perfect tense, past perfect tense, future perfect tense, third conditional, the passive form or modals in the past tense. It is used to create the past tense form or as an adjective. There are regular and irregular verbs. Each one has some ways to create the form.

Here is a list with some regular and irregular verbs and the creation of the past participle form:

Add -ed to the base form of the verb (if it ends in -s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, -o, -z)

Ex: They have watched the T.V

Present perfect

Add -ied to the base form and cross the ‘y’ (if it ends in consonant+y)

Ex: I had carried the bags.

Past perfect

Add -d to the base form (if it ends in -e)

Ex: She feels bored.

Adjective

Double the consonant then add -ed (if the one syllable base verb ends in V+C)

Ex: We will have stopped the installment by 2030.

Future perfect

Double the consonant then add -ed (if the final syllable of the base form is stressed and ends in V+C)

Ex: The meeting has been cancelled.

Passive form

Here is a list of some of the irregular verbs in the past participle form:

Base Form

Past Participle

is

been

do

done

have

had

go

gone

cut

cut

put

put

break

broken

sleep

slept

steal

stolen

catch

caught

leave

left

lay

laid

lie

lain

What is The Grammatical Function of a Verb?

Each verb has a grammatical function in the sentence. There are six grammatical functions performed by the verb within the predicate. The verb can grammatically function as a predicate, passive, progressive, perfect, modal or operator. As a predicate, it expresses  the action performed by or condition of the subject.

  • My mother washed the dishes.

As a progressive, it expresses incomplete or ongoing actions or conditions at a specific time. Regarding the passive, it moves the object of an active sentence into the subject position. As for the perfect, it expresses the consequences resulting from a previous action or condition. 

Our neighbor has sold his house. 

The books got collected last week.

As for the modal, it expresses modality. Modality expresses possibility, necessity, and contingency. As for the operator, it facilitates the expression of a negation, interrogatives, and emphasis. The auxiliary verb that functions as the operator is the verb do.

  • You must wear the mask to get in. 
  • I did enjoy the show.

What is an Adverb?

An adverb is a word that describes a verb, an adjective, another adverb, or a sentence and that is often used to show time, manner, place, or degree.

It is a part of speech. Some adverbs modify a phrase or a clause or even a whole sentence. They are easy to find because most of them end in -ly.

What Are The Most Common Types of Adverbs?

There are various types of adverbs. Each type has a function in the sentence. Adverbs provide more information in a sentence by modifying another word. Here are the six common types of adverbs in the English language.

Adverbs of Time

Adverbs of time show the time or moment of doing a task. They include words that refer to specific times and more general time periods. They change or add meaning to a sentence by telling us when, for how long, and how often a certain action happened. 

Adverbs of time come after the verb and the object. In many cases, that’s at the end of the sentence. However, you can also put the adverb of time in the beginning of a sentence. Here is a list of adverbs of time:

Function

Adverbs

points of time

Now, then, tomorrow, tonight, yesterday

Frequency (definite)

Annually, daily, weekly, yearly, monthly, quarterly, hourly, fortnightly, nightly

Frequency (Indefinite)

Always, constantly, ever, frequently, generally, infrequently, never, normally

Occasionally, often, rarely

Regularly, seldom, sometimes

Regularly, usually

relationships in time (indefinite)

Already, before, early, earlier

Eventually, finally, first, formerly, just, last, late

Later, lately, next, previously

Recently, since, soon, still, yet

Here are some sentences that include adverbs of time in different positions in the sentences:

  • I’m going for a walk now.
  • They always wake up early.
  • The students have already done their homework. 
  • He is still teaching. 

Adverbs of Manner

Adverbs of manner tell us how something happens. They are usually placed either after the main verb or after the object. Just like other adverbs, they can provide more detail to sentences, giving the reader a clearer picture.

To make adverbs, we normally add ly to the adjective. Sometimes the spelling is different. Some adverbs don’t have ly. When an adjective ends in -y we change the -y to -i then add -ly.  Here is a list of adverbs:

Regular Adverbs

Irregular Adverbs

Accidentally, angrily, anxiously

Awkwardly, badly, beautifully

Blindly, boldly, bravely, brightly

Busily, calmly, carefully, closely

Correctly, courageously, cruelly

Daringly, deliberately, doubtfully

Eagerly, easily, elegantly, enormously, enthusiastically

Equally, eventually, exactly, faithfully

Well, hard, fast, high, late, straight, early, wrong

 

Here are some sentences that include adverbs of manners:

  • You speak English fluently.
  • The children did really well in their test.
  • I hate getting up late.
  • It rained heavily all through the night. 

Adverbs of Place

Adverbs of place indicate where an action occurs. Adverbs of place are normally placed after a sentence’s object or main verb. Adverbs of place can be directional. Here is a list of adverbs of place:

Movement

Around, away, over, off, in, down, upstairs, downstairs, outside

Direction

Backwards, towards, upwards, east, west, back, behind, below, here, there, near, far, below, between, down, forward

Unspecific locations

Somewhere, anywhere, everywhere, nowhere, elsewhere

 

Here are some example sentences of adverbs of place:

  • Sarah lives behind the movie theater.
  • Put your card here, please.
  • The builder is coming down the ladder. 
  • Be careful! The car is moving backwards.

Adverbs of Frequency

Adverbs of frequency are used to say how often we do things or how often things happen. They go before a main verb in a sentence. However, the exception is when the sentence contains the verb ‘to be’. In this case it goes after the verb. Here is a list of adverbs of frequency:

Adverbs of Frequency

Always, usually, often, sometimes, rarely, never, occasionally, seldom, hardly ever, almost never, never

 

Here are some example sentences of adverbs of frequency:

  • I often play tennis on Fridays.
  • They usually go to work by car.
  • She always wakes up late.
  • We’ve never gone to the cinema. 

Adverbs of Degree

Adverbs of degree help us to express ‘how much’ we do something. They can either intensify the meaning or make it weaker. They are usually placed before the adjective, adverb, or verb that they modify, although there are some exceptions. Here is a list of adverbs of degree:

Adverbs of Degree

Almost, absolutely, awfully, badly, barely

Completely, decidedly, deeply, enough

Enormously, entirely, extremely, fairly

Far, fully, greatly, hardly, highly, how

Incredibly, indeed, intensely. Just, least

Less, little, lots, most, much, nearly, perfectly, positively, practically, pretty

Purely, quite, rather, really, scarcely

Simply, so, somewhat, strongly, terribly

Thoroughly, too, totally, utterly, very, virtually, well

 

 

 

 

Conjunctive Adverbs:

A conjunctive adverb is a word (or short phrase) that provides a link to the previous sentence or previous independent clause. They bring together two complete thoughts like a conjunction. Here is a list of conjunctive adverbs:

Conjunctive adverbs

Also, consequently, furthermore, however

Incidentally, indeed, likewise, meanwhile

Nevertheless, nonetheless, therefore

 

Here are some example sentences of conjunctive adverbs:

  • Chris enjoys making snow angels; also, he loves throwing snowballs.
  • You are grounded for three weeks; furthermore, you cannot text anyone on your phone.

What is The Function of Adverbs in The Sentence?

Adverbs describe the way an action is happening. Also, the purpose of the adverb is to add a degree of intensity to the adjective. they can describe a general feeling about all of the information in the sentence.

Hence, verbs and adverbs play an essential role in the sentence structure. Both have various functions in the sentence. They have different types. They can be placed in different positions in the sentence. They create the complete thought of the sentence.

 

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