Howdy young learner, how have you been? We will be talking about Science branches for kids on this ride. So get ready for a whole new adventure full of interestingly fun information. Let us get started by breaking down our journey.
First, we will be mentioning the etymology of the word ‘science’. The etymology of a word means the origin of the word. Second, we will trace the history of science. Third, we will discuss some different branches of science. We will do our best to try and elaborate on each branch of science, extensively. So, let us begin!
The Etymology of the Word Science
Science came from Old French. It meant knowledge, learning, and application. That is its English origins. As for its Latin origins, it came from the word ‘Scientia’ which meant knowledge as well as knowledge and experience.
In Ancient Greek, the word for knowledge is episteme. They made quite the observations. That was mainly concerned with the natural world. In addition to the records of various sorts of experiments that were carried out. The word ‘Science’ is original ‘Knowledge’ in Latin.
History of Science
It was in the 16th century that modern science took over. It was when the world began to be examined more closely with the use of the telescope, microscope, clock, and barometer. Science has taken part in so many different fields ever since.
Education is one of those fields. Thus, we find STEM education. The S stands for Science. The T in the word goes for Technology. The E is for Engineering. Finally, the M is for Mathematics. You can find a detailed article about STEM education on Learning Mole. However, the history of science dates way back.
It can go way back to the ancient times of Aristotle and Plato. Where traces of the first recorded science practices can be observed. Three major branches of science can be traced throughout the history of science.
These are: natural, social, and formal. We will talk extensively about each in a minute. First, we should probably mention that the earliest roots of science can go back to Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia from around 3000 to 1200 BCE.
Natural science is one of the branches of science that is concerned with the description, understanding, and prediction of natural phenomena. That is of course based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
There are two main branches of natural science. Those are life science and physical science. Life science is all about the study of the living. In other words, the living organisms. That includes microbes, human beings, animals, fungi, and plants.
While physical science is more about the study of non-living. In other words, the inorganic world. In other words, it has nothing to do with living things. There are four main branches. That is of physical science. They are astronomy, physics, chemistry, and the Earth sciences.
Earth sciences include meteorology and geology. The second is social science. Social science is considered any branch of academic study or science that deals with human behaviour in its social and cultural aspects.
Social science can be anthropology, sociology, psychology, political science, and economics. The third is formal science. Formal science is the study that uses formal systems to generate and produce knowledge.
We can trace that in Mathematics and Computer Science. They are important subjects. That is because all quantitative science depends on them. Quantitative science is the application of mathematics and statistics to answer questions in biological and environmental science.
There is also a qualitative scientific method. It follows observation to gather non-numerical data. We will take a few picks and explain each of them in order. Keep on that knowledge seat buckled, my friend.
Science Branches for Kids
Science has so many different branches and Biology is just one of those many branches. Biology deals with the living. In other words, the living organisms. In addition to their vital processes. Biology includes many more fields within. In other words, it is divided up into many more categories of studies.
For example, botany, conservation, and even ecology. Others are evolution, genetics, marine biology, and medicine. It may even include microbiology, molecular biology, physiology, and zoology. Biology is more or less the study of life in all its shapes and forms.
The word itself says so. Biology is divided into two parts of the Greek word’s origin. Those are ‘bios’ and ‘logos’, the first means life and the second part means study. If you put those two parts together, you will have the word Biology which means the study of life.
The study of life is one of the two branches of natural science. Therefore, Biology means the study of life and living organisms. We know what you are wondering, what is an organism? Well, to put it simply, an organism is a living entity that consists of one cell or several cells.
Some organisms consist of one cell and those are similar to bacteria. Whereas, other organisms consist of several organisms like animals, plants, humans, and fungi. That cell or cells of living organisms contain hereditary information.
That hereditary information can be encoded in genes. Those genes can be transmitted to future generations and passed down even further. Biology does have many aspects to consider, but we will break it down into three categories. They are botany, zoology, and microbiology.
However, we should mention that the Biology of our world in today’s science is based on five principle basic foundations. Those are cell theory, gene theory, evolution, homeostasis, and laws of thermodynamics.
Let us go back to discussing the three categories of Biology; the first is botany. Botany is a branch of Biology. It is mainly concerned with the study of plants. It investigates all there is to plants; their structure, properties, and biochemical processes.
It is also concerned with plant classification and the study of plant diseases. It also explores its interactions with the environment. Botany is very concerned with the study of plants to the point that it is even called plant science, biology, or phytology.
It is the science of plant life. Just like Biology is the study of life, botany is the study of plant life. It is as we mentioned, a branch of Biology. What do we call those who specialize in botany, you ask? Well, we simply call them a botanist or a phytologist.
They are known as scientists who specialize in this specific field. We have briefly discussed the first branch of Biology that we found relevant to our scientific exhibition. Second, we have zoology.
Zoology is the second branch of Biology that we will be briefly mentioning and discussing. Zoology is also known as animal science. It is the branch of biology concerned with the study of animal life.
Just like Biology is the study of life, botany is the study of plant life, and zoology is the study of animal life. Zoology is both descriptive and analytical. So, we can discuss it as basic science or as applied science.
What is the difference, you ask? Basic science is the study of the fundamental processes that are essential to the continuation of life on our planet, Earth. As for applied science, it is the use of scientific methods and knowledge that we obtained through conclusions from the methods to attain practical goals. Zoology can be treated as either such.
