Interesting Information about Nouns and Pronouns

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8 Interesting Information about Nouns and Pronouns

Types of Nouns

Nouns

Nouns are everywhere in our everyday language use, whether spoken or written language. What is the definition of a noun? What do we use nouns for? What are the types of nouns? How do we use nouns? What are some examples of nouns? Are there common mistakes for using nouns? What are they?

 

Nouns have a definition in all English Dictionaries. It could be the name of anything. They have different types, like common nouns and proper nouns. They could be used as a subject or an object of the sentence. They have different forms. 

 

Pronouns are also essential in the English language. They replace a noun or a noun phrase that has been previously mentioned. They have different types for different functions. There are also some common mistakes in using pronouns. 

 

Definition of Nouns

A noun is a word that is the name of something (such as a person, animal, place, thing, quality, idea, or action) and is typically used in a sentence as subject or object of a verb or as object of a preposition. Big Ben, Henry, The American University, table, chair are all examples of nouns.

 

Types of Nouns

  • There are different types of nouns in the English language. Common nouns are one of these types. Proper nouns are also another type of nouns. There are countable nouns and uncountable nouns. Abstract nouns and collective nouns are also types of nouns.

 

Common Nouns

A Common noun is a word such as table, cat or sea, that refers to an object or a thing but is not the name of a particular person, place or thing. They refer to general objects but they don’t have specific names. For example, school, hotel, hospital are considered common nouns.

 

Common nouns are not capitalized. They are written in lower cases. They can be singular or plural. They can be used as a subject or an object of the sentence. For example, the word hospital in the following sentence is a common noun:

 

I went to the hospital last night.

 

The word hospital is a common noun. It is used as a subject of a preposition. It is used in the singular form. Let’s see the following example:

 

Schools are very important.

 

The word school in the sentence is a common noun. It refers to schools in general without naming specific schools. It is used in the plural form. The common noun is used as the subject of the sentence.

 

Proper Nouns

A Proper noun is a word that is the name of a person, a place, an institution, etc. and is written with a capital letter, for example Tom, Mrs Jones, Rome, Texas, the Rhine, the White House.It is the specific name of the thing or the object. For example, John is the specific name for a person.

 

Proper nouns are always capitalized. They start with a capital letter. They can be used as a subject or as an object. They can be used in the singular or plural form. Let’s see the following examples:

 

  1. Several Italians love pasta.

  2. Joe wants to visit Eiffel Tower 

 

In sentence a, Italians is the proper noun. It is capitalized. It is in a plural form. It is used as the subject of the sentence. In sentence b, Eiffel Tower is the proper noun. It is also capitalized. It is used as the object of the sentence. It is used in the singular form.

 

Countable Nouns

Countable nouns are nouns that can be counted. They can be used as singular countable nouns or plural countable nouns. We can use numbers with countable nouns. For example, we can say one car, two cars, three cars, four cars…etc. 

 

We use a/an before singular countable nouns. For example, we say a car, a bus and a chair. We can also use ‘the’ with the singular countable noun. For example, we can say The car, The cat, the table and the book. 

 

We can use ‘many’, ‘a few’  and ‘any’ with the plural countable noun. Let’s see the following examples:

 

  1. I have many books.

  2. There are a few chairs.

  3. There are three doors.

  4. Do we have any pens?

  5. There aren’t any baskets.

 

In sentence a, we use many with the plural noun ‘books’ to express that there are more than one book. In sentence b, we use ‘a few’ with the plural noun ‘chair’ to show that there is more than one chair but they’re not a lot. 

 

In sentence c, we use the number ‘three’ with the plural noun ‘doors’ to refer to the exact number of the doors. Sentence c is in the interrogative form. We use ‘any’ with the plural noun ‘pens’ in the interrogative form. While in sentence e, ‘any’ is used with the plural noun ‘baskets’ in the negative form.

 

Uncountable Nouns

Uncountable nouns are nouns that can’t be counted. They don’t have a plural form. We don’t use numbers with uncountable nouns. We can’t say ‘one water’, ‘two butters’ or ‘three rices’. Still we can say, there is no electricity in the house.

 

We don’t use ‘a’ or ‘an’ with uncountable nouns. For Example, We can’t say ‘a music’. We can use ‘some’ and ‘any’ with uncountable nouns. Uncountable nouns can also come with ‘much’ and ‘a little. Let’s see the following examples:

a. There is a little water in the fridge.

b. I have much work to do.

c. We don’t have any juice.

d. They play some music.

