Farms

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Farm

Farms For Kids
Farms For Kids
Farm is known as an agricultural holding. It is an area of land established for agricultural processes in addition to producing food and crops. Agriculture is a primary part of production food.There are many kinds of farms such as vegetable farms, fruit farms, pig, dairy and poultry farms. 
The land is also used for the production of biofuel, natural fiber and other agricultural commodities like grain and corn. There are about 570 millions farms around the world. Farms may be owned and operated by a single person, community, family, or company.
 
Who are farmers?
Farmer is a person who’s responsible for growing plants and crops, and raising animals in the farm. The farmer might own the land he works in, or might work as a labourer. Previous names for a farmer were churl and husbandman.
Types of farms
There are many types of farming:
1- Arable Farming:
Arable Farming includes growing crops in warm climates only. This type of farming is mainly used in the south and east of the United States. This type of farming needs sloping or flat land with fertile and deep soil. Arable farming is proper for use of machinery.  
2- Pastoral Farming:
Pastoral Farming includes raising of animals in cold and wet climates only, it is not an example for growing crops. The land of Pastoral Farming has steep slopes with poor soil, so it is not suitable for machinery usage. When strong wind blows the crops damage especially with the steep slopes in the land.

3-  Mixed Farming:
Mixed Farming includes arable and pastoral farming, it depends on growing crops and raising animals. Both of them support each other and help in increasing the field yard.
4- Subsistence Farming:
If you talk about subsistence farming, you should mention the personal use. That means subsistence farming includes growing crops and raising animals for personal use. Subsistence farming takes place on small scales. For instance, the farmer’s family feed the animals and water the plants.
5- Commercial Farming:
The main purpose of commercial farming is gaining money. It takes place on large scales. It depends on growing crops and raising animals in large quantities . It uses technology and machinery to increase production. Commercial farming uses techniques for the purpose of sale.This type of agriculture depends heavily on a variety of chemicals, such as pesticides, fertilizers, and genetically modified organisms. 
6- Poultry Farming:
Poultry farming includes raising chicken and turkey. It can take place on a large or small scale. Chicken and turkey provide us with meat and eggs.
7- Extensive and Intensive Farming:
Extensive farming involves an aim of increasing output. Farmers increase the size of land for agriculture to improve yield. Intensive farming involves increasing capital and labor on the same piece of land to increase yield.  
8- Fish Farming:
Fish farming is also known as aquaculture. It raises fish in large tanks or ponds. Fish provides us with meat.
9- Nomadic Farming:
Farmers in nomadic farming move with their animals from one place to another place in search of pasture and water. They include camels, sheep, donkeys, and horses.
10- Sedentary Farming:
Sedentary Farming is known as sedentary cultivation. Sedentary Farming includes cultivating the same piece of land for many years. It is the most rudimentary form of cultivation. The soil becomes less nutrient because of sedentary cultivation.
11- Dairy Farming:
Dairy farming is raising female cattle, goats, or other mammals for their milk. This milk may be turned into other dairy products such as cheese or butter.
12- Sustainable Farming:
Sustainable farming or Sustainable agriculture is a type of agriculture that focuses on producing long-term crops and livestock while protecting the environment. Sustainability depends on the concept of meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.
Unlike commercial farming that depends heavily on a variety of chemicals, such as pesticides, fertilizers, and genetically modified organisms.This type of farming tries to find balance between food needs and the preservation of the environment.
The main goals of sustainable agriculture are economic profitability, environmental health, and social and economic equity. 
There are many benefits of sustainable farming such as: satisfying human food and fibre needs. The crops which are grown with a sustainable system are healthier for human health. Not only sustainable farming cares about human health but also preserving the environment.
Our dearest kids after knowing the types of farming, which type you prefer the most?
Let’s learn how to plant a seed?
Before we start, do you know that pop corn kernels, beans, peas, rice, and acorns are seeds. Seeds come in different shapes and sizes.
 
All seeds have three different parts: 
An outer shell is called the seed coat.
A tiny plant inside the seed is called Embryo.
Some plant food for Embryo called Endosperm. 
The coat seed plays an important role, it covers an entire seed protecting the little baby plant inside and prevents it from drying out. Each plant needs a suitable amount of water, a good temperature, the right amount of light, and a wet soil.   
What is germination?
The beginning of the growth of a seed into a seedling is known as germination.

All seeds just need :
1- water.
2- oxygen.
3- right amount of light.
Let’s plant our seed:
1- Tools:
Container – seeds – wet soil – water.
2- Steps:
– Choose a good container, it should be clean and it’s measure not less than 2-3 inches deep with drainage holes. The container can be plastic pots, yogurt cups or cell packs.  
– Choose a fertile soil but don’t use garden soil, it is too heavy. Wet the soil with warm water before filling it with the seeds.
– Place seeds in the soil, the seeds should be covered with soil equal to three times their thickness.
– Read carefully the planting instructions on the seed packet.
– Moisten the seeds, use a spray bottle to wet the soil.
– Use room temperature water to water your plant but avoid overwatering, it spreads disease, it can kill the plant.
– Water the plant as it needs. For instance, when you see the soil start to dry. 
– Keep the soil warm, seeds need warm soil to germinate.
– Give the seeds enough light.

