The Pancreas: Its Structure, Function, and 5 Fun Facts About It

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Updated on: Educator Review By: Michelle Connolly

Did you know that your body has a superhero organ known as the pancreas? It’s not as famous as the heart or the brain, but it plays a crucial role in keeping you healthy. In this article, we’ll explore the structure and functions of the pancreas, and we’ll also share five fascinating facts about this extraordinary organ.

Structure of the Pancreas

The pancreas is a long, flat gland located behind your stomach. It’s about 6 inches long and is shaped like a tadpole. It has two main parts: the head, which is the wider part near the stomach, and the tail, which extends towards the spleen. The pancreas is made up of different types of cells that work together to perform its important functions.

This organ, when looked at under a microscope, is made up of two main types of tissue:

  1. Exocrine Tissue: This part of the pancreas is made up of small sacs called acini, which produce digestive enzymes. These enzymes are released into tiny ducts that eventually connect to the main pancreatic duct. The main pancreatic duct then sends these enzymes into the small intestine, where the digestive enzymes help break down food.
  2. Endocrine Tissue: This part of the pancreas is made up of small clusters of cells named islets of Langerhans. These cells produce hormones, including insulin and glucagon, which together help regulate blood sugar levels in the body.

So, when we look at the pancreas under a microscope, we see these two main types of tissues working together to help with digestion and blood sugar control.

Its Functions

The pancreas is both an exocrine gland (releases substances through ducts) and an endocrine gland (secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream). It does many things, including the following:

  • Producing Enzymes: One of the pancreas’s main jobs is to produce special chemicals called enzymes. These enzymes are like tiny helpers that break down the food you eat, so your body can use it for energy. Without them, your body wouldn’t be able to get all the nutrients it needs!
  • Making Insulin: Another important job of the pancreas is to produce a hormone called insulin. Insulin helps control the level of sugar, or glucose, in your blood. It acts like a key that unlocks the body’s cells, allowing the sugar to enter and provide energy.
  • Regulating Blood Sugar: The pancreas is a master at keeping your blood sugar levels just right. When you eat, it releases insulin to lower your blood sugar after a meal. If your blood sugar gets too low, it releases another hormone called glucagon to bring it back up. It’s like a thermostat, making sure the temperature is always perfect.


Insulin is like a key that helps sugar (also called glucose) from the food we eat to get into our body’s cells. Our body needs this sugar for energy. When we eat, our body releases insulin to open the cells’ doors and let the sugar in. This helps keep our blood sugar level balanced. People with diabetes might need to take insulin as a medicine because their body doesn’t make enough or can’t use it properly. It’s important to keep your blood sugar levels in check to stay healthy and full of energy.

Pancreatic Enzymes

Pancreatic enzymes are special chemicals made by the pancreas. These enzymes help our body digest food. When we eat, the pancreas releases these enzymes into the intestine, where they break down the food into smaller parts. This helps our body absorb important nutrients like proteins, fats, and carbohydrates from food. Without these enzymes, our body wouldn’t be able to get all the good stuff from the food. So, we can thank pancreatic enzymes for helping us stay healthy and strong!

Five Fun Facts About It

  • The largest gland in your body is the liver, but did you know that the pancreas is the second-largest? It’s small but mighty!
  • Juice Factory: The pancreas produces about 1.5 litres of pancreatic juice every day, which helps with digestion.
  • Hidden Location: Even though it’s an important organ, you can’t see or feel your pancreas because it’s tucked away deep inside your body.
  • Protective Role: The pancreas is like a superhero that keeps your body balanced by releasing just the right amount of digestive juices and hormones.
  • The word “pancreas” comes from the Greek words Pan, meaning “all,” and Kreas, meaning “flesh.” So, pancreas means “all flesh”.

When Your Pancreas Gets Sick

When the pancreas gets sick, it can cause different problems in our body. Some common diseases that can affect the pancreas include:

  1. Pancreatitis: This is when the pancreas becomes swollen and irritated. It can happen because of gallstones, excessive alcohol consumption, or other reasons. Pancreatitis can cause stomach pain, nausea, and vomiting.
  2. Diabetes: If the pancreas can’t make enough insulin or if the body can’t use the insulin properly, it can lead to diabetes. This causes high levels of sugar in your blood, leading to symptoms like thirst, frequent urination, and tiredness.
  3. Pancreatic Cancer: This is a serious disease where cells in the pancreas grow out of control. It can cause symptoms like weight loss, jaundice (yellowing of your skin and eyes), and stomach pain. Among all the different types of cancers, pancreatic cancer is one of the highly aggressive ones and has a very poor prognosis.

When the pancreas is sick, it can affect how our body digests food and manages blood sugar. That’s why it’s important to take care of our pancreas by eating healthy, avoiding too much alcohol, and seeking medical help if we have any symptoms of pancreatic problems.

Can You Live Without Your Pancreas

We need the pancreas to live a healthy life. It helps our body digest food and control blood sugar. Without it, we wouldn’t be able to get important nutrients from our food, and our blood sugar levels could get out of control.

If someone’s pancreas stops working, they would need special treatments to help with digestion and to manage their blood sugar. This might include taking insulin and other medicines, as well as making changes to their diet. However, living without a pancreas is very challenging and requires ongoing medical care. In summary, while it’s not possible to live without a pancreas, medical treatments can help manage its functions if it’s not working properly.

The pancreas might be a small and hidden organ, but it plays a huge role in keeping us healthy and strong. By understanding its structure and functions, we can appreciate just how amazing and essential the pancreas is for our well-being.

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