Zoology studies the animal kingdom, including its structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and the distribution of all animals, both the living and the extinct. That is why you would probably find some of the most interesting videos on Learning Mole about our extinct friends:
It also investigates how they interact with their ecosystems. Finally, we come to the last branch of Biology on our journey before we jump onto the physical science branches and leave the natural science branches.
Microbiology is the third branch of Biology we will be discussing briefly. It is the study of microscopic organisms. Those may be bacteria or viruses. Maybe even archaea or other. Microbiology includes fundamental research on the biochemistry, physiology, cell biology, ecology, evolution, and clinical aspects of microorganisms, which includes the host’s response to these agents.
In other words, microbiology is the scientific study of microorganisms. Such beings are unicellular, multicellular, or acellular. Microbiology has numerous sub-branches within. It includes virology, bacteriology, and protistology. Even mycology and immunology are included. As well as parasitology.
Moving onto the physical science as we briefly discussed all there is to discuss in natural science. However, there are even more stories to tell and we will be telling those along the way maybe in this journey or the next one.
So, keep on reading and exploring our journeys because there is more to come. The first branch we will consider in physical science is astronomy. Our journey is just starting, my friend. So, keep on going and see where it takes you.
Astronomy is a sub-branch of physical science. As we explained, life science and physical science are two branches of natural science and we will be taking a few picks of the physical science branches there are.
Astronomy is our first pick. It is the study of celestial objects and phenomena. See that big star up there, astronomy will explain it all over for you. Don’t misunderstand, astronomy is by no means similar to astrology.
Astrology is a pseudoscience and we will tell you the difference between a science and a pseudoscience in a minute. First, let us cover all there is to know about astronomy. Did we mention that astronomy uses mathematics, physics, and chemistry?
Exactly! It uses science to explain, clarify, and simplify the origin and evolution. That includes studying planets, moons, nebulae, galaxies, and comets. So you see, astronomy is all about science.
Some may know it as the study of everything beyond the Earth’s atmosphere. People divided it up into 4 sub-sections. And no, that certainly did not make it any easier. If anything, it made it more challenging.
We will try our best in covering all there is to discuss and know about those 4 sub-branches of astronomy. The first branch is known as astrophysics. The second branch is known as astrometry. The third branch is known as astrogeology. The fourth is astrobiology.
As you may have already guessed, each of those four sub-branches of astronomy branches out into even more detailed sub-branches. We will try to briefly scratch the tip of the iceberg together and let you delve deeper on your own.
Let us start by explaining each sub-branch speciality. Astrophysics is all about applying physics and the laws of physics in space. While astrometry discusses the mapping of celestial bodies. The third is astrology. It investigates rocks, terrain, and different materials that exist in space.
Astrobiology is the final sub- branch. It deals with the process of searching for life outside the boundaries of Earth. So, get your alien friend right here. Because we will start a party. That party is all about astronomy and its branches!
People classified all those sub-branches of the sub-branches to be around 17. We will explain even more what belongs where; but first, we should investigate the classification of astronomy into 2 types.
The first type of such classification is observational astronomy. It is the usage of telescopes and cameras to collect sufficient data and information about the night sky and study it afterwards.
The second type of such classification is theoretical astronomy. It is the usage of the data and information that we collected using observational astronomy to analyze, model, out, and base theories about how the celestial objects and phenomena work and act.
Now that we covered this brief classification, let us go back to the 17 sub-categories of astronomy. The first of such is astrophysics.
When I say Physics, you say Astro! Astrophysics is the application of physics and its principles to astronomy. Makes sense we call it astrophysics. It does sound similar to geophysics.
However, as the name may entail, geophysics is the study of Earth’s physics while astrophysics is more related to the physical properties of stars, celestial objects, their processes, and the surrounding space.
The second of the 17 sub-branches categorization is cosmology. Do you want to make a guess? It is different from astrophysics. Did you guess? Well, it studies the two ‘E’s. Those are the evolution and expansion.
Not the general evolution theory, but the evolution and expansion of the universe. We call those who study this field, a cosmologist. They record all there is to know about the redshift and keep track of how fast the universe is expanding.
We covered two out of 17. That leaves us with 15 left to go. Keep going! The third on the list is spectroscopy. The name is unique indeed! It studies light; how it reflects, absorbs, and transfers between matter and objects.
The fourth is all about luminous astronomical objects that are quite mostly based on electromagnetic radiation. Specifically, the properties. That is called photometry and no it has nothing to do with photography.
Fifth is Heliophysics. It studies the sun; its radiation and how it affects its surroundings in space. There have been many space missions specifically for that purpose and that is why we call them heliophysics missions.
Such missions were concerned with the weather in space, the solar flares, and of course the consistent stream of solar particles. Those solar particles came from the sun. We can say that heliophysics is concerned with the study of the internal structure of stars.
However, it is more in concern with our sun. On the other hand, we have asteroseismology. It is the sixth sub- branch out of the 17. It is quite similar to helioseismology since they both study the internal structure of stars.
Helioseismology is the seventh sub- branch. They both study stars by measuring the radiation and the oscillations. But helioseismology is more similar to heliophysics because it is also specific to our sun.
