On the Earth’s surface, there are many types of stones, each type has its uses, and these are constructive uses. Nature includes many types of stones allocated to construction. Still, these stones differ among them based on where they are found. It is essential to know that many countries produce stones, and from these countries, Palestine, Germany, and Jordan, here are some types of stones.
Natural stone is environmentally friendly due to its thermal mass that provides natural insulation, which will help reduce your energy bills. Natural stone types are multiple with their many advantages and some defects, as natural stone can be used to provide a fantastic addition inward or out to any house. Strong and fire-resistant structures that do not need well-built maintenance for centuries will remain because they can withstand any weather conditions.
Types of stones
There are several types of stones. Here are the most famous among them:
Granite stones are characterised by their hardness, and their estimation is to resist the flip, as it is the most used in traffic areas, in addition to their frequent use in the work kitchens. Granite is characterised by its good resistance to dirt and efficient cleaning, and its details are characterised by endless accuracy. As for granite colours, it is often graded between light grey and black, in addition to the ability to provide other colours, such as white.
Basalt stone is one of the volcanic rocks characterised by its dark colour, as it is rich in iron, magnesium, and a small percentage of silica. It consists of a mixture of small-sized grains and glass, consisting of oily peridots and fluorescent crystals. The basalt stone has a permeable structure because the volcanic lava is spongy, which allows the leakage of minerals such as Calcite and chlorine that cause cavities caused by water vapour. Basalt stone is among the common volcanic rock in the Earth’s crust, as most of the ocean floor is formed.
Basalt stone has been used since ancient times, as it was used in:
- The Romans used it in the past to pave roads. Use to make seats in stands and stadiums. It was used in mills, where it is used in the grinding process.
- It was used in sewage projects due to its permeability. Use the dust of the basalt stone as a cultivation fertiliser to increase soil fertility.
- It was used in insulation processes primarily because of its heat resistance, as in stoves.
It has many physical properties, including:
- Basalt has a dark, graded colour under black and grey. The basalt stone is solid rock, six on the Mohs scale.
- It is one of the heavy granules of copper rocks. It has a very high density, and this is due to 50% silica.
- It is found in the United States, especially in New Mexico, Montana and Arizona. It is also found in Germany, Italy, and North Africa, like Libya.
- The basalt components are formed at very high temperatures, worth 1,200 degrees Celsius.
- Basalt consists of minerals with a few resistances to air factors, leading to their rapid disintegration compared to other volcanic rocks such as granite.
Humans have known marble stone hundreds of years ago, as it worked to use it to decorate and decorate palaces, temples, churches, mosques and many other buildings and luxury castles because of its beautiful and shiny colours that give a unique aesthetic appearance in the places where they are placed, and given the increase in demand for use marble through the ages and the necessity of its presence in every human workhouse to develop marble industries to include more quality types and shapes than its predecessor, which makes them last longer when using them without breaking or breaking them, and the types of marble can be limited to the following.
Types of marble
There are several types of marble. Here are the famous ones:
Natural marble is crystal stone formed due to several natural factors that occur in the inner earth layers of high temperature and soil pressure and many others, and which combined works to form the marble stone in several colours, shapes and different stiffness, which helped form several types of natural marble with quality Different for human use, and of these types:
- Calcite marble: has low magnesium carbonate levels, less than 5% of its total components. My Dotty Marble is characterised by its high levels of magnesium carbonate, which vary between 5% to 40% of marble formation according to the nature of the areas in it.
- Agate marble: is characterised by its solid calcium carbonate, formed as a result of the gradual accumulation of cold solutions passing by small rivers, and this marble is characterised by its transparent, yellow, brown and green colours, usually found in nature in the form of layers.
- Green veins marble: characterised by its high levels of cyclical saponin metal, facilitates its polishing and forming without breaking or turning it away.
- Acrylic-manufactured marble: is one of the best and most used types of industrial marble in kitchens, floors, tables, sinks and bathrooms.
