Top 10 Amazing Dwarf Planets

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Updated on: Educator Review By: Michelle Connolly

Howdy partner, are you ready for another adventure with Learning Mole? We will be discussing space! Not the general space or the space key on your keyboard, but the space in the universe. We will specifically discuss Dwarf Planets. First, let us refresh our minds, together:

So, not generally space. We won’t be talking about planets as we did in our previous article which we hope you enjoyed and learned so much from. We will mainly talk about those dwarfs that are floating in space.

The Origin of the Name

The term ‘Dwarf Planet’ was first coined by the planter scientist Alan Stern. The term categorized the mini shaped planets as planetary- mass objects in the Solar System. It is actually a three- way categorization.

The first of the classification are classical planets, like the Earth. The second classification are dwarf planets, like Eris. The third classification are satellite planets, like The Moon. Some Dwarf planets are also known as ‘Plutoids’.

Those are Pluto, Eris, Haumea, and Makemake. However, it is not the same case for Ceres. Ceres is a planetoid not a plutoid. A plutoid is a dwarf planet with an orbit outside Neptune’s orbit. Plutoids are sometimes referred to as ‘ice dwarves.’

That is because they have a diminutive size and a cold surface temperature. A plutoid is simply a sub- categorization of dwarf planets. There is a tradition of calling planets by the names of Greek and Roman gods and goddesses.

It is the same case in naming dwarf planets. Eris, formerly known as Xena, is the first ever discovered dwarf planet. Eris, Makemake, and Haumea are the dwarf planets held accountable for the reclassification of Pluto from a planet into a dwarf planet in 2006.

Dwarf Planets’ Definition

Dwarf Planets are big celestial objects that float in space or in an orbit. They are smaller than a planet, but bigger than Asteroids and comets. In the Milky Way galaxy alone, we have over 200 Dwarf Planets. Including Pluto. The exact number is apparently still unknown.

A dwarf planet, according to the International Astronomical Union new definition, must orbit the sun. It should be massive. Enough to be pulled into a roughly spherical shape. Unlike planets, most dwarf planets did not clear smaller celestial debris out of their orbital path. In addition to, not being a moon.   

Dwarf Planets’ Characteristics

  • A dwarf planet orbits the sun
  • A dwarf planet has enough mass to obtain and maintain a nearly spherical shape
  • A dwarf planet cannot clear its orbit from other celestial objects
  • A dwarf planet is not a moon

Dwarf planets are not considered actual planets. Why is that you say? Well, because there are a set of properties that make planets what they are. Simply, dwarf planets do not meet those requirements or properties.

Dwarf Planets

Planets and Dwarf Planets

So, let us explore those properties in more depth. A planet is a celestial body that orbits the Sun. It has enough gravitational force that enables it to stay in a nearly round shape. This gravitational force also helps the planet clear other celestial objects that may enter its orbit or revolve around it.

That is actually one of the reasons most dwarf planets are not considered planets. Most dwarf planets cannot repel objects outside its orbit. Some dwarf planets cannot maintain a nearly round shape and that is one of the reasons they are not considered planets.

The main difference between dwarf planets and planets is size. Dwarf planets are smaller than actual planets. That leads to dwarf planets lacking in the gravitational force needed to pull in and accumulate all the materials found in their orbit or repel foreign debris out of its orbit.

Some dwarf planets have small moons, like Pluto. That property is common between planets and dwarf planets. Most if not all, planets have moons like Saturn. Except for, Mercury and Venus. Some may say that the only difference between a planet and a dwarf planet is the area around it.

The area surrounding each celestial body makes all the difference. A dwarf planet cannot clear the area around its orbit. However, a planet can quite easily do so. Dwarf planets are a lot like regular planets.

They both have enough mass and gravity to be nearly round. They both travel through space in a path around the Sun each in its orbit.  However, as we discussed they are still small. So, they do not have enough gravitational force to clear their orbits from foreign celestial bodies.

Each dwarf planet is unique in its own way. Some are heart- shaped, like Pluto. Others are fast- spinning and have a large body, like Haumea. Makemake has a special volatile surface. Ceres has mysterious bright spots. While Eris is the farthest and so, it may have an icy surface.

How are Dwarf Planets Formed?

Dwarf planets can include anything from rocks, ice, or water. It may also include a mixture. It all depends on how far away from the Sun they were formed. For example, Ceres is considered rocky and icy. It may contain some liquid water unlike other asteroids.

On the other hand, we have Pluto. Pluto is further away from the Sun. It is a mixture of rock and ice. However, it does not contain as many liquid water as Ceres. In other words, it lacks liquid water.

Far away into our galaxy, the solar winds had less impact on light elements. That allowed them to coalesce into gas giants. Eventually, asteroids, comets, planets, and moons were created. Like the other dwarf planets, for example, Pluto.

They failed to gather enough mass to reach the classification as a full- scale planet. Dwarf planets helped us discover more about the Solar System and space. Understanding their unusual properties allowed us a deeper understanding of the history and nature of the Solar System.

15 Interesting Facts about Dwarf Planets

  1. All dwarf planets in the Milky Way are smaller than Earth’s moon
  2. Dwarf planets have ring systems
  3. Dwarf planets have relatively short days, but very long years
  4. Dwarf Planets have natural satellites
  5. The largest dwarf planet is Pluto
  6. Eris is the most massive dwarf planet
  7. The second largest object in the asteroid belt, Vesta, may have been a dwarf planet once
  8. Pluto and its largest moon, Charon, could make a double dwarf planet
  9. Charon and Pluto are mutually tidally locked to each other
  10. Each dwarf planet is unique
  11. Triton and Phoebe were also probably dwarf planets in the past
  12. There are only five official dwarf planets: Ceres, Pluto, Haumea, Makemake, and Eris
  13. Dwarf planets are different from planets because they did not clear their orbital paths
  14. The dwarf planets were named after mythological characters
  15. Haumea has the strangest shape among the five dwarf planets
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Dwarf Planets in the Milky Way

We will talk about the dwarf planets we have in our Milky Way first. Then, we will mention more dwarf planets that exist in outer space. Some of those dwarf planets were mistakenly considered to be planets, like Pluto, but were reclassified as dwarf planets later on.

The Milky Way is the galaxy of which our planet Earth exists in. It is the galaxy that embraces the whole Solar System within. It contains the biggest star in the galaxy which is the Sun. The Sun is actually an average- sized star compared to the other stars in the outer space.

A galaxy is a system. That system is shaped by gravity. Different celestial objects float within that system. A galaxy means ‘Milky’ in Greek. Our galaxy is named as such because it looks like a milky light band in the dark. Especially, when you look at it from afar.