Summary of the 7 out of 17:
1. Astrophysics: Application of physics to stars and celestial bodies.
2. Cosmology: The evolution and expansion of the universe.
3. Spectroscopy: The light.
4. Photometry: Luminous astronomical space objects according to electromagnetic radiation.
5. Heliophysics: The sun’s radiation and how it affects its surroundings.
6. Asteroseismology: The structure of stars by observing their oscillations.
7. Helioseismology: The structure of stars by observing waves from their surface.
Astrometry is the eighth on our list of the sub-branches of astronomy. Physics is on one hand and astrometry is on the other. Astrometry is all about the specific positioning of celestial objects in space.
It may even provide a reference for the movement coordination of the stars and even of the individual objects in space. So to put it simply, it is the study of celestial objects’ positioning. It is quite similar to the following.
The ninth is exoplanet ology. It studies how many planets are there outside our dear beloved solar system. It is like an inventory of planets that lists all the potential residences for the new life outside our planet, Earth.
That brings us to the tenth sub- branch. That is planetology. It is all about planetary science. You bring up planets and planetology kicks in. It is how planets formed in the solar system. In other words, the planets’ formation.
It studies their composition and how they evolved throughout history. This relates so much to planter geology.
A summary of the 3 out of 17 (making it 10 so far):
1. Astrometry: The positioning of celestial objects.
2. Exoplanetology: The inventory of planets that are found outside our solar system.
3. Planetology: The study of planets’ formation, composition, and evolution.
Astrogeology is number eleven on our list. It is quite similar to number twelve on the list which is exogeology since both of them focus on geology and how it relates to celestial bodies. When we say celestial bodies, we mean; moons, asteroids, meteorites, and comets.
Number thirteen on the list is selenography. It studies the features of the moon. Specifically, the physical features and not just any features. For example, it explores and records the lunar maria, craters, and mountain ranges that exist on the moon.
Fourteen is quite simple. It is how geology is composed on Mars. Just like with Mars Rover which mainly studied the surface of Mars. It is an areology.
A summary of the 4 out of 17 (that makes it 14 so far):
Astrogeology: Geology and its relation to celestial bodies.
Exogeology: Geology and its relation to celestial bodies.
Selenography: The physical features of the moon.
Areology: Geology composition on Mars.
Astrobiology is number fifteen on the list. We are almost done with the sub-branches of astronomy, my friend. Only about 3 left to go. Astrobiology is more or less all about the search for life outside Earth.
It asks questions like:
· What is the origin of life? (The Chicken or the egg?)
· Is there life on other planets? (Aliens, huh!)
· Which environments can support life? (Food and water, duh!)
However, if you want to measure the probability of life in space in a more specific manner, exobiology is the way to go. It is number sixteen on the list. Exobiology considers the planetary conditions and evaluates if they are fit for life.
Exobiology studies the early evolution of life and the biological or environmental factors possible to advance with life. That leaves room for the last, but not the least, number seventeen! That is astrochemistry.
Remember number fifteen, astrobiology? Well, its roots were found in astrochemistry. It is how to better understand substances in celestial bodies, stars, and interstellar space. In other words, it is observing molecules in space.
Doing so gives a solid indication of the physical conditions that we are used to on our present-day Earth.
A summary of the 3 out of 17 (which is 17!):
Astrobiology: The origin and evolution of life.
Exobiology: Aliens? And where?
Astrochemistry: Substances in celestial bodies, stars, and interstellar space.
Science and Pseudoscience
Now that we know all there is to know about astronomy, let us learn what happens if a discipline is not categorized as a science, but as a pseudoscience. The difference is not that big of a deal, but it is a little more than not fulfilling the features of science.
The history of pseudoscience goes way back and pseudoscientific theories evolved and developed over time taking different considerations into a prospect. However, it is mostly agreeable that pseudoscience is a set of ideas that presents itself falsely as science, while it does not meet the criteria, properties, or features to properly be called a science.
We know what you are probably thinking by now, how can you tell the difference? Well, my friend, it is quite simple. Although sometimes the difference seems hard to tell, even impossible to some extent, we will try, together.
Throughout history, people agreed with you and found it quite hard to tell the difference, especially since some to most sciences were originally considered pseudoscience. Take chemistry, for instance, it was traced back to the origins of the pseudoscience of alchemy.
Such a history of confusion further complicates our search. Some sciences have traces of origins back in the pre-scientific era. The time before science even became a thing. Take astrology and acupuncture for instance. People even used pseudoscience to justify their ideas or oppose ideas they did not accept which weakened its credibility over time.
For example, people used to believe humans evolved throughout time and they called it the evolution theory. Others came out with a response to this theory with the creationism theory. Nevertheless, pseudoscience persevered through time and survived to our present day.
A pseudoscience may not meet the proper scientific standards that sciences hold, but it still exists. Maybe because some people just love pseudoscience and refuse to give in to the logical explanations of science which are valid as they may argue that sciences were originally some form of pseudoscience.
Take astrology, for instance, notice how we did not include it in our science article? That is because it is a pseudoscience and we are concentrating on scientific aspects, but there is no harm in clearing up the confusion between a science and a pseudoscience.
Astrology is quite popular, it survived and still does. Despite the majority of scientists rejecting it, people just love it!
A philosopher named Karl Popper came up with a technique that could be used to tell the difference. A philosopher is someone who studied concepts and came up with similar or related concepts that contributed to the field they studied overall. Mr Popper used the falsification criterion. Big word, huh!
