Enormous Facts About Celts History. The Major 3 Branches

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Celtic History Timeline

Celts

Celts were among the ancient European peoples. They spoke an Indo-European language.  By 500 BC, they were living in northeastern France, southwestern Germany, and Bohemia. The Celts kept on migrating in all directions.

The Celts can be referred to as the Pre-Roman people of Britain. Celts were very powerful and dominant people in northern Europe. They lived during the Iron Age, which is when people discovered and used iron in their daily lives to make tools and decorations. 

The Celts didn’t call themselves that name, it was given to them by 18th-century historians. When the Romans invaded, they referred to the Celts as Britons. There were three different Celtic groups in Northwest Europe: The Gauls from France, Belgium, Switzerland and Northern Italy. 

The Britons who settled in Britain. The Gaels, who were from Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man. Many people in Ireland and Scotland still speak the Celtic languages. The Celts were organized loosely in tribes. Each tribe had a chief, nobles, freemen, and slaves. 

 

Who Were the Celts?

The Celts were a collection of peoples who spoke Celtic languages who lived during the Iron Age, between 600 BC and 43 AD. They were made up of many different tribes, but their way of life was very similar. They grew from mid-Europe and slowly spread out over much of the rest of Europe. 

There were three main branches of Celts in Europe – Brythonic, Gallic and Gaelic. Brythonic (also called Britons), who lived around modern-day Cornwall and Wales. Gaelic (also called Gaels), who were based in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man. Gaulic (also called Gauls), who lived across modern-day France, Belgium, Switzerland and northern Italy. 

Celts, Pronounced as ‘kelt’, were an advanced society who learned how to make weapons from iron. Because of this, many know this era in time as the ‘Iron Age’. This is the period when iron was discovered and used. Wherever they settled, Celts would set up farms and small villages. Their houses were called roundhouses made of wood or stone and contained just one big room.

A group of powerful fighters spread across Europe from their original home in the Alps over 2,500 years ago. They shared cultural traits and had a number of related languages, but they existed as a variety of independent tribes. Sometime around 500 BC, they transferred from mainland Europe to the United Kingdom. 

The Celts wore brightly colored clothing, and made fabric dyes from berries, plants and even seaweed. Dyeing was something that only women could do. hill forts  were built. People living there could see if any enemies were coming just by looking out over the valleys, and could build strong walls around their hill to help defend it.



The Britons

The Britons are a group of Celts. They spoke a Celtic language known as Common Brittonic. They lived in Great Britain during the Iron Age. some of the Britons migrated to Wales, Cornwall and southern Scotland after the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons. Other Britons moved to Brittany. 

When Britain was under the Romans rule, the Britons intermarried with many different types of people from all over the Roman Empire. So they are often called Romano-Britons or the Romano-British. 

Since the Iron Age, Britain has been divided among various Celtic tribes. Some tribes settled in Central Britain. Others settled in southeastern Britain. Other Tribes lived in Western Britain. 

As for Central Britain, The Brigantes is one of the Celtic tribes that lived in What is now Northern England. The name of the tribe comes from the Celtic goddess Brigantia. Brigantine society was initially rural. They used pots and bowls of wood and leather although they managed to produce pottery. 

During the Roman Invasion, the Brignates were the most powerful Celtic Tribe in Britain. Brignates rebelled against the Romans many times, but the Romans succeeded in putting the revolts down. 

The Carvetii are another Celtic Tribe. They lived in the British Islands before the Roman Invasion. At first the Carvetii were grouped together with the Brigante but they were later granted their own tribal council. They probably lived on small farms and did not use coins or have big hillforts.

The Corieltauvi is one of the Celtic Tribes. It was a large tribe that had been created before the Roman Invasion. Their land is what is known as the  English East Midlands. Their capital was called Ratae Corieltauvorum, known today as Leicester.

The Cornovii is one of  the Iron Age Tribes. They were settled in the Northern region of England. The name probably means ‘people of the horn’. They didn’t use coins. They probably lived in what are today the modern counties of Staffordshire, Shropshire and Cheshire. After Roman occupation, the lands of the Cornovii became a centre of military and economic operations.

The Parisi are a Celtic tribe that lived in East Yorkshire. Their main city is the modern city of Paris. Some of the Parisi fled to Britain after their defeat against Julius Caesar. The British Parisi are known for their unusual ‘chariot-burials’ and cemeteries. lived in British style houses, wore British style ornaments and used British style pottery.

Regarding the Southeastern region, The Atrebates is a British Celtic tribe that lived there. Conquest, they issued and used coins, and had many contacts with France. The Atrebates had long links of trade with France and they got married to people from French tribes. The name Atrebates means ‘settlers’ or ‘inhabitants’.