Other galaxies are larger than ours because of how many stars they have. The Milky Way is in fact a large galaxy. Galaxies are three types. The first type is the Elliptical galaxy. The second type is the Spiral galaxy. The third type is the Lenticular galaxy.

The Elliptical galaxy has a light that is distributed in order to not have any distinctive features. It is smooth. It appears as an ellipse in pictures. The Spiral galaxy can be either barred or normal. Barred Spiral galaxy has a bar across its center and its arms extend from the ends of the bar.

Just like, The Milky Way galaxy. A Normal Spiral galaxy, on the other hand, has arms that extend from the center. One of the closest galaxy to the Milky Way galaxy is a spiral galaxy as well. It is called Andromeda. Some scientists believe it will merge with our galaxy in the future.

A Spiral galaxy is flat. It has a rotating disc. The disc contains stars, planets, and space particles. Formations happen regularly. That is why those things in the disc keep coming. They are present in spiral forms.

Whereas, a Lenticular galaxy has a bright bulge in the center. There is a structure that is similar to a disc surrounding it. Some galaxies do not actually have any clear shape. Thus, we may call them irregular galaxies.

Galaxies are divided according to how they look from afar. You can learn all about them, the space, and the Solar System on Learning Mole. Make sure to check it out, so that you won’t miss out. Enjoy!

We will discuss each dwarf planet, hearing each and every detail they have to tell us. We will also learn all about their moons and orbital paths. In addition to, what makes them special? We will become dwarf planets’ experts!

Trans-Neptunian Objects

Trans- Neptunian objects are any minor planet or dwarf planet in the Solar System that orbits the Sun at a greater average distance than Neptune. The first Trans- Neptunian object to be discovered was Pluto.

The Kuiper Belt

The Trans- Neptunian region is also known as the Kuiper belt. The Kuiper belt is a circumstellar disc in the outer Solar System. It extends from the orbit of Neptune at 30 astronomical units to approximately 50 astronomical units from the Sun.

It looks similar to the asteroid belt, which we will elaborate on in a minute. However, it is larger. 20 times as wide and 20 to 200 times as massive. The Kuiper Belt contains many dwarf planets. Over 200 dwarf planets lie there. For example, Pluto, Makemake, Haumea, Orcus, Quaoar, and Eris.


Pluto is the first dwarf planet we will be talking about. At some point in time, Pluto was thought to be the ninth planet in our Solar System. However, when scientists discovered space objects that are either the same size as Pluto or bigger in size, they realized they had to reclassify Pluto as a dwarf planet.

Pluto was reclassified as a dwarf planet in 2006 after years of being known as the ninth planet in our Solar System. Pluto is now known as the best example of a dwarf planet. Pluto is considered relatively small. Yet, it is known as the largest dwarf planet.

It even managed to capture 5 moons to call its own. Those 5 moons revolve around a central point that is not in Pluto’s mass. Those 5 moons are called Charon, Kerberos, Styx, Nix, and Hydra.

We will talk extensively about each of Pluto’s moons, but first let us learn some interesting facts about Pluto itself. It was discovered recently that Pluto has a heart shaped region. That heart shaped region is known as Tombaugh Regio. It was discovered in 2015.

Did you know that Pluto is actually the name of a Roman god? Yup, it is an old tradition of naming planets and celestial bodies after Roman and Greek gods and goddesses. Even dwarf planets are included.

As for what makes up most of Pluto. It is simple. Water. Yes, water. Pluto is made up of one third of water. Does that mean we can live on Pluto as well? Nope, we cannot sadly. Pluto may be made of one third of water, but it has quite the atmosphere.

Pluto’s atmosphere is affected by its orbit and speed. Pluto can get closer to the Sun more than Neptune ever could. It is considered the second closest dwarf planet to the Sun. Still, the temperature can drop down to -387 degrees Fahrenheit on Pluto.

So, you see, it is not possible to live on Pluto. We can even observe the white caps that are made of methane frost that exist on Pluto. In addition to the mountains that are made out of ice water.

Living on Pluto can never be warm, but there are warm seasons on Pluto. The temperature may drop down to -220 Celsius on Pluto. So, it is still a no. We cannot live on Pluto, even with those furry warm jackets.

Pluto takes about 248 Earth years to complete one cycle around the Sun. However, a day on Pluto is 6.4 days on Earth. Which is roughly about 153 hours. Pretty long, isn’t it? It spins like Venus and Uranus from east to west. That is called retrograde rotation.

Pluto orbits the Sun, has moons, and is nearly round, why is it not considered a planet? Well, to put it frankly, Pluto is not strong enough to be considered an official planet like the ones in our Solar System. A planet should be big enough and have enough gravitational force to be in a spherical shape and repel foreign debris outside its orbit.

Pluto does not repel foreign debris. That is why it is considered a dwarf planet and not an actual planet. It is like a mini planet. Not really a planet. However, it has some properties that almost makes it a planet. Yet, it is not a planet, but a dwarf planet.

Pluto is mostly made of reddish brown shades. In addition to the heart shaped region we spoke of. Pluto was discovered in February 1930 by an American astronomer. His name was Clyde W. Tombaugh.

As we discussed, Pluto lies beyond the orbit of Neptune. That is about 39 astronomical units from the Sun. Which is 39 times the distance of the Earth from the Sun. Sunlight takes about 5.5 hours to reach this distance in the world. Now, that we know so much about Pluto, let us move on onto its moons.


Charon is actually half the size of Pluto. It is the largest moon of all Pluto’s moons. We will delve a bit deep into the Greek mythology to know more about the origins of the name Charon. So, make sure your knowledge belt is buckled tightly. It is going to be one fascinating ride into the Greek history of the name.

Charon, Pluto I, or as the Greek people wrote it “Kharon.” It is also known as The Ferryman of The Dead in mythology. Yes, one moon has so many names and even a more interesting story to tell. So, here we go.

As the legend goes, Charon is a minor god that was assigned to be the cosmic ferryman. He had a boat on which he would carry the souls of the newly dead across the river of death. The Greeks believed that human souls or Greek souls, nevertheless were sent to the same place.

The underworld to Hades. Charon is also said to be the underworld daimon. Daimon means spirit. He is in the service of the King Hades. In ancient Greek art, Charon is an ugly, bearded man with a crooked nose who wears a conical hat and a tunic.

In the legend, it is said that the ferryman, Charon is paid. He is paid one obol. It represents, in weight, one half of a scruple of silver. It may even represent 20 grains. It can also be one- sixth of a drachma. However, it cannot be large in size.

The family of the deceased person placed the coin under the tongue of the deceased. So, he or she can pay their fair through the River Styx. Rings a bell? We will get back to that in a moment. Now, we shall continue with the tale of Charon.