However, we will be mentioning our own summarised points that could help you pinpoint a pseudoscience walking by!
1. A topic might be a pseudoscientific one in the case that it is presented as consistent with the norms of scientific research, but it fails to demonstrate or meet these norms.
2. Vague, even exaggerated or maybe untestable claims.
3. Scientific claims that are vague are not precise, and they may even lack specific measurements.
4. A claim with little to no explanation.
5. Cannot use generally accepted definitions that may allow others to test out the reliability of what is being stated.
6. Failing to find an explanation that requires no effort.
7. Use of vague or general language.
8. Lack of boundaries or conditions because most if not all of the well-supported scientific theories have limitations under which the predicted phenomena or theory do and do not apply.
9. Lack of effective controls in experimentation.
10. Error with the understanding of the basic principles of physics and engineering.
11. Over-reliance on confirmation.
12. Assertions that do not allow the logical possibility of being false by observation or physical experiment.
There are even more to distinguish and realize pseudoscience with, but we will call it a day for pseudoscience and carry on with our scientific journey. After all of the previous, it does seem that pseudoscience is similar to a person impersonating science and hiding under a cloak when in fact they are a pseudoscience, not an actual science!
Now that we know how to distinguish between science and pseudoscience, let us learn some more about what makes science special. In other words, what are the features of science and how can they be distinguished?
Features of Science
Science has many features which distinguish a specific field like science. What are the features of Science? There are many features to science, but only six characteristics to distinguish a discipline from science:
Science has all six characteristics. Pseudoscience has five, four, or three characteristics. There are even more characteristics to mention of science and those are a bit random as follows:
· Objectivity: Scientific knowledge is objective.
· Verifiability: Science depends on sense data. That is the data gathered through our senses: eye, ear, nose, tongue, and touch.
· Ethical Neutrality
· Systematic Exploration
We use all the previous features of science to create scientific methods that we can successfully apply to our everyday problem-solving skills by following the simple scientific steps as follows:
1. Make an observation
2. Ask a question
3. Propose a hypothesis
4. Make predictions
5. Test the predictions
Finally, since we learned briefly about most of the features of science and the scientific methodology, we can move on to the next physical science branch of natural science branches. That is Physics and the beauty of it.
Physics is our favourite subject! We just love it so much. It is a branch of science if it is not obvious by now why we are including it in our article. Physics is all about memorizing a few basic rules that different scientists have come to realize across time.
The most famous of those is probably Einstein or maybe Newton, but Newton is more about apples if you know what I mean. So, in this version of the story, our main character is physics and Einstein is the helper hiding in the shadows.
Physics is the structure of matter and how the fundamental constituents of the universe interact. In other words, it studies objects ranging from the very small to the entire universe.
Physics is the natural science that studies matter. Be it in the air or space. It studies matter and also the fundamental constituents that came to form it. It also studies the motion and behaviour of matter through space and time. Not only that, but it also deals with related entities of energy and force.
Physics is very important to us. Its main goal is to understand the universe around us and how it works or behaves. Physics may be challenging to some people… Ok, physics IS challenging to most people, but we can argue that it is often misunderstood.
It may be challenging for most of those people who do not prefer maths. Especially, because physics involves lots of maths. So, we will try to explore different ways to make physics and your life easier. Take Singapore for instance, most if not all of the college students cannot wait to finish their physics course.
That is because they find it quite challenging as it involves many complex mathematical problems and principles. Even if you do not prefer physics, it is still as fascinating as ever. This natural science has contributed greatly to our curiosity.
It also helped us manage and develop the technological advances we keep seeing every day. We are here to share with you a few simple tips and tricks that we hope will help you see the beauty of physics.
These tips and tricks are considered ridiculously easy by most people. However, some may find it to be a little challenging. So, we are not claiming they would miraculously change your view of physics, but we sure hope so.
Let us start from the core, how should we study physics? It is very simple! Just begin with the basics and use a different set of skills to study and comprehend those basics. The first skill in consideration is memorization. Your memory is your best weapon against your journey of fighting your fear of physics.
1- Memory and Physics
Students believe that physics is all about memorization. That may be one of the reasons that lead students to find physics a challenging subject. Since they end up memorizing the most complex physics problems and equations, they eventually render physics challenging and all about memory.
Well, it is not. There is some truth stated. You do need to memorize the basic notions and from there you can carry out all the other physics problems there are to solve. Those basic notions and theories are your first step.
The first step of understanding the different underlying physics principles and the connection between each concept. Since physics as a subject is based on several central theories. Through those several theories, everything else is developed.
In other words, every physics problem you will solve in a physics exam or assessment is based on the core principles and concepts. The best way through this is to master and study those central concepts. The best way to do that is by creating a simple mind map.
It will not only help out with the memorizing process but also will help you form a connection between the relationships of each concept. Let us give you a few examples of the basic notions we keep telling you to memorize using a mind map;
· Force = Mass x Acceleration
· Current Velocity = Initial Velocity + (Acceleration x Time)
· Momentum = Mass x Velocity
· Work = Displacement x Force
It is all about learning the basics and knowing how to apply them. That is the trick! It is one of the simplest ways to tackle those complex physics problems. It will eventually improve your grade, just wait and keep trying!