- Policer-manufactured marble: after acrylic marble, this type of industrial marble is ranked second in terms of quality, and this is due to the ease of its enormity when exposed to direct strikes, in addition to the strong smell emitted from it.
- Sodium carbonate manufactured marble: it is made from the lowest quality industrial marble, and it is not recommended to use it for easy breaking. This type of marble is often made in China with a low cost of lime and white sand.
Limestone consists of sedimentary rocks, mainly of calcium carbonate (CACO3), in the form of Aragonite. Limestone may also contain large amounts of Dolomite, a mixture of calcium and magnesium carbonate.
Limestone consists of three main roads: (biological, chemical, and on the way of evaporation), and limestone has three different colours, namely: (white, yellow, and grey). Limestone is a solid sedimentary rock, and it is rarely found in its purely natural condition. It always contains impurities and is frequently found in the shallow ends of marine water.
The types of limestone differ according to the different methods of formation and the components of it, and the different colours, and these types can be explained most of them as follows:
- Coral reef Limestone
- Animal Shell Limestone
- Black rock Limestone
- Crystalline Limestone
- Dolomitic Limestone
- Fossiliferous Limestone
- Lithographic Limestone
- Oolitic Limestone
Both marble and limestone can be classified within sedimentary rocks, as they have been formed in places where sediments are multiplied, such as lakes, rivers and oceans, as these sedimentary layers are the ones that give marble its appearance full of veins and limestone is a stone that mainly consists of calcium carbonate rock the speed of acids characterises these rocks f acids.
So, using them in closed places such as bathroom ponds is recommended, where their use in kitchens can make them more vulnerable to acids. Still, the difference between marble and limestone is formed under heat and more pressure and for a more extended period compared with limestone, which gives it a more substantial shine.
5. Slate stone
Slate stone is made up of oil rocks and is easily divided into thin pieces, so it is frequently used in building ceilings and floors. In addition, it is characterised by the intensity of its resistance and the difficulty of breaking it. Still, for colour, it may interfere with green, black, dark red, grey, or even purple, and it is preferable when cleaning it, rinsing it with water, and exposing it to the air to keep its lustre.
This type of stone is formed from rocks rich in magnesium, and it is a chemically inert stone, which means that it is not interacting with other chemical elements, and this stone also has a high density that exceeds granite density and is considered uncomfortable to the environment, as it is easy to clean.
This excellent stone is usually known as using it in external spaces such as corridors or gardens. It is famous for its natural strength, durability, and sliding properties. The sandstone can be conveniently placed in areas where water is used, such as meadows and swimming pools.
The sandstone can withstand the harshest climates and increases its value and aesthetic gravity over time, as it is feeble and can be easily cleaned with ordinary water. It also maintains its original colour even after exposure to sunlight and other elements, and the colours vary from white to pink, orange, yellow and even purple.
Quartette is characterised by high durability with elegant crystalline shine, is among the most solid natural stones in the world, has a shape and durability similar to marble and can withstand temperatures and severe scratches.
Since they are heat resistant to many chemicals and stains, they are low maintenance. Therefore, they are an excellent choice for bathroom surfaces and wall covers and ideal for crowded kitchens or families with young children.
A meteorite is a relatively small body that falls from outer space and passes through the atmosphere without decaying until it settles on the Earth’s surface. It is worth noting that the name of the meteorite stone is recently called relatively larger bodies. The fragments of the Niaz stones were found in samples from the moon, as the robotic compounds that move on the surface of Mars managed to get to know at least one meteorite stone.
While the essential features of meteorite stones in general:
- It features a smooth surface and round edges.
- It has a hefty weight in relation to its size compared to other rocks.
- It does not contain pores in its interior.
- When falling on the floor, its colour becomes dark, black, or brown, resembling rust.
- Iron meteorite stones are characterised by a glossy silver colour that appears when scratched or ground because of chrome metal’s presence.