After knowing how to plant a plant, let’s know which animals are on the farm??
Farm animals are raised for agriculture, most are raised to be killed. Raising animals has many benefits, It feeds people and supplies products they want like fur, wool, milk, eggs, meat, honey, etc. 
There are many farm animals, such as: cows, horses, chickens, goats, pigs, and geese.
Cows 
Cows are farm animals, they live on the farm. Female cows provide us with milk.
Milk is used in dairy products like yogurt, cheese and butter. Not only milk but also cows give us meat.
  • Male cows are called bulls.
  • Baby cows are called calves
Horses 
Horses are farm animals, they live on the farm. Horses pull trailers, ploughs and wagons, they help the farmer. The farmer can ride the horse for a long distance.
  • A male horse is called a stallion.
  • A female horse is called a mare
  • A baby horse is called a foal until it is twelve months old.
Chickens
Chickens are farm animals, they live on the farm. They provide us with meat and eggs. They lay 1 or 2 eggs each day.
  • Male chickens are called roosters.
  • Baby chickens are called chicks.
Funny Fact About The Rooster:
They’re responsible for the early morning “Cock-a-doodle-do”.
Goats
Goats are farm animals, they live on the farm. They provide us with milk as cows. The milk used in dairy products like cheese, yogurt, and soap.
  • A baby goat is cutely called a kid.
Pigs
Pigs are farm animals, they live on the farm. Pigs provide us with meat, its meat is used to make pork, bacon and sausages. Pigs are quick animals, they can run fast. They can’t sweat like other animals, so they love rolling around in the mud. The mud helps them to keep cool.
  • Female pigs are called sows.
  • Male pigs are called boars.
  • Baby pigs are called piglets.
Geese 
Geese are farm animals, they live on the farm. Female geese lay eggs like chicken.
  • Male geese are called ganders.
  • Baby geese are called goslings
  • A group of geese is called a gaggle.
After knowing farm animals. Let’s go on a trip to a honey farm
What is the Honey Bee?
Honey Bees produce honey, bee wax, and royal jelly. The place where the bees are kept is called “ A bee yard” or “ An Apiary ”. Honey bees are big money makers for U.S. agriculture. The bees fly freely as they like. They usually return to their hives, their hives are considered the clean and dark sheltered for them. 
Do you know what the sound of a bee is?
The sound of the bee is buzzing. “Buzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz”.

Who’s the beekeeper?
A beekeeper keeps bees in order to collect their honey in beehives, boxes, or other receptacles. The beekeeper owns the hives or boxes and associated equipment. He wears a veil to stop the bee from staying on his face.
Honey farm:
The young colony of bees lives in the mating nucleus, they start out from it. It is considered as a bee hive. Bee hives are important for bees, they make them calm and quiet. Bees can sting you if you harm them.
There are four stages for bee life:
First it’s an egg, then a larva, then a pupa, then it turns into an adult.
The man bees are called Drones, they take 21 days to become an adult.
The female bees are called Workers, they take 24 days to become an adult.
How do bees make honey?
Honey bees collect nectar and the sugary juice in the heart of the flowers to create honey. The bees also collect anthers of flowers which contain numerous small grains  .The honey color and flavor depend on the nectar that is collected by the bee.
 
For example:
Avocado honey is gathered from avocado blossoms. Avocado honey is dark in color.
Blueberry honey is gathered from tiny white flowers of the blueberry bush,it is light amber in color. 
Orange blossom honey is a combination of citrus sources, and is light in color.  
Alfalfa honey is gathered from purple blossoms, it is light in color.
The beekeepers harvest the honey by collecting the honeycomb frames and scraping off the wax cap. The function of the wax cap, the bees make it to seal off honey in each cell. Once the caps are removed, the honey comes out of the comb by an extractor. 
After extraction, the honey is purified to remove any remaining particles. After purifying, the beekeeper puts the honey in bottles, labels them and brings them for you.

Farms around the world
The biggest farms in the world are found in China and Australia. Here are the farms from the biggest to smallest. 