2- Basics and Origins
The next step is to know the origins of where those basic notions came about. After memorizing the basic notions, the next is to understand the why and how behind them. This will help you understand the origins of each basic equation better and how it is derived.
It will even give you a clear understanding of the relations between equations. With proper practice and adequate time, you will eventually be able to solve each problem from there on and beyond. Learning their origins will help out in the process of knowing how they are derived.
3- Be Observant
You know those ‘keen on details’ people? When studying physics, try to be one of those. Be observant and considerate of details. Most if not all of the physics problems out there are based on a real-world situation. Physics problems specify how things work in such situations.
That makes our lives a whole lot easier. Not to mention, the situation itself. That can only mean that some forces will be deliberately left out of consideration. That is because those forces that are left out can change the answer to the problem.
So, the teacher may leave out those forces from consideration and they will probably do so. That is for the sake of testing out your understanding of the concept situation. This will lead you to realize the fact that you should memorize the small details that will ensure your success in choosing the most accurate answer to the physical problem that is inspired by a real-life situation.
4- Maths Skills
As we previously kept stressing, physics does involve some maths. That may be basic or complex. Either way, you should probably start working on those mathematical skills of yours, my friend. The best way to do so is by studying maths alongside your study of physics.
This is one of the easy ways to manage the formulas and problems in the subject, either in maths or physics. However, doing this can sometimes be easier said than done. You will find that pretty evident as you advance in your studying of the subject.
The best approach to such a situation is by joining a study group or hiring a tutor. As you will eventually need someone to guide you on how and what to study. We can suggest some maths topics that we consider to be closely related to physics;
· Algebra for basic equations
· Trigonometry (force diagrams and angled systems)
· Geometry (volume, area, et al.)
In many ways, mathematics is the language of physics. So, make sure you check out our maths guide on Learning Mole which will gracefully guide you through the process of learning maths with ease. Asking for help once stuck is the right thing to do and there is no problem with it.
The bigger the problem is, the more you feel stuck and it is a fight or flight kind of situation. It does not have to be, my friend. If it seems too challenging and quite impossible to tackle, we suggest taking it one step at a time. Simplify the process. Have patience.
Break it down into steps. Yes, the same way we are doing it with physics! Simplify and repeat as much as you can, keep simplifying. That may even require you to keep taking another look, one after the other, at that physics problem and keep analyzing it. Even if you use different approaches each time.
With time and perseverance, the physics problem will show itself as easier than it appeared to be. Try your best to keep calm. Link the problem to a familiar situation by simplifying it in your mind. Maybe layout the physics problem on a piece of paper and break it down into different sections.
Take each section and try to tackle them one by one. By the time you get to the final section, you would have solved the challenging physics problem step by step. Sometimes solving the problem does not even require calculations.
Identify the information that is found in the problem to help solve it faster. Make sure you write down the most relevant equations and constants. Assign each piece of relevant information that is found in the physics problem to the appropriate variable.
Remember when we said to mind map? Well, let us clarify; it is another simple way to improve your physics grade. It could even be an original idea that will eventually help you remember what goes where and how everything relates.
Maybe use practice questions to help learn how to draw different forms of comparisons. It will help make physics concepts much easier to understand. You can get even more creative and use flashcards to help you learn the new concepts easily. These flashcards will even come in handy in your final exam revision.
You should always remember to practice. As they say; “practice makes perfect!” So, keep practising till you reach the level you are satisfied with solving physics problems. Time yourself. It helps to know how long you usually take in solving one problem after the other.
Doing so will help you manage yourself during exams. As you should leave in between minutes to double-check your answers. That is because normally a physics problem may and would most certainly involve a few mathematical calculations.
So, in case you made an error in your calculations, your final answer will most luckily turn out wrong. That is why re-doing and double-checking make all the difference. You may also use a bit of common sense to relate the problem to a real-life scenario.
That would help you avoid falling into trivial errors. For example, trying to measure the momentum of a forward-moving object or distance will most luckily not turn out negative. So, make sure you always double-check your answers.
If you find yourself lost and struggling with your studies, then it is probably a bad decision to do it alone. Get help. You should know that asking for help does not make you weak. It shows you are a smart person who appreciates others’ roles in their lives.
So, asking for help should be on your mind as an option. Not the only option. You should try to do it first on your own and see how it works out for you. However, it does not work out and you keep trying to the point that you find yourself stuck and struggling.
That is probably the time to consider asking for help. In other words, there are many types of help available for you to choose from. For example, resources. Yes, resources are one type of help you should seek as guidance in your learning journey.
Once you find yourself stuck, try and use resources that are available to you that will give you a better understanding of the physics material you need help studying. Many resources may cost you money, but there are many more that are free to use. As you could try the following:
· Consultation with your teacher
· Setting up physics study groups
· Hiring private physics tutors
· Physics websites and libraries
· Enrol for physics tuition services
People mostly choose to hire a private tutor nowadays. Still, choosing the type of help you need is absolutely up to you. You are free to choose what type of help you need and when you need it. However, remember to try it out by yourself first hand.
You should not consider paying for that physics teacher unless you pay attention in class as your teachers explain the subject and concepts. Regardless of the teaching methods teachers may use in class, you should remember to pay attention and stay concentrated.