- The combustion that occurs for a meteorite while falling in the upper atmosphere causes the melting of its outer shell or at least parts of it.
- Sometimes cracks or proper channels appear on the surface of the meteorite. As a result of the flow of molten materials on its surface while falling through the atmosphere.
- Most meteorites are distinguished by their high magnet.
What are the properties that help identify meteorites?
The meteorites are distinguished from the ground rocks with several properties, and it is worth noting that the chemical analyses that are conducted to ensure that they are expensive meteor stones and take a long time; therefore, they are subject to these rock analyses that have all the following characteristics only:
For small round meteorite stones, you may need a microscope to analyse and study; its largest diameter is about 1 cm. In addition, it is believed that it gathered in the early solar nebula to form larger masses that caused the solar system’s existence.
A fusion crust is defined as a black, black crust surrounding the meteorite. It is produced at the melting surface of the meteorite while passing by the atmosphere, as it turns into a brown colour close to the colour of rust after several years of the meteorite’s fall on the ground. It completely disappears a while later. It is reported that the presence of melting crust is a shred of vital evidence to distinguish meteorite stones from ground rocks. Its absence indicates the poor possibility that the stone is a meteorite unless it shows the properties of other meteorites.
Meteoric stones are characterised by their smooth outer surface, but some contain deep, circular edges that resemble the effects of fingers on the clay and are called regmaglypts.
Meteoric stones are characterised by their high density compared to other rocks. Iron meteorite stones are three and a half times heavier than similar ground rocks in size. In contrast, rock meteorites are heavier, and a half of them, the density is an important property to determine the meteorite stone, but it is not decisive. The rock formations that contain the minerals and products of the various industrial activities of humans and the high density of the territorial intensity of iron oxides, such as magnate and hematite, are abundant on the globe’s surface.
Stick the magnet with meteorite stones that contain different proportions of iron and nickel metals that are easy to sing, as this property depends on the proportions of these minerals. Still, not all meteorites are magnetic, and the magnetic examination cannot determine whether the meteor contains a metal. This is because not all minerals are magnetic.
It is easy to confuse meteorites and ground rocks when relying on magnetic ones because humans make many bodies, and rocks that naturally contain minerals can create magnetic ones. While some meteorite stones are entirely formed from minerals, there are lovely stones that do not contain iron and nickel minerals at all.
Iron and nickel
Most meteorites contain iron and nickel, and meteorites that do not contain rare minerals need to analyse and detailed study other meteorite stones. Green or orange, and the second is made of iron and nickel, and the percentage of iron and nickel in meteorites is confirmed when analysed by using the burning acid solutions, as the presence of at least 7% of the nickel in the stone indicates that it is a meteorite.
If you are interested to know more about meteorites come and check our amazing meteors and meteor showers facts article for Kids
Natural stone advantages
There are many advantages that natural stone enjoys over other types of stones, and these features are:
- These rocks are found in nature with a wide range of colours and designs and have a unique beauty.
- Natural stones are heat-insulating, and installation is not necessary.
- Flexibility and formation of various surfaces are other features of natural stone.
- Natural stone is characterised by the contrast of shade in its stones, and the difference in shade occurs in all types of it, and it tends to be more prevalent in stones with severe sweating and movement. But shading is also present in more consistent tablets in colour.
- The beauty and quality of the immortal natural stone are evident in many ancient monuments that we can still enjoy today and that have been built using natural stone, such as limestone.
- Colours, tissues and natural patterns differ from surface to surface, making each type of stone unique, with this exceptional natural beauty and various shades and elegant colours.
- Natural stones are suitable for any application, whether residential or commercial. They are substantial and can last for centuries if adequately maintained.
- The beauty of a natural stone is that it can have many synthetic motifs and visual properties, which makes it possible to be creative.
- It features a simple texture to help maintain the colour as soon as possible to the polished end to create an internal or external flow.