The Ferryman of The Dead does not sound friendly, does he? Well, let me tell you what would happen according to the Greeks if a person does not pay the coin that is said to get them across to the River Styx.

Those who could not pay the fair to get them across to the River Styx or were buried without the coin under their tongues according to the Greek legend are said to have wandered the banks of Acheron for a hundred years. They will live as haunting ghosts forever and ever.

What is Acheron? Good question. You see, Hermes (another spirit) would escort the newly deceased souls to the River Acheron. The River Acheron is where the newly deceased souls would meet up with Charon.

The River Acheron is actually one of the five mythical rivers, but that is a story for another time. Charon waits for the newly deceased souls on the banks of the River Acheron. Then, Charon takes his fair of one coin and carries the newly deceased souls across to the Styx River.

So, from Hermes to Charon. The entrance to Hades is on the other side of the Styx River. Hades, here, refers to the underworld. Does Charon possess any superhuman powers? Well, yes he does. He possibly possesses the same conventional attributes of the Olympian gods.

That includes superhuman strength, extreme long life, and a resistance to injury. Why was the biggest moon of Pluto named after the Ferryman of The Dead, Charon? Well, remember when we said that there is this tradition of naming celestial bodies and objects after Greek and Roman gods and goddesses as well as after mythological figures.

Christy, the one who discovered Charon, proposed the name Charon. Intended to be named after the mythological Ferryman of The Dead who carries souls across the River Acheron. The River Acheron surrounds Pluto’s underworld.

So, it was the perfect name for Pluto’s largest natural satellite, Charon. What would happen if you touch the Styx River? Well, that is a story for the Styx moon to tell. For now, I will make sure you hear all the stories Charon has to tell.

Charon, the moon not the Ferryman of The Dead, is actually the sixth- largest known Trans- Neptunian object. That is after Pluto, Eris, Haumea, Makemake, and Gonggong. The radius of Charon is 606 km. It takes about 153 hours to orbit the Sun.

It is the biggest natural satellite that belongs to Pluto. James W. Christy is the one who discovered Charon. A day on Charon is about 6.4 Earth days. Charon is not oblong in shape. That is unlike the rest of Pluto’s moons. Those are Hydra and Nix.

Charon is quite massive to the point it collapsed into a spheroid shape under its own gravity. There were images taken for Pluto and Charon by the Hubble Space Telescope in 1990s that showed the two of them being resolved into separate disks for the first time. Now, let us listen to the Greek legend behind the name of the Styx moon or should I say River?


Pluto’s smallest moon, not the band nor the river, but the moon. It is known as Pluto’s smallest moon since 2020. It is mostly covered with water and ice. Styx is named after the mythological river that separates the world of the living from the realm of the dead.

Or so the Greeks thought. In ancient Greek mythology, Styx is the name of a deity and a river that forms the boundary between Earth, Gaia, and the underworld, which is known as Hades. The rivers Acheron, Cocytus, Lethe, Phlegethon, and Styx all come together at the center of the underworld.

They all meet on a great marsh. That marsh is also sometimes known as Styx. In the Greek mythology, the Greek underworld is another separate world that the souls go to after death. The Greeks originally believed in the idea of the afterlife.

When someone dies, their soul takes on the shape of the former person and leaves the body separating from the corpse. Then, it is transported to the entrance of the underworld. It is said that if you fall into the river Styx, your body will receive the gift of immortality.

Nothing can actually harm you. There is a famous story about Achilles’ mother, Thetis. She dipped him into the River Styx by his heel. This made him a demi- god who became invincible. However, Achilles’ heel, which was not dipped into the River Styx, remained his weakness.

Later, that weakness was exploited by Apollo. Some other people believed that what happened with Achilles is a curse. The curse is that the person will be invulnerable to most physical attacks, excluding a small spot on their body.

If that spot is struck, however, they will instantly die. For Achilles, it was his heel. The Styx is actually a real stream and waterfall that is called Mavroneri. Mavroneri means black water. It is located in the Peloponnese.

The Styx moon was actually discovered by the use of the Hubble Space Telescope. Styx was discovered by Showalter, M. R. et al. The Styx moon has a surprisingly young surface. That indicates it once housed an ocean in its interior. That is a mere suggestion.

It may have been frozen long ago. It was originally designated as S/2012 (134340) 1 and sometimes it was referred to as P5. Are you ready to jump onto Nix? Let us hear the story of the goddess of darkness. That is Nix.


Nix is the name of the Greek goddess of darkness and night. Nix is also the mother of Charon. Nix was also known as S/2005 P2. It was intended to name the moon according to the classical spelling of the name as in Nyx.

However, it was avoided as to not be confused with the asteroid 3908 Nyx. So, the International Astronomical Union approved of the Egyptian spelling of the name which is Nix. Thus, we now have Pluto’s moon, Nix.

Nix takes about 25 days to orbit the Sun. Nix was discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope. Nix was discovered along with Hydra. Hydra is Pluto’s other moon. So, let us talk a bit about Hydra in more detail.


Hydra is another one of Pluto’s moons and no, it is not related to the phrase “Hail, Hydra” that many of the double agents kept repeating at the moments of their death in Captain America. That is in case you are a Marvel fan in the first place.

If you are not, then disregard what I just told you and let us get back to the Hydra organization. I meant to say moon of course. Well, before we delve into the amazing facts Hydra has to share with us, first we should mention some interesting Greek history.

Not just any Greek history, it is the Greek legends that have to do with our current story of dwarf planets. So, you see, Zeus, the king of the Olympic gods, feared Nyx. Why? You ask. Well, because she was stronger and older than him and much more capable.

The second fact I will most certainly have to tell you is that Pluto is actually known as Hades. Yes! Hades, the underworld. I bet, you did not see that coming. Hades is called ‘the unseen’, Pluto, or Pluton. Those names mean “The Wealthy One” or “The Giver of Wealth.”

In ancient Greek religion and legends, the god of the underworld was known to be Hades. Hades was the son of two titans. Those two titans were Cronus and Rhea. Hades is the brother of the deities or if I may say gods, as they were believed to be in Greek mythology.

Those Greek gods are Zeus, Poseidon, Demeter, Hera, and Hestia. Hades was their brother. I hope any of this makes sense so far. If you are still following, then I believe you are becoming not only a dwarf planets’ expert, but also an expert in Greek mythology.

At least, we know why they named all of Pluto’s or should I say Hades’ moons or most of them after the rivers of the underworld. As, Pluto, in itself, is the underworld. Thus, all the underworld rivers or should I say moons orbit or revolve around Pluto or the Greek underworld.

Last fact we should mention is that there are a group of gods and goddesses known as the Olympians. They lived on the Olympic Mountains. Thus, they were called the Olympians. They were the descendants of the Titans. They are the second generation of the Greek Gods.