As many people find physics to be boring. They tend to wander off and miss the important part and many other critically potential concept explanations. Maybe the following tips will help you out in staying focused in class:
· Read ahead of the teacher; do so to get a general idea of what the teacher is talking about
· Take notes in class; do so while the teacher is explaining the concepts
· Ask questions; while doing so, try and keep them as specific as you possibly could
· Try asking the teacher if they can let you record the lesson; as you can always listen to them later, and ask for further clarification after listening to the recording later.
10- Review Notes
Students tend to always review their textbooks when revising for exams. However, to make things easier for yourself, you can review the class notes before the next lesson regularly. You can eventually make it a habit. By doing this, you will help yourself recall the information taught during class easier.
Sometimes when you take a longer time in reviewing your notes, it eventually becomes more challenging to remember the bits and pieces of information that you need to remember. So, we recommend you review your notes regularly.
Especially before going to bed and before the next upcoming lesson. As this will spark up your memory. If you have a private tutor teaching you physics, make sure you go over the sections that you do not understand clearly. So that they could explain it more easily to you.
11- Time for Revision
If your marks are still not improving after all our tips and tricks, then it might be because you are not allowing enough time for revision. Try out some practice exams that will help you determine your weak points and allow you space for improvement.
Along with the practice exams, make sure you revise everything you are being taught. As revision is another form of practice. Most students cram on the last few nights before the exam or even hours. Do not do that. It is not physically or mentally healthy for you to put that kind of pressure on yourself.
Doing so, you will probably miss out on something important. Proper revision starts when you keep revising after and before each class. The best kind of revision out there is to revise, again, regularly. That will most probably improve your physics grade.
12- Keep it Fun
Maybe you are still not satisfied with your performance because you have lost the motivation and concentration to keep on learning. Remember; there is no right way to do this! You try and experiment with different study techniques to find out which works best for you.
Physics is no different. It is a subject that helps us explore and understand the world better. So, the more curious you are, the better. This lack of motivation may be due to the pressure of exams or physics is just not your thing.
That eventually drains you and sucks out all the fun you have in you. The light of your soul will suffer as a result. Sometimes all we need is a change of perspective. Consider your favourite subject for instance. Observe how well you perform in it.
You will realize that you find many ways to make and keep it fun! This keeps it interesting to learn and the fun just keeps coming. Evaluate your approach in that subject and take notes of your learning techniques. Now, try and implement them in learning physics.
Try to simplify and keep it all games when learning physics. Over time, you will find it more fun than you first thought it to be.
13- A Private Tutor
If after all the previous tips and tricks, you still find physics challenging and find yourself stuck, then it is probably time you consider asking for a private tutor. Hiring a private tutor does not have to be your last resort.
However, as we keep on saying, you should try every way there is before asking for help. In the end, you might just need a few extra hours in learning physics. It may be all you need to improve that physics grade.
Still, you should choose your tutor wisely. How can I choose them wisely? It is easy, just look at their track record and teaching methods. Especially the teaching methods. As you choose a tutor who works with the teaching method that works best for you.
Not anyone can teach everyone. So, be careful when choosing your tutor.
The above tips and tricks can be applied not only to physics but to any subject. So, there is no easy, certain way to improve your physics grade or any grade for that matter. Still, with proper time management skills and hard work, everything will eventually light up.
We hope our tip comes in handy and may help you improve your grade. Remember to start with the basics, and you will find it easier to understand the main concepts required to improve your grade.
Learning Mole will always try to be here when you need a friend or just a helping hand. So, do not hesitate to contact us.
Another branch of physical science is Chemistry. Chemistry studies substances. That substance may be elements or compounds. Chemistry revolves around atoms and their composition. In other words, it studies the structure of the substance.
Not only the structure and its composition but also the interaction that takes place among some substances may often lead to chemical reactions. Chemistry is the study of such substances and their properties.
In other words, it is the study of the behaviour of matter. Just as we previously mentioned, it is a branch of the physical sciences that is considered a branch of the natural sciences. It covers all there is to know about the elements that make up matter to the compounds composed of atoms, molecules, and ions.
Over the years, Chemistry was broken down into five subcategories. These are Organic, Analytical, Physical, Inorganic, and Biochemistry. That is because Chemistry is a branch of science that deals with the study of the composition and the physical and chemical properties of various forms of matter.
The Earth has a science of its own. Yup! You heard it! Earth science is a physical science and it exists! It studies the Earth’s structure, properties, processes, and evolution. It is quite a vast knowledge.
It is all about the structure, stratigraphy, and chemical composition of the Earth’s crust. The main purpose of Earth sciences is to understand the features and evolution of Earth and to use this knowledge for our benefit when possible.
Such knowledge helps society cope with its environment in many different ways. As it helps us determine the location of the resources that sustain our existence and help advance our quality of life.
Earth science or as some may know it as; geoscience is the field that includes all fields of natural science that are related to the planet Earth. It deals with the physical, chemical, and biological complex constitutions and synergistic linkages.
Those linkages are that of the Earth’s four spheres; namely, biosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and geosphere. You can learn more about them in our educational adventure with Learning Mole.
The four categories of study of Earth Science are geology, meteorology, oceanography, environmental science, and astronomy. It can even include multiple sub-categories, such as; geophysics, geobiology, geochemistry, hydrogeology, limnology, and mineral physics.