- A velvet finish characterises the finishing of the smooth stone with a slight surface movement that gives the stone a smooth and delicate texture.
Natural stone disadvantages
Although there are many advantages of natural stone of all kinds, it also has some defects and lies in the following:
- Natural stone weight is heavier than industrial stone, so its use in the building takes a long time.
- Climate and environmental changes affect the tissue of the rocks and cause cracking, mould and dandruff on the surface, so leakage-prevention materials are necessary.
- Natural stone is mostly a porous substance, which means that any fluid leakage on the surface tends to penetrate the body of the stone if it is not cleaned quickly, which can negatively affect the appearance of the stone over time.
- Natural stones are removed from the building’s body due to weather and non-adhesive factors over time.
Natural Stone Colours
The colour is expected to differ in natural stone, and the colour difference is randomly determined depending on the metal content, and this constitutes each batch when forming marble. Planning for the site should be made by opening all squares to see the colour contrast range and the best way to install it. Examining samples is a great way to ensure that the natural stone you care about is what you are looking for. Still, one must never forget that the difference is a characteristic of natural stone in terms of colour and surface pattern.
It is essential to identify the conditions of the industry to ensure the degree of natural stone colour. There needs to be a better concept of natural stone in the market. Natural stone is available in different degrees; at the same time, there is no standard industrial name for natural stone degrees; most suppliers use names to make sure to choose the correct degree of stone that is best suited for your purpose and budget.
What are the hardest types of stones?
Diamonds are ranked first as the hardest and strongest type of stone, as their hardness reaches ten mousses out of 10 on the mousse scale for hardness, followed by sapphire and Ruby stone. Moss, then the emerald stone and its hardness range between 7.5 to 8 mousse, then the quartz stone and its hardness reaches seven mousses.
The diamond stone is characterised by several properties that make it unique from the rest of the stones, such as its transparent colour and its exceptional lustre as it can be found in other colours, such as blue, pink, and black, and is usually used in jewellery, and is priced according to its quality that is determined according to the Its colour, the way to cut it, its purity, and its weight in the carat. As mentioned earlier, the diamonds have excellent hardness, and the only thing that can scratch them is another diamond stone.
Why are diamonds the hardest type of stone?
The carbon element is the component of the diamond stone, which has been in the depths of the land for thousands of years, ranging from 140 to 193 km. The time frame ranges to be the diamond stone from one billion years to 3.3 billion years, in addition to its exposure to severe pressure and heat, which led to Diamond molecules changing so that they are very close to each other. The molecules cannot move, and this bond is called the covalent bond, and because of these links, the molecules have formed a really solid bond, which makes the diamond stone the most rigid and hardest type.
How hard are diamonds?
Each stone on a mousse scale can scratch the stone under it. The minerals that the same hardness can scratch each other, and since diamonds are the only stone that ranks first on the mousse scale for hardness, there is no stone capable of scratching, and though from the difference between diamonds and sapphire only one mousse, the diamonds are four times stronger than sapphire.
What is meant by hardness?
The hardness is known as the ability of the stone to resist scratches. It often depends on the bonds that link the atoms within the stone’s crystal structure. The stiffness of the stone can be expressed by its ability to scratch another stone, which represents its ability to break off the atomic ties of the other stone.
How is hardness measured?
Friedrich Moss, a scientist who specialises in metal science, created a reference scale for ten common minerals arranged according to their hardness, and it is as it is ranked from the harshest to the least harsh; diamonds (10), sapphire (9), topaz (8), quartz (7), Faller (6), apatite (5), fluorite (4), and Calcite (3), gypsum (2), and slate (1), It is called a mousse scale for hardness. Its measurement ranges from 10 to 1, where the number 10 expresses the most solid stones, while the number 1 expresses the least hard stones.
To conclude, it is well known that natural stones are the best choice for any application, whether residential or commercial, as they are substantial and can last for centuries if adequately maintained.
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