Yes, you guessed right! They are Zeus, Hades, Poseidon, Demeter, Hera, and Hestia. Enough about Greek gods. Let us get right into business. Hydra, Pluto’s moon, is small. Hydra has an irregular shape. It is said to be mostly composed of water ice.

Hydra is the outer of two moons that were discovered to be orbiting Pluto. They are Nix and Hydra. They were discovered in 2005. Nix and Hydra are about 5,000 times fainter than Pluto. Which means Hydra is too small and faint to be seen in any amateur telescope.

In addition to that, Nix and Hydra are about two to three times further from Pluto than Charon. Remember Charon? Pluto’s largest moon. The Ferryman of the dead, Charon. Charon was actually discovered in 1978.

Hydra is the fastest moon that rotates very fast. Hydra spins once every 10 hours. It takes about 38 days to orbit Pluto. In other words, 89 times every orbit. Hydra was discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope.

The people who discovered Hydra were Marc Buie and Hal A. Weaver. People used to believe that Pluto’s smaller moons, that includes Hydra, were formed from a debris that was ejected from a massive collision between Pluto and another Kuiper belt object.

That story is quite similar to the one that people used to believe about how the Moon of the Earth formed. It was believed that the Moon was formed by a debris that was ejected by a large collision of the Earth.

Let us know more about the Hydra myth and reality, our young astronomer. Hydra in Greek mythology is the Hydra of Lerna. It is also known as the Lernaean Hydra. In some tales, it is a dragon with a lot of heads. In other tales, it is a serpentine water monster.  

It is actually known in Greek and Roman mythology. Lernaean Hydra lived in a lake. The name of the lake it lived in was the lake of Lerna. The lake of Lerna was located in the Argolid. That is why the monster was known to be Hydra of Lerna.

Hydra took the lake as its lair. It is said to be a serpent- like water monster. There were different opinions on what the Hydra of Lerna would look like. People believed it had three heads. Some say it had seven heads. Others believed it had nine. It is said to be immortal.

Hydra was about 10 to 12 feet high and 30 feet long with residual wings. Hera was the one who created that monster. The monster was said to be the child of Typhon and Echidna. Typhon had about a 100 heads. Echidna, on the other hand, was half maiden and half serpent.

Some other people believed Hydra was the child of Styx and the Titan Pallas. Some believed that if one head of the Hydra was cut, two more will form in its place. So, it ended up having multiple heads. Thankfully, that monster only existed in Greek and Roman tales.

However, there are creatures known as Hydra and they do live in swamps. They are a group of invertebrates. They look like tiny tubes and they have tentacles protruding off at one end. However, thankfully, they can grow only 0.4 inches. That is the equivalent of 10 millimeters long.

They eat aquatic animals that are smaller in size. Hydras share the regenerative abilities from the myth. Some even say they are biologically immortal. Hydra cells divide continuously. So, they can easily recover from injuries just like the myth.

Hercules, one of Zeus’ sons, was a half- god. That is according to the Greek tales. He was responsible for taking care of the Lernaean Hydra. It was one of his twelve tests. What are Hercules’ twelve tests? Well, that is a story for another time.

Now that we know all about the myth of the name “Hydra” and all about the moon Hydra, Let us carry onto the last moon of Pluto’s moons on our list. That is Kerberos. The name most certainly has to do with Greek mythology. Yes, you guessed correctly.


Our underworld tale is coming to an end, but have no fear. We will have even more interesting tales and facts to tell about the rest of the dwarf planets in our Solar System. So, make sure your seatbelt is fastened, young astronomer. This will be a bumpy ride!

Hades or should I say Pluto? He had a loyal companion. That companion’s name was Spot. Spot is also known as a fearsome hound. He had about three heads or even more, but in most tales, they are three. That hound guarded the gates of the underworld.

In order to prevent any of the dead leaving or escaping the underworld without Hades knowing. Spot is actually a translation of the fearsome hound’s real name. In Greek mythology, that fearsome hound is known as Cerberus.

In the Greek origin of the name, Cerberus actually translates to Kerberos. Pluto’s faithful moon is Hades’ loyal companion. Cerberus is the guardian of the gates of the underworld. Pluto’s faithful moon was discovered in 2011.

Its orbit takes about 32 days. It is a small moon. It has an irregular shape. Kerberos used to hide itself and not show quite easily. However, Nasa’s New Horizons aircraft took pictures of it during probe’s historic flyby. It turned out to be much smaller than the researchers expected.

We can finally conclude our underworld tale and go onto another story. Or if I may say, in other words, another dwarf planet. Before doing so, however, did you know that planets and some dwarf planets, like Pluto have a big tale to tell about zodiacs and zodiac signs as well?

Some zodiacs have been adapted throughout the years in different forms. Some even took the forms of anime. For example, Fruits Basket and no, it is not eatable. If you do not know what anime is, then you are missing out on Japanese anime and Manga.

Anime is more or less, the Japanese way of displaying series. Some are kids- friendly. Others are not. Do not worry Fruits Basket is for 11 years old and above. Manga, on the other hand, is like Japanese comics.

We would love to tell you even more about anime and manga and maybe even discuss them with you, however, that is a story, again, for another time, my friend. However, if you are a gamer, then you would probably want to try out Undertale.

It is one amazingly popular game. I would not want to spoil it for you. So, you would only have to try it out for yourself. It is high time we talked about Makemake. We know you want to listen to more stories, but first let us finish each and every story one at a time.

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Makemake is a dwarf planet. Just like Pluto. However, it is said to have about two- thirds the diameter that of Pluto. Maybe, it is even the second- largest Kuiper belt object. What is the first? You ask.

Well, we want you to guess. So, keep reading. Maybe, we will tell later on. That is if we haven’t already. So, carry on reading. Makemake has one known natural satellite. It is its moon. It also has very low average temperature. That temperature can reach 40 K.

That means, in other words, that the surface of Makemake is probably mostly covered with methane, ethane, and perhaps nitrogen ices. Makemake takes about 306 years to complete one orbit around the sun. In other words, its orbital period is 306 years.

Makemake lies at a distance 5.61 billion km away from Earth. Its radius is 715 km. Makemake has a surface area of 6.42×10^6 km^2. The natural satellite that belongs to Makemake, the one we spoke of earlier, is known as S/2015 (136472) 1.

The people who discovered Makemake were Michael E. Brown, Chad Trujillo, and David L. Rabinowitz. Makemake was the fourth body that was identified as a dwarf planet. Makemake is large and quite bright to the extent that it is manageable to study it by a high- end amateur telescope.