The Belgae were a group of tribes that lived in northwest Gaul. The Belgae came to Britain as raiders and settled in southern Britain and possibly even Hampshire and Ireland. Their name survives in modern Belgium. its population was probably no more than 3,000–4,000.

The Cantiaci are a Celtic Tribe. They lived in north and east Kent. They were  very open to influences from France and the Mediterranean World at the time of the Roman Conquest. Julius Caesar said that they are the most civilized Celtic Tribe. They buried their dead according to the north French custom of cremation.

The Catuvellauni are another Celtic tribe. They settled in  the modern counties of Hertfordshire, Bedfordshire and southern Cambridgeshire. One of their kings is known for the coins he minted with his name on them, He founded  a royal and ritual centre. They buried their dead the same way in northern France. They ate and dressed more like the way in France. 

The Iceni are a Celtic tribe. They  lived in Great Britain, in the area of modern-day Norfolk and Suffolk. They issued coins before the Roman Conquest. They seem to have been a wealthy and powerful group of tribes between 200 and 50 BC. They had important religious centres at Snettisham and at Thetford. 

The Regnenses are a group of British Celtic tribes. They were formed after the Roman conquest of Britain. The name of the tribe means “people of the kingdom”. They had contact with Europe through trading so they got affected by their ideas. West Sussex was one of the first areas to use Coins. They adapted the French way of burning the dead. 

The Trinovantes were one of the Celtic tribes. They settled in what is now called Essex and Suffolk. Their name means ‘very new’. They used coins, cremated their dead, ate from plates and drank from cups. In 55 and 54 BC, the Trinovantes were considered the most powerful tribe in Britain. 

Regarding western Britain, The Deceangli are a British Celtic tribe. They lived in the current Wales. They lived in hill forts. They may include the peoples who lived on the Isle of Anglesey. Anglesey was a strong fortress against the Roman attack during the Roman conquest.

The Demetae are a Celtic tribe who lived in southwest Wales. They lived on small farms scattered across the countryside. They were friendly towards the Romans and quickly accepted Roman rule. The capital was modern Carmarthen. Romans explored for gold in their lands. 

The Dobunni are a British Celtic tribe. They  lived in the southern part of the Severn Valley and the Cotswolds. They issued coins before the Roman conquest. They lived on fertile farms and small villages. They were one of the tribes who accepted Roman rule and didn’t resist them. Cirencester is their capital.

 The Dumnonii are also a  British Celtic tribe. They live in the whole of the South West peninsula and parts of Southern Somerset. They were probably the most powerful of all tribes. They did not use coins. They lived on small farms. They didn’t resist the Roman conquest and accepted their rule. 

The Durotriges are a British Celtic tribe. They lived in modern Dorset, south Wiltshire and Somerset. They were one of the few tribes that issued coins before the Roman conquest. They formed an organized society and depended on farming. There was a major trading centre. They resisted the Roman conquest. 

The Gangani are a British Celtic Tribe. They lived in Ireland. They were a warlike tribe. They resisted the Roman conquest. They used to travel by water. They were a sea-mobile tribe. They were concentrated mainly around hill forts.

The Ordovices are a British Celtic tribe. They lived in what is today Mid-Wales. They were farmers and shepherds. They had a strong military tradition. They lived in fortified strongholds and hillforts. They resisted the Roman conquest. 

The Silures are a British Celtic tribe. They settled in southeast Wales. They were a warlike tribe. They resisted the Roman conquest. There is a little information about their lives except the fact that they lived in mountains and valleys. It took the Romans almost 10 years to contain the Silures. 



The Gaels (Scotland, Ireland, Isle of Man)

They are a group of Celts who first lived in Ireland. Then, They migrated to Scotland and Isle of Man. The Gaels were the last “Celtic” Tribe to settle in Ireland. They speak Scottish Gaelic. Land was essential to the Gaels. 

Most Gaels in Scotland did not own their own land. They used to  rent land from a landlord. Many of the Gaels who could not afford to pay rent worked for the landlord as servants. Some landlords would give the Gaels the chance to save money to pay for the land. 

The Gauls (France, Belgium, Switzerland and northern Italy)

Gaul is the name given by the Romans to the lands where the Celtic Gauls lived, France, Belgium, Switzerland and northern Italy. Gauls  lived in an agricultural society. They spoke the Gaulish language. There were various Gallic tribes. It is said that they were never unified under one ruler. 

Gauls worshiped several gods along with other gods that were only locally or regionally important. They believed that most sources of water were holy. The most noticeable part of their culture was putting the intricate spirals and interlace on their metals, leather, and jewelry. 

 

Celts in Spain

Celts