It includes even more and more categories of studies that deal with different aspects of Earth science, but we will mention only one. It is one of our interests at the moment. That is geology.
Geology is the primary Earth science. It is the study of the origin, history, and structure of Earth. It also includes the study of the processes that make the Earth the shape it is. We call a person studying geology a geologist.
Just for the record, we already covered most of what there is to know about astronomy. So, in other words, we covered two of the Earth sciences’ branches. Let us move on to the social science branch of psychology.
The next branch of science that we will be considering is social science. Social science is simply any branch of academic study or science that deals with human behaviour in its social and cultural aspects.
Big words, right? Let us use a more simple approach. Social science is a branch of science that studies and observes the actions and behaviour of humans in groups and their cultures. So, social science is the branch of science devoted to the study of societies and the relationships among individuals within those societies.
In other words, it is the science of society. Social science was a term that was used to refer to the field of sociology. The most important branches of social science are Anthropology, Economics, Politics, Psychology, Sociology, History, Law, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Geography.
Simply put, the branches of social science are important because they create better institutions and systems that affect people’s lives directly every day. Thus, social sciences help people understand how to interact with the social world.
It teaches them how to influence policy, develop networks, increase government accountability, and promote democracy. Social science is the second branch of science in our story. Next, we will briefly discuss one of the social science branches.
That is psychology. Let us begin this section with a question: is Psychology a pseudoscience or an actual science to be included in this article? Psychology is all about mentalities. We as humans behave according to what is expected of us in society.
However, it is the understanding of such behaviour which determines the psychological factor. If we put such findings into simple words, it would sound like: Psychology is one form of science.
And as we agreed throughout this adventure, we will try and explore as much as possible the few scientific branches we chose to discuss. So, for this branch of science, why do we consider psychology a science?
The answer is quite simple, my friend. It is a branch of science because it adopts a scientific approach to explaining human behaviours. So, no, it is not pseudoscience. That is because pseudoscience refers to beliefs or activities that are assumed as scientific, however; they do not meet all the features of science.
As pseudoscience tends to not meet one or more features of science. But what is psychology? The American Psychological Association believes that psychology is the study of the mind and human behaviour.
Psychology includes the study of your conscious mind and the unconscious as well. A person studying psychology will try to specialize in the study of the mind. We call those who specialize in the study of psychology a psychologist.
A psychologist can communicate to the patient who is suffering from a behavioural change in the process to relieve the symptoms of such behavioural change. Such processes may include medications, explanations, and coping techniques to help manage the behavioural change of the patient to their best benefit.
Psychology is all about the mind, how it functions, and how it affects our behaviours as humans. The study of psychology includes the study of feelings and thoughts. So, psychologists want to understand and explain thoughts, emotions, feelings, and behaviour.
As psychologists assess, diagnose, and treat mental, emotional, and behavioural disorders. They help people deal with problems that range from short-term personal issues to severe, chronic conditions.
There are different fields for a psychologist to work in and carry on with their study of the mind. The following are some of those:
· Art Therapist
· Aviation Psychologist
· Career or Vocational Counsellor
· Clinical Psychologist
· Consumer Psychologist
· Engineering Psychologist
· Experimental Psychologist
So, in other words, a psychologist is a professional practitioner or researcher in the field of psychology and is called a psychologist. We can even call a psychologist a scientist! Some of them can be classified as social, behavioural, or cognitive scientists.
As some of them try to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behaviour. Some of the others explore the physiological and biological processes that are not explicitly observed because they tend to be underlying cognitive functions and behaviours.
A psychologist is involved in many fields of research. Such as follows; perception, cognition, attention, emotion, intelligence, subjective experiences, motivation, brain functioning, and personality.
Psychologists are interested in relationships, psychological resilience, family and its resilience, and other fields of study within the social psychology branch of study. Psychologists just LOVE to study the unconscious mind.
They apply scientific methods to assess and explain relations between different psychological concepts. Some even rely on symbolic interpretation. Through the study of psychology, we were able to create lots and lots of scientific methods.
Scientific methods are used in the process of scientific testing. The top five important aspects of such a scientific method are: empirical, replicable, provisional, objective, and systematic. We know what you might be wondering about by now, what is the use of the psychological knowledge we keep talking about?
Well, you see, psychological knowledge is often used by psychologists. They apply it to their assessments and process of treatment of mental health problems. Psychological knowledge is also used in understanding and solving problems in several aspects of human activity.
We should not also fail to mention that psychology benefits society in more ways than others. As you will probably find most if not all of the psychologists are involved in a form of a therapeutic role, practising in clinical, counselling, or school settings.
Psychologists even carry out scientific research on many topics that are related to different mental processes and human behaviour. Those may be found working in some kind of academic setting. That may be in universities, medical schools, or hospitals.
Some psychologists work in organizational settings. Others may be involved in the study of human development, ageing, sports, health, forensics, and media. So, indeed, psychology benefits society in more ways than others. However, what does the word psychology mean?
The word psychology carries many meanings. It is originally derived from the Greek word that means psyche, for spirit or soul. The word is divided up into two parts. The –ology part of the word is derived from the logia which means study or research. That makes psychology the study of the psyche, spirit, or soul.
The origin of the word can be traced back to the word psychology which was first used by the Croatian Latinist humanist, Marko Marulić. He used the word in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae. The name of the book translates to “Psychology, on the Nature of the Human Soul.”