Rank

Farm 

Area 

1

Mudanjiang City Mega Farm, Heilongjiang, China

22,500,000 acres

2

Modern Dairy, Anhui, China

11,000,000 acres

3

Anna Creek, South Australia, Australia

6,000,000 acres

4

Clifton Hills, South Australia, Australia

4,200,000 acres

5

Alexandria, Northern Territory, Australia

4,000,000 acres

6

Davenport Downs, Queensland, Australia

3,700,000 acres

7

Home Valley, Western Australia, Australia

3,500,000 acres

8

Innamincka, South Australia, Australia

3,340,000 acres

9

Wave Hill, Northern Territory, Australia

3,330,000 acres

10

Marion Downs, Queensland, Australia

3,070,000 acres

Let’s know more about the largest farms in the world:
1- Mudanjiang City Mega Farm
Mudanjiang City Mega Farm is the biggest dairy farm around the world, it’s about 22,500,000 acres. It’s located in Heilongjiang, China. It has about 100,000 cows. It produces about 800 m. litres of milk for dairy products a year. The owners of the farm are Zhongding Dairy Farming and Severny Bur.  
 2- Modern Dairy
Modern Dairy was the largest farm in the world located in Anhui, China, it is about 11,000,000 acres. But accusations were made that the farm had sold cattles positive with bovine tuberculosis so it lost its market for years. Now it has about 40,000 cows that supply the farm with 600 tons of milk a year. China Modern Dairy Holdings Ltd is the owner of the farm.
3- Anna Creek Station
Anna Creek Station is considered one of the largest dairy farms in the world. It’s about 6,000,000 acres, located in South Australia, Australia.The farm is known for its Santa Gertrudis cattle specimens. Williams Cattle Company is the owner of the farm. Tony ًًًWilliam “the owner” changed the focus of the farm to be on the southern Australian market and on domestic markets.  
4- Clifton Hills
Clifton Hills started in 1876 in South Australia, Australia. It began with only 1,000 cows, now it has 14,000 cows. So that it became one of the biggest farms of the world. It is 4,200,000 acres. It was one of the first farms to use road transport and rail stations to deliver the cattles. G and E. A. Brooks are the owners of the farm.
5- Alexandria
Alexandria is considered one of the biggest farms in the world. It is 4,000,000 acres, located in Northern Territory, Australia. It approximately accommodates 55,000 cattle. Bales of fodder harvest about 10,000 a year on the plains of the farm. North Australian Pastoral Company is the owner of the farm. 
6- Davenport Downs
Davenport Downs is considered one of the largest cattle stations in the world, and the fourth largest in Australia located in Queensland. It is about 3,700,000 acres. Paraway Pastoral Company is the owner of the cattle station.
7- Home Valley
Home Valley is the main cattle station in Western Australia. It was established in 1957. It is 3,500,000 acres. You can enjoy your holiday there in its popular holiday resort “since 2006”. Indigenous Land Corporation is the owner of the cattle station.
8- Innamincka
Innamincka is one of the largest cattle stations in the world. It is located in South Australia, Australia.it is 3,340,000 acres. It accommodates about 13,000 cattle. It has been operating since 1872. S. Kidman & Co is the owner of the cattle station.
9- Wave Hill
Wave Hill was established in 1883 by Nathaniel Buchanan. It is 3,330,000 acres. It is located in the Northern Territory, Australia. It accommodates approximately 50,000. Western Grazing established the station in 1883.
10- Marion Downs
Marion Downs is considered one of the largest stations, however they depend only on 15 employees. It is 3,070,000 acres, located in Queensland, Australia. It contains about 15,000 cattles. North Australian Pastoral Company is the owner of the station.
 
What Is Agriculture Machinery?
No one can deny the importance of machinery. Mechanization makes farming more easier and professional if we compare it with farming in the past. In the past the farmer worked manually with his hand. After that he depended on the animal’s power. Now farmers use a lot of equipment to help them in farming. Let’s see some:
Tractor
It is the most important farm machinery. It is used for different purposes. A tractor is used to pull and attach other tools because they can’t work by themselves on the farm.  
Sprayer
Nowadays, a sprayer has become one of the most important equipment in farming. It has many uses such as : spray water, spray insecticides, spray pesticides, spray herbicides, and spray fertilizers for plants. 
 
Cutters and Shredders
These machines are used for cutting and shredding unwanted plants grown on the farm “extra small plants”. Shredder involves three functions:
1- Shearing.
2- Tearing.
3- Breaking.
Field Cultivator 
Field cultivators are used to cultivating the farm, it makes seedbeds to plant in a proper way and also shred weeds and makes hardened soil to be softer so that the nutrient and water reach the crop easily. It also stimulates microorganisms in the soil to become more active. Today, field cultivators are more used than ploughs because they save more time and effort. 
 
Seeders and Planters 
After the cultivation, Seeders and planters are used for the sowing of seeds. Seeders and planters make sowing of seeds easier, farmers in the past needed to sow every single seed with their hands, but with this, a grouping of seeds and crops can be planted within an hour. 
 
Harvesting equipment 
These are the machines used for harvesting the crop. Harvesting equipment can do many tasks at the same time. Not only harvesting the crops but also cleaning it.
 
The importance of farming
1- Agriculture plays an important role in international trade. 
2- It’s the main source of raw materials such as sugar, wood, and cotton.
3- It plays a big role in a nation’s revenue “most of national income comes from agricultural exports”.  
4- It encourages employment “ to help reduce high rates of unemployment”. They work as farmers, harvesters, technicians, etc.
5- It’s the source of our food supply such as: all kinds of fruits and vegetables, meats, and milk
 

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