It was also one of the dwarf planets that were partially held accountable for the downgrading and reclassification of Pluto from an actual planet into a dwarf planet. That caused Pluto to lose its status as an official planet and to be now considered a dwarf planet.

Let us spice things up a bit. Are you ready to learn more about the origins of the name Makemake? We know the name may sound funny to you. However, we want you to know the full story behind the name and then judge it if it is still more funny than fascinating, my friend.

Makemake is also written as Make- make. The origins of the name of the dwarf planet, Makemake date back to the Rapa Nui mythology of the Easter Island. According to the Rapa Nui mythology of the Easter Island, Makemake is the creator of humanity.

Makemake is also considered, according to the Rapa Nui legends, to be the god of fertility and the chief god of the Tangata manu. In other cultures, others know it as the bird- man sect. This sect we are mentioning is the island’s most famous. Especially, during the Moai era.

I could not help, but remember Moana from Disney. So, excuse me while I mention her here. Maybe, you would like to search into it, watch the movie, or delve even deeper into the history of Polynesia. Good luck!

Now, going back to Makemake, did you know that Makemake used to be known as 2005 Fy9? That was Makemake’s original name. Makemake, now, is named after the creator god of the Polynesian inhabitants of Easter Island. As we mentioned earlier.

The name Makemake kind of alludes to its discovery. Makemake was discovered by the astronomers at Palomar Observatory. That discovery of Makemake was made on March 31, 2005. That kind of relates to its first name as it was named according to the year of its discovery.

Makemake, as we mentioned, has a diameter of more than 1,400 km. 1,400 km are estimated to be about 900 miles. Pretty big, right? Well, the thing is. Makemake’s large size was large enough to the point it enabled gravity to make it into a round shape.

Eventually, Makemake was designated as a dwarf planet in 2008. Not only was Makemake considered a dwarf planet, but also it was a plutoid. Makemake orbits the Sun beyond the orbit of Pluto. Makemake has a reddish color.

It also takes about 7 to 8 hours to make one complete rotation around itself. The single moon that Makemake has, the one we keep coming back to, was discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope. The moon’s orbital plane is nearly edge- on Earth.

The images of that moon were taken by the Hubble Space Telescope in 2015. That is when they discovered its existence because they did not know that Makemake had a moon to begin with, but now they do. Who knows how many more moons are out there?

S/2015 (136472) 1

S/2015 (136472) 1 is also nicknamed as MK2. It was nicknamed as such by the team who made the discovery. MK2 is the only known moon of the dwarf planet Makemake. It is about 175 km in diameter. It also has quite the major axis or maybe semi- major.

That semi- major axis is about 21,000 km from Makemake. Its orbital period is about 12 days. It was actually discovered in April 2015. However, you should probably know that MK2 is not its official name. So, yes, you will have to remember S/2015 (136472) 1 as Makemake’s moon.


Are you ready to embark onto our next dwarf planet? Don’t get tired! There are so many dwarf planets out there. We only named a few of them, told their stories, studied their facts, and read more about their names’ origins.

Most if not all of the dwarf planets out there that have been discovered so far have been probably named after either a Greek or Roman god or goddesses. If not, then probably after some historical legend or tale. We are here to discuss all of those together.

Or at the very least, a few. So, check on your seatbelt once more to make sure it is fastened because our ride is still ongoing, my friend. As for the next dwarf planet on our list, we have our friend here, Haumea.

Haumea is another dwarf planet that is located outside and beyond Neptune’s orbit. It was actually discovered by a team that was headed by Mike Brown of Caltech at the Palomar Observatory. So, Mike Brown was the head of a team in Caltech at the Palomar Observatory.

That team discovered Haumea in 2004. The Caltech at the Palomar Observatory is located in the United States. Haumea and Makemake are actually the two most recently named dwarf planets in our beautiful Solar System. We will know more about the origins of Haumea’s name in a minute.

Haumea is actually quite unique. It has an ellipsoid shape. That shape is just meeting the hydrostatic equilibrium criteria for the dwarf planet status. So, that is why Haumea was able to make it as a dwarf planet.

As for the name Haumea, did you guess which god or goddess had the same exact name? If not, it is okay. Let us tell you how the legend goes. Haumea is actually the Hawaiian goddess of fertility and childbirth.

It is said that Haumea, the goddess of fertility and childbirth according to Hawaiian mythology, could give birth to children from all different parts of her body. That included her shoulders and even her brain.

Haumea used to be called 2003 EL61, but now it is known as Haumea, the dwarf planet. Haumea actually has 2 natural satellites. Which means, we are going to have some more fun learning about them.


Hai’iaka or the youngest Haiiaka according to Hawaiian mythology was the patron goddess of Hawai’i, hula dancers, chant, sorcery, and medicine. In Hawaiian religion, Hai’iaka is thought to be the daughter of Haumea and Kane.

As for the moon, Hai’iaka, it is the larger of Haumea’s two moons. It is the outer moon of the Trans- Neptunian dwarf planet Haumea. Hai’iaka is actually believed to be the patron goddess of the Big Island of Hawaii.


Namaka is the smaller moon of the Trans- Neptunian dwarf planet Haumea. Namaka is the inner moon of Haumea’s two moons. It is actually named after Namaka. She was the goddess of the sea in Hawaiian myths and folklore.

That is correct! She is also one of Haumea’s daughters. You are getting good at this, my brilliant friend. The name Namaka is actually a boy’s name. However, I am sure the goddess Namaka does not mind.

The name’s original meaning is eyes. It relates to the baby’s beautiful eyes. It takes about 18 days to complete one rotation around the sun’s orbit. It was discovered in 2005. Now that we know all about Namaka, let us move onto our next dwarf planet on the list.


Orcus is a Trans- Neptunian dwarf planet with a large moon. That large moon is known as Vanth. We will talk more about it in the coming paragraphs, but for now let us concentrate on Orcus. Orcus has a relatively bright surface.

The surface of Orcus is that bright because of albedo reaching 23 percent. It is natural in its color and quite rich in water ice. The ice is in the crystalline form. That may be due to the past cry- volcanic activity.

Orcus was discovered in 2004. Orcus was the god of the underworld. I know. You are very confused right now. How is Orcus the god of the underworld? What about Pluto? Hades? Well, let me explain.

Orcus is the god of the underworld according to the Latin myth. He was known as the punisher of the broken oaths in Etruscan and Roman mythology. However, Hades was another one of the names for the god of the underworld.

Hades was also used as the name of the underworld itself not just the god of the underworld. There could be more than one name for the same entity, god, goddess, or characters in a tale. Tales and legends were passed down orally.

A few were written, yes. However, mostly were passed down as oral tradition. So, sometimes it was Hades. Other times, it was Pluto. In a different time, it was Orcus. Some names were more popular than others.