The word can also be traced in English. As it was used by Steven Blankaart in The Physical Dictionary. The dictionary refers to “Anatomy, which treats the Body, and Psychology, which treats the Soul.” According to William James, the word psychology refers to “the science of mental life, both of its phenomena and their conditions.”
On the other hand, John B. Watson believed the word implies “the prediction and control of behaviour.” Since he defined psychology as the term that refers to scientific experimentation. Throughout history and time, psychology was defined in many different ways and interpreted in many different forms.
So, eventually, it came to have many different aspects and branches of its own. There are many branches of psychology that we cannot possibly cover all in our scientific adventure. However, we can briefly mention one of those many branches and leave the rest for another adventure.
That branch is folk psychology. It refers to the understanding of ordinary people with consideration of their mental states and behaviours of people. Quite easy, right? This section of the study cannot be complete unless we trace the history of psychology. So, let us begin!
The history of psychology goes way back in time. There is no one country in particular where it originated in. Rather it has traces throughout history. Some in Egypt, Greece, China, India, and even Persia. All of those somehow contributed to the study of psychology.
In Ancient Egypt, the Ebers Papyrus mentioned depression and thought disorders in its records. Historians noted that Greek philosophers, including Thales, Plato, and Aristotle, addressed the mind and its workings.
The Greek physician, Hippocrates, came up with a theory that mental disorders had physical rather than supernatural causes. Whereas, Plato suggested that the brain is where mental processes take place.
On the other hand, Aristotle suggested that it was the heart. In China, psychological understanding had its seeds planted in the philosophical works of Laozi and Confucius. Later on, it continued to grow and form from the doctrines of Buddhism.
Psychology is used to frame the universe in terms of a division between physical reality and mental reality. Sounds like Dr Strange! It even divided the interaction between the physical and the mental. The Chinese philosophy emphasized purifying the mind.
To increase virtue and power. The Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Internal Medicine identifies the brain as the nexus of wisdom and sensation. The ancient text included theories of personality that were based on yin–yang balance.
It even analyzed mental disorders in terms of physiological and social disequilibria. In the meantime, the Chinese teachings that were focused on the brain advanced during the Qing Dynasty.
Wang Qingren made many contributions to the field; as he emphasized the importance of the brain as the centre of the nervous system; linked mental disorders with brain diseases; investigated the reasons behind dreams and insomnia, and even advanced a theory that had to do with the brain function.
There is, even more, to tell in this field of study and its history, but sadly as we mentioned before, we cannot include all there is in this one adventure because there is so much more to tell. So, we will leave it as a story for another time and carry on with our science mission.
Mathematics and Logic
Who came first? Mathematics or Logic? Well, the two are faces to the same coin. We call it Mathematical logic. It is the study of formal logic in terms of mathematics. Some of its most prominent branches include model theory, proof theory, set theory, and recursion theory.
Mathematical logic includes many different skills. Some are research skills. Research in mathematical logic addresses the mathematical properties of formal systems of logic such as their expressive or deductive power.
Logic and mathematics are two closely- related- disciplines. That is because logic is this very general theory of inference and reasoning while inference and reasoning play a very big role in mathematics.
As mathematicians, what we do is prove theorems and to do this we need to use logical principles and logical inferences. Logic is the study of how we critically think about propositions or statements that are either true or false.
This is the way we believe logic works. Logic plays a vital role in the world of mathematics. Mathematicians use logic all the time to prove theorems and other mathematical facts to be true or false.
Mathematical logic is used in the development of SAT and SMT (Satisfiability Modulo Theories) solvers. Such solvers are used to solve NP-complete problems, especially in engineering applications.
In addition to that, mathematical logic is used in formal verification, and automated reasoning for various problems. So, logic and mathematics are closely related. They complete one another. They cannot function solely without each other.
We have reached the end of our journey. We hope you learned as much as you can about science, the etymology of the word, its history, and some branches of it. We know there is more to tell and science seems to be endless.
The branches we discussed are natural, social, and formal science. First was the Biology of natural science. Then, Astronomy is the physical branch of natural science. We branched out into the difference between science and pseudoscience.
From there on, we mentioned the features of science. Then, we moved on from astronomy to physics which is also another branch of the physical science branch of natural science.
After that, came chemistry and Earth science. Then, we moved on to social science, leaving the rest of the natural science branches. We briefly talked about psychology and we jumped onto the formal science, leaving out the social science.
The formal science branch we discussed was mathematics and logic and that was the end of the few branches we chose to discuss in this adventure. The branches we discussed are the tip of the iceberg.
However, together, on Learning Mole, we will try to cover all there is to know. So, keep on visiting Learning Mole. There is always more to learn from us. The information is endless and so are our adventures. Be ready to embark on the next adventure, my friend.
Let us suggest some adventures for you to check out: Education seems interesting with the different curriculums we collected just for you, learning all there is to know about colours seems like a good idea, and our favourite of all time is space and its Greek wonders!
Make sure you check them all out and hop right onto this exclusive first-class space adventure, while you are at it, and remember, the world is full of wonders, my friends. If in case you are a history fan, then you should probably give our Egyptian Gods ago.
If not and you are more of a Celtic fan, then fear not we’ve got you, so make sure you check out our Celtic adventure as well.
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