 

We use measured amounts with uncountable nouns. For example, we can’t count ‘tea’, but we can count the cups of tea. We can say, we want three cups of tea. Here are some of the measured amounts that come with uncountable nouns:

  • a bottle of

  • a cup of

  • a slice of

  • a jar of

  • a jug of

  • a loaf of

  • a bowl of

  • a grain of

  • a packet of

  • a spoonful of

 

There are some nouns that are usually uncountable. Here is a list of these nouns:

accommodation -behavior -damage -luck -permission -traffic-advice -bread -furniture- luggage -progress -weather-baggage -chaos -information -news -scenery -work

 

Concrete Nouns

Concrete nouns refer to things that can be detected and felt with our five senses. We can physically interact with concrete nouns. For example, table is a concrete noun; we can touch the table and feel it. Concrete nouns can be people, places or animals. Let’s see the following examples:

 

Hearing: Music- noise-whistling

Sight: boy-cat- door- John-Sarah

Smell: flower- horse- perfume

Touch: pennies- chair- baggage

Taste: steak-cake- medicine

 

Abstract Nouns

Abstract nouns are words that refer to entities that we can’t physically detect with our five senses. They have no physical existence. Abstract nouns refer to ideas, emotions, concepts or feelings. Let’s see the following examples:

 

Feelings: fear- pressure- stress

States: freedom- luxury- chaos

Emotions: anger- grief- sorrow

Qualities: courage- generosity- honesty

Concepts: comfort- charity- opportunity

Moments: marriage- career- death

 

Collective Nouns

A collective noun is the name given to a group of nouns, to refer to them as one whole unit. Most of them can be used as singular or plural. Some of them are always used with a plural verb. Let’s see the following examples:

 

  • A flock of birds

  • A fleet of ships

  • A pair of shoes

  • A bowl of rice

  • A pod of whales

  • A pride of lions

 

Singular Nouns VS Plural Nouns

Singular nouns refer to one thing, place, person or idea. For example, book, table, pen, boy and garden are all singular nouns. While plural nouns refer to more than one thing, place, person or idea. For example, books, boys, and gardens are all plural nouns.

 

There are different ways to form the plural of nouns. We can add ‘es’ to the singular nouns if they end in ‘s-ss-sh-ch-x-o-z’. Also, We can add ‘ies’ and take off the ‘y’ to the singular nouns if they end in ‘a consonant followed by y’. Apart from the previous mentioned cases, we can add ‘s’. Unless They are irregular nouns.

 

Singular

Plural

box

boxes

penny

pennies

car

cars

man

men

wife

wives

Compound Nouns

Compound nouns are nouns that are made with two or more words. They are formed by different combinations.For example, we can form a compound noun by noun+noun, adjective+noun…etc. We use the two words together to mean one thing, place, person or idea.

Let’s see the following examplesz

:

 

  • Basketball (noun+noun)

  • Greenhouse (adjective+noun)

  • Runway (verb+noun)

  • Underground (preposition+noun)

  • Bystander (adverb+noun)

 

Possessive Nouns

Possessive noun is a special place, person or thing. It shows ownership of an object or another noun and tells who or what it belongs to. We  form possessive nouns by adding (‘s) to the singular nouns and the irregular plural nouns. We add only (‘) to the regular plural nouns. The following are some examples: 

 

  • Tom’s cat

  • Children’s books

  • Teachers’ bags

 

Usage of Nouns

Nouns can be used as a subject, object or complement in the English sentence. They can be an object of a preposition too. They can sometimes be used to describe other nouns. For example, ‘soccer ball’ the noun ‘soccer’ describes the noun ‘ball’. 

 

Common Mistakes with Nouns

One of the most common mistakes is using the noun in the plural form while they are always used in the singular form. Another mistake is using the noun in the plural form while they are already plural. Also, we sometimes use the uncountable nouns in the plural form. Let’s see some examples:

 

  • She feeds the poors.    (the noun poor is always plural)

  • I want to buy new furniture. (The noun furniture is always singular)

  • They drank juices. (The noun juices is an uncountable noun)

Definition of Pronouns

A pronoun is a word that is used instead of a noun or noun phrase. They are used in order not to repeat words. It refers to either a noun that has been mentioned before or to a noun that doesn’t need to be named specifically. 

 

Types of Pronouns

There are different types of pronouns. Each type of pronoun has a specific function in the sentence. They are placed in different places in the sentence.For example, Personal pronouns come as a subject of the sentence while other types of pronouns come as object of the sentence.

 

Personal Pronouns

Personal pronouns are pronouns that we use to refer to people, things and animals. They are subject pronouns and object pronouns. Subject person pronouns replace the subject of the sentence. Object person pronouns replace the object in the sentence. 

 

Subject Person Pronoun

Object Person Pronoun

I, you, he, she, it, we, they

Me. you, it, him, her, us

 

There are singular person pronouns and plural person pronouns. Singular pronouns refer to exactly one person or thing. Singular person pronouns  and plural person pronouns are first person, second person and third person.

 

The singular person pronouns are I, you, he, she, it, me, her and him. ‘I’ and ‘me’ are the first person singular pronouns. ‘You’ is the second person pronoun. ‘He’, ‘she’, ‘it’, ‘him’ and ‘her’ are third person singular pronouns. 

 

‘We’ and ‘us’ are first person plural pronouns. ‘You’ is the second person plural pronoun. ‘They’ and ‘them’ are the third person plural pronouns. Let’s see the following examples:

 

  • He is a doctor.

  • They play tennis well.

  • I go to school by bus.

  • You are a smart student.-

  • They spoke to us yesterday.