So, it is normal to find yourself more familiar with one name rather than the other. It does not necessarily mean that Orcus is wrong and Hades is correct. They are both names of the underworld according to Greek and Roman mythology.

Orcus, the Greek and Roman underworld, was also known as Dis Pater. Dis Pater translates into Rich Father in Latin. Some names were more popular with Greeks. Other names were popular with the Romans.

Orcus was believed to be the brother of Jupiter. That was according to the Romans. He was feared greatly. The Greek god of the underworld was known as Hades. The Roman god of the underworld was Pluto.

Orcus was another name that the Romans were familiar with. They believed Orcus meant the god of the underworld. Now that we know so much about Orcus, let us move onto its moon and learn even more about the meaning behind its name.


Vanth was discovered in 2005. It takes about 229 hours to complete one orbital rotation around the Sun. Vanth is the only natural satellite that Orcus has. As for the legend behind the name, let us talk some more about it.

Vanth is a chthonic figure. That was mentioned in Etruscan mythology. It can be shown in a variety of forms of funerary art. For example, the paintings in the tombs and on sarcophagi. Vanth is a female demon in the Etruscan underworld.

That makes sense why they would name the moon of the Trans- Neptunian dwarf planet of Orcus (The underworld) after the name of a female demon from the underworld. Vanth may be a demon in legends and all, but in our real life, Vanth is the dwarf planet Orcus’ moon.

Now that we are becoming very good at dwarf planets, let us move onto the last dwarf planet we will be talking about that lies within the Kuiper Belt. We hope you have been enjoying your learning journey with Learning Mole so far.


Fear not, our journey is still ongoing. However, there is going to be a quick question at the very end to see if you can figure it out on your own based on our analysis and exploration of the dwarf planets. If not, then we recommend you stay seated for our next journey.

Quaoar has so many stories to tell us. So, we hope you are ready to learn more and more about the legends, I meant to say, facts, which Quaoar, the dwarf planet, has to share with us. As you may have guessed by now, Quaoar is a dwarf planet.

It exists within our Solar System. It can be found beyond Neptune’s orbit floating along the Kuiper Belt. That is why Quaoar is a Trans- Neptunian dwarf planet. However, as we mentioned at the beginning of our journey, a dwarf planet is no planet.

A planet must be big enough to be round. It should orbit the Sun. That is without orbiting another body. It must also clear debris from around its orbit. On the other hand, a dwarf planet is an object that is round and orbits the Sun.

However, a dwarf planet is apparently too small to clear debris from within its orbit. That is the main reason why Quaoar is known as a dwarf planet and not as a planet. Quaoar is also known as 50000 Quaoar.

Quaoar takes about 286 years to orbit the Sun or in other words, complete one rotational orbit around the Sun. Its radius is about 555 km. That makes it pretty big. The mass of Quaoar is 1.4 x 10^21 kg. It is huge. They discovered Quaoar in 2002.

Quaoar has only one natural satellite. The name of Quaoar’s only natural satellite is Weywot. Quaoar is said to be made out of ices. It is greater in volume than all known asteroids combined. Researches are expecting it is made of mostly low- density ices that are mixed with rocks.

If that is indeed the case, then Quaoar’s mass is probably only one- third of the asteroid belt mass. Quaoar actually belongs to the Cubewanos family. Or as some may call it and know it as, the Classical Kuiper Belt Objects.

Those objects that belong to that family do not necessarily orbit in resonance with Neptune. They orbit in the 40 or 50 astronomical unit range. That is about 5.9 to 7.4 billion km or maybe even 3.7 to 4.6 billion miles.

However, they do not cross Neptune’s orbit. Unlike some Plutinos like Pluto. Whereas, Makemake, Quaoar, Varuna, and Chaos are considered what you may call Cubewanos.

Quaoar lies within a region of icy planetesimals beyond Neptune. The name of Quaoar relates back to the god of creation of the Native American Tongva tribe. They are the original inhabitants of the Los Angeles basin where Caltech is located.


Quaoar has only one moon as we previously mentioned. Weywot is Quaoar’s only natural satellite or moon if you may. It was discovered by Michael Brown and T.A. Suer. That was by using images that were taken by the Hubble Space Telescope in 2006.

Weywot takes about 284 years to complete one orbital rotation. The place where it was discovered was in the Palomar Observatory. Weywot is actually the god of the sky in Tongva Mythology. Weywot was created by Quaoar according to the legend.

That happened when Quaoar sang the song of creation. The name was chosen by the Tongva tribe. However, who are the Tongva? Now that is a good question. Let us tell you a bit more about the Tongva tribe, my friend.

The Tongva people are the indigenous people of California. They come from the Los Angeles Basin and the Southern Channel Islands. That area covers about 4,000 square miles. Chumash and the Tongva were influential people at the time of the European arrival.

Now that we know so much about Quaoar and its moon Weywot, let us carry onto the asteroid belt region because there are some more dwarf planets we would like to talk about that exist in that region.

The Asteroid Belt

First, let us explain more about what the asteroid belt really is and then carry onto some of the dwarf planets that exist there. The asteroid belt is a torus- shaped region. It exists within the Solar System. It is located between the orbits of the two planets Jupiter, the biggest, and Mars.

It contains many great solid and irregular shaped bodies of many sizes, but they are much smaller than planets. They are called asteroids or minor planets. Most of the asteroids in the main belt are made either of rock, metal, or of stone.

However, a small version of those contains iron and nickel metals. The remaining parts of the asteroids are made up of a mix of these along with carbon- rich material. The further an asteroid is, the more likely it is to contain more ices.

The asteroid belt is actually disc shaped. The sizes of the objects that exist within the asteroid belt range from being as small as a dust particle to almost 1000 km wide. The largest object that can be found in the asteroid belt is the dwarf planet Ceres.

The asteroid belt contains the greatest concentration of asteroids in our Solar System. However, it is said to contain about 0.5 of all the asteroids in only this region. Astronomers identified about 1 million asteroids in our Solar System alone.

As we explained, most of the asteroids in the Main Belt are either made of rock or stone. However, a small portion of them may contain iron as well as nickel. It may even contain different kinds of metal.

The rest of the asteroids found existing in the Main Belt are made up of a mixture of these. In addition to carbon- rich materials. Some of the few distant asteroids may most likely contain more ices. The further an asteroid is, the more it tends to contain ices.

The asteroid belt is quite fast. It goes with around 25 kilometers per second. Asteroids float through space at astonishing velocities. The speed at which each asteroid goes by differs according to their distance from the Sun.

The closer an asteroid is to the Sun, the faster and greater the speed is. The asteroid belt follows a seemingly elliptical path as it orbits the Sun in the same direction of the planets. The presence of Jupiter makes all the difference.

Jupiter kind of protects Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars from the repeated asteroid collisions that continue to happen endlessly. In order to reach the asteroid belt starting from Earth would take about 32.5 days.

It is said that the gravitational accretion is the reason that led to the formation of the planets. Other objects that may be similar to planets and asteroids later formed the asteroid belt. Those were too strongly perturbed by Jupiter’s gravity to form a planet.

Those seemingly planets, asteroids, and other objects continue to orbit the Sun as they did and will always do as before. They occasionally collide. The asteroid belt separates the inner planets from the outer planets. Let us study the dwarf planets that exist within the asteroid belt region.


The dwarf planet Ceres is one of the largest objects that can be found in the asteroid belt that exists between Mars and Jupiter. Ceres is actually the only dwarf planet that is located in the inner Solar System. It orbits the Sun, just like any other object in our Solar System.

Ceres is not a planet because it does not dominate its orbit. Ceres shares its orbit with other thousands of other asteroids in the asteroid belt. Ceres was one of the first few asteroids to be discovered.

It was discovered in 1801 by Giuseppe Piazzi at the Palermo Astronomical Observatory that is located in Sicily. Ceres most probably has a solid core and a mantle made of water ice. In reality, Ceres could contain up to 25 percent of water.

If that assumption is proved to be correct, then it is most certain that Ceres has way more water than Earth does. The crust of Ceres is rocky and dusty with large salt deposits. Since Ceres has so much water, it is probable that life may exist on its surface.

There are a few facts that any young astronomer should know about Ceres. Ceres is the only dwarf planet with no moons. Ceres may have an atmosphere. It is round. Ceres has mysterious bright spots. Ceres was actually named after the Roman goddess of agriculture.

So, now that we mentioned the naming process, let us move onto the history and legend behind the name Ceres was given as a dwarf planet. Ceres was the Roman goddess of agriculture, grain, and the love a mother bears for her child.

She is also known as the Greek goddess Demeter. Ceres was the goddess of harvest and was also credited with teaching humans how to grow, preserve, and prepare grain and corn. Demeter is the mother of Persephone.

Demeter was the wife of Liber. Liber was the god of wine and freedom. Proserpina was the wife of Pluto. Against her will, Proserpina was married to Pluto (Hades), who kidnapped her, with Jupiter’s (Zeus) consent and her own mother (Demeter) did not know about the deal between Pluto and Jupiter.

Back to the dwarf planet, Ceres. Ceres takes about 9 hours to complete one orbit around itself. Ceres takes about 4.6 Earth years to make one complete trip around the Sun. 4.6 Earth years is about 1,682 Earth days.  

Now that we know all about Ceres the dwarf planet and Ceres the Roman goddess, let us carry on and move to the next phase of our expedition. We will discuss the scattered disc objects. First, let us get to know what we mean by the scattered disc objects.

The Scattered Disc Objects

The scattered disc objects are more or less Kuiper Belt objects with large orbital eccentricities. The scattered disc is a region that reaches further beyond the main part of the Kuiper Belt. It is a Trans- Neptunian region.

It is considered home to objects that have been scattered by Neptune into orbits that are highly elliptical and highly inclined to the plane of the planets. Many scattered disk objects have orbits that are tilted by tens and more of degrees.

Eris is part of that region. The region of the space that exists beyond the Kuiper Belt known as the scattered disc. The scattered disc is mostly sparsely populated with icy minor planets. Those scattered objects are among the objects that are classified as the most distant and most cold objects in our Solar System.

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Eris is the most massive and is the second largest known dwarf planet in the Solar System. It is a Trans- Neptunian object. It exists specifically in the scattered disk region and has a high eccentric orbit. Eris was discovered by a Palomar Observatory- based team.

The team was led by Mike Brown. Eris was discovered in 2005. It takes 557 Earth years for Eris to complete one orbit around the Sun. Also, it should be known that Eris could not clear out its orbit and so, it did not meet the requirements to earn the status of an official planet.

However, it was established as a dwarf planet. Eris has only one natural satellite. That means Eris has only one moon. The moon of Eris is named Dysnomia. However, before we delve any deeper into Dysnomia, we should explore the legend behind Eris’ name.

Eris is the Roman Discordia. Eris is mentioned in Greco- Roman mythology. Eris is also the personification of strife. Eris was known as the daughter of Nyx by the poet Hesiod. However, Eris was known as the sister and companion of Ares.

Ares is the Roman Mars. That was included in Homer’s version. Eris is best known for her part in starting the Trojan War. Eris was the Greek goddess of chaos, strife, and discord. So, in most stories and legends, she was often seen as the antagonist.

Eris, according to the Greek mythology, had powers that were strong enough to affect the gods. That is why she was considered pretty powerful. She is considered a non- Olympian god. However, it was undeniable that Eris was considered the goddess of chaos.

It was said that Eris is the daughter of Zeus and Hera. Again, we established that there are numerous adaptations of the stories, legends, and tales to be told over and over. The story may change in some ways and different cultures prefer different versions of the tale.


Dysnomia is the only known moon for the dwarf planet Eris. It is probably the second- largest known moon of a dwarf planet. That is after Charon, Pluto’s moon. Dysnomia was discovered by Mike Brown and the laser guide star adaptive optics team at W.M. in 2005.

Dysnomia takes about 16 days to complete one orbital circulation around the Sun. Dysnomia is quite big. Yes, even bigger than Pluto. Dysnomia is about 27 percent more massive than Pluto. We know what you are wondering about. Yes, of course Dysnomia has a legend behind it.

It is said that Dysnomia is one of Eris’ daughters. Dysnomia was considered the daemon of lawlessness and poor civil order. I mean Eris was the goddess of mischief. So, it does make sense.

Now that we covered so much about the Kuiper Belt, asteroid belt, and the dwarf planets that can be found in each, let us move onto our next phase. That is beyond the Kuiper Belt. We call that area the Oort Cloud area.

Oort Cloud Objects

The planets in our Solar System orbit in a flat plane. However, the Oort Cloud is believed to be a giant spherical shell surrounding the Sun, planets, and Kuiper Belt objects. You can say, it is like a big, thick bubble around our Solar System.

It is made of icy, comet- like objects. Nobody knows for sure how many objects exist in the Oort Cloud, but it is mostly estimated to be about 2 trillion. The Oort Cloud region is considered to be a reserve of cometary nuclei. That cometary nuclei contains ices that may date back to as far as the origin of the Solar System.

The Oort Cloud is far beyond Pluto and beyond the most distant edges of the Kuiper Belt. Remember when we mentioned that the asteroid belt is quite rocky, well, the Oort Cloud region is dominated with icy bodies.  