Relative Pronouns

Relative pronouns are used in the beginning of the relative clause. There are five common relative pronouns in the English language which are ‘who’, ‘whose’, ‘whom’, ‘which’ and ‘that’. The relative pronouns ‘when’ and ‘where’ are less used. Let’s see the following examples.

 

Who

Used for people

which

Used for animals and objects

whom

Replaced who when it comes as an object

whose

People or animals. Used for possession in the beginning of the clause

that

Used for people, animal and objects in speech and informal writing

 

Let’s see some examples:

 

  • Tom ,whose car is blue, had a car accident.

  • This is the cat that I bought last week.

  • The mobile phone which I lost is really expensive.

  • The teacher helped the students whom the principal brought over.

Possessive Pronouns

Possessive pronouns show ownership or possession of a noun. There are two types of possessive pronouns. The first type is possessive determiners which function as a pronoun. They come before a noun or an adjective. Possessive determiners are my, your, our, her, his, its and their.

 

The second type is independent possessive pronouns which refer to a previously mentioned noun. Independent possessive pronouns can stand alone in the sentence. Independent possessive pronouns are mine, yours, ours, hers, his,

its, theirs. Let’s see the following examples:

 

  • This is my book.

  • The pen is his.

  • Is it your bag?

  • I like her dress.

  • The keys are mine.

 

Interrogative Pronouns

Interrogative pronouns are the same as the relative pronouns but they are used as question words to ask questions. They are used to replace a noun. Let’s see the following examples:

 

Interrogative Pronouns

who, whom, which, what, whose, whoever, whomever, whichever, whatever

 

Let’s see some examples:

 

  • Who is knocking?

  • Whose is this?

  • Whatever do you mean?

 

Indefinite Pronouns

Indefinite pronouns refer to people or things without saying exactly who or what they are. If the pronoun ends in -body or -one then it refers to a person. If the pronoun ends in -thing then it refers to a thing. Some pronouns function as singular nouns, some functions as plural nouns and others function as both.

 

Singular Indefinite Pronoun

Plural Indefinite Pronouns

Singular and Plural Indefinite Pronouns

anybody, anyone, anything, everybody, everyone, everything,  nobody, no one, nothing,

somebody, someone, something

Each, one, much, little

Both, few, many, several

all, any, more, most, none, some, such

Let’s see some examples:

 

  • Is there anyone to talk to?

  • Both sound great to me.

  • All are welcome

  • Everybody was happy at the wedding.

  • Nobody came to the party

 

Reflexive Pronouns

Reflexive pronouns replace the object of a sentence when it refers to the same person or thing in the subject. They usually come after the verb in the sentence but sometimes can follow a preposition. Reflexive pronouns can be singular or plural. The following table shows the list of the reflexive pronouns:

 

Singular Reflexive Pronouns

Plural Reflexive Pronouns

myself, yourself, himself, herself,

itself

yourselves, ourselves, themselves

Here are some example sentences:

 

  • Sarah bought herself a new laptop.

  • Lilian usually calls herself Lily

  • The children made themselves a kite.

 

Intensive Pronouns

Intensive pronouns are the same as the reflexive pronouns but they are not essential in the sentence. Intensive pronouns are used for emphasis. They come after the noun or the pronoun they’re intensifying. The following examples show how they are used in the sentences:

 

  • I myself tried to fix the fan.

  • They themselves witnessed the accident.

  • You yourself can win the game.

 

Demonstrative Pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns replace a noun that has already been mentioned in the sentence. There are singular demonstrative pronouns and plural demonstrative pronouns. Some of the demonstrative pronouns function as demonstrative adjectives. The following table shows the singular and plural demonstrative pronouns:

 

Singular demonstrative Pronouns

Plural Demonstrative Pronouns 

this, that, such, none, neither

These, those

 

Here are some examples:

 

This is my favorite T.V show.

– Those are so cheap.

– Neither suits me.

 

Reciprocal Pronouns

Reciprocal pronouns show an action when two or more people are performing together. There are only two reciprocal pronouns, each other and one another. Each other is used for two people while one another is used for more than two. Let’s see the following examples:

 

  • My parents respect each other.

  • The dogs fought one another in the street.

 

Usage of Pronouns

Pronouns are mainly used to replace the noun in the sentence to avoid repetition. They are still used in certain ways to make sure that the sentence is grammatically correct. Pronouns and the nouns they replace have to agree in number, gender and case. 

 

Common Mistakes With Pronouns

One of the most common mistakes is using the object form of the pronoun instead of the subject form. Another common mistake is using the wrong verb form with the pronoun. One more mistake is using ‘both’ and ‘all’ instead of ‘neither’ and ‘non’ in the negative form. Let’s check the following examples:

 

  • Each of the kids listen to the song. (‘each’ takes a singular verb form)

  • Both didn’t go. (‘Neither’ is used in the negative form)

  • They all didn’t go. (None of us went)

 

Nouns and pronouns play an important role in the sentence structure. They are correlated. There are various types of nouns and pronouns. Each type has a different purpose. Common mistakes in using nouns and pronouns can be easily avoided by following the rules.

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