Dwarf Planets beyond the Solar System

We will discuss some more dwarf planets that lie beyond the Solar System. However, they are still within our galaxy. Some of those are Sedna, Varuna, Chaos, and Farfarout. Some of them are yet to be classified as dwarf planets. Others are already known as dwarf planets.

And of course, some of them has a moon or more and others do not. Still, we will try our best to cover as many of them as possible in as much details as we can. Keep that seatbelt fastened, our ride is still on, my friend.


Sedna has no known moons. It is also known as 90377 Sedna. Sedna is a dwarf planet that exists in the outer reaches of the Solar System. The Solar System is currently in the innermost part of its orbit.

It was estimated that it is about 84 astronomical units away from the Sun in 2021. That is about three times farther away from the Sun than Neptune is. It takes 11,408 years to complete one orbital rotation.

Sedna was discovered in 2003. It was discovered by Michael Brown, Chad Trujilo, and David Rabinowitz. Just like all the previously discovered dwarf planets, Sedna has a fantastical story behind its name. Let us delve deeper into the name and its implications.

Sedna is actually known as the goddess of the sea and marine animals in Inuit mythology. Sedna is known as the Mother of the Sea or the Mistress of the Sea. All of that is according to the Inuit folklore.

Sedna’s story dates back to the creation myth. It describes how she came to rule over Adlivun. Adlivun is another name for the Inuit underworld. Let us explain some more about the Inuit culture and legends. However, we should at the very least know first who the Inuit people are.

The Inuit people are a group of culturally similar indigenous people inhabiting the Arctic and subarctic regions of Greenland, Canada, and Alaska. The Inuit languages are a part of the Eskimo- Aleut languages.

That is also known as the Inuit- Yupik- Unangan and also as Eskaleut. Now, that we know so much about the Inuit people, let us move onto the underworld of the Inuit people and see if it is any different from the Greek and Roman underworld.

The Inuit word for the underworld is Adlivun. In Inuit religion, Adlivun are the spirits of the departed people who reside in the underworld. By the extension of the underworld itself, it is located beneath the land and the sea.

The souls of the departed are said to be purified there, in preparation for the travel to the Land of the Moon. The Land of the Moon is where the departed souls have their eternal rest and peace. The departed souls only reach the Land of the Moon after they are completely purified in Adlivun. 


Varuna is another dwarf planet that does not have any known moons. Varuna is also known as 20000 Varuna. Varuna is a Trans- Neptunian object. It exists in the Kuiper Belt. It was discovered in 2000 by the American astronomer Robert McMillan.

That was during a Spacewatch survey at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. Varuna takes about 279 years to complete one rotational orbit around the Sun. As for the mythology behind the name, we will investigate it together.

Varuna is actually related to the Hindu mythology. Varuna is a Vedic phase in the Hindu mythology. It is like the god- sovereign. In other words, the personification of the divine authority.

Varuna is known as the ruler of the sky realm and the upholder of cosmic and moral law. That is known as rita. It is a shared duty with the group of gods that are known as the Adityas. We will explore more in detail about the Rita and Adityas which is also known as Aditi.

Varuna was the known chief of the Adityas. As for who the Adityas or Aditi are, Aditi is known as the boundless, limitless, or innocence goddess of the Earth and the sky. That is according to the Hindu culture.

 According to Hinduism, the personification of infinite is found in Aditi. It is also known as the personification of the mother of a group of celestial deities. On the other hand, the moral law which is also known as Rita, is an Indian concept.

In Indian religion and philosophy, rita means truth and order. In other words, the cosmic order that was mentioned in the Vedas, the ancient sacred scriptures of India. Rita is the physical order of which the universe follows or is in.

That involves the order of the sacrifice and the moral law of the world. That cosmic order also known as Rita, is mentioned in the Vedas. Now, we are becoming full- fledged experts in dwarf planets and mythology.


Chaos is one more dwarf planet that does not have any moons. Chaos is also known as 19521 Chaos. Chaos is known to be a cubewano. It is a Kuiper Belt object. Chaos was actually discovered in 1998. They year I was born in! I bet, you’re counting now :”))

It was discovered by the Deep Ecliptic Survey with Kitt Peak’s 4 m telescope. It takes Chaos about 310 years to complete one orbital rotation around the Sun. As for the story behind the name, well, let us tell you.

The name Chaos is named after the mythological void state that preceded the creation of the universe. On a side note, the universe can also be referred to as the cosmos.

Mostly, found in the Greek creation myths. In Christian theology, the same term refers to the gap or abyss that was created by the separation of heaven and Earth. Now let us move onto the last dwarf planet on our list.


Farfarout may be one of the few discovered dwarf planets that have not been named after some legend according to a specific culture. Who knows? Maybe they will rename it in the future just like they did with many other dwarf planets and planets as well.

Even with asteroids and many more celestial body were renamed to follow or reference a mythical figure in a specific culture. Most planets and dwarf planets are named after Greek or Roman gods and goddesses.

However, as we saw in our fruitful expedition, some dwarf planets were named after Inuit or Hindu mythical figures. Even the dwarf planets’ moons were named after mythical figures that may or may not relate to the mythical figure of the original dwarf planet.

Just like we saw with Pluto and its moons. Now, let us get back to Farfarout. Farfarout is named according to its distant location from the Sun. Mainly, because it turned out to be further than even the previous farthest known object (2018 VG (18)).

That is the main reason it was nicknamed Farout. Farfarout is also known as 2018 AG37. It is a Trans- Neptunian object. Farfarout is farther than any other known object in the Solar System. It was discovered in 2018.

Now we have finally came to our final stop. We learned so much together. We hope you enjoyed your journey with us through the dwarf planets and the stories they had to tell us. You are a very good listener.

Final Stop in Dwarf Planets

We sincerely hope you enjoyed this bumpy ride. We hate to say it, but we have come to the end of our dwarf planets’ expedition. Hopefully, you became a dwarf planets’ expert by now and that you know a little bit more about the historical legends behind the naming of each dwarf planet out there.

We would like to put your newly acquired knowledge to the test. So, get a pen and a paper and start writing away the dwarf planets we mentioned and discussed according to their order away from the Sun.

You should also remember to mention the moons or moon each dwarf planet has. In addition to that, the area which that dwarf planet belongs to or floats within. For example, the asteroid belt or the Kuiper Belt. Finally, feel free to add any dwarf planets you know of that we may have not mentioned in our list, but make sure you write those in a different color. 

However, you should keep in mind that we did not mention the dwarf planets in that order nor did we extensively explain which came first. So, you better do your research before deciding on the exact order and when you are ready, send us your answer by contacting us.

We would be delighted to hear from you. Learning Mole will always be here to share new experiences with you and learn more facts about the world together. The more time we spend together, the more stories we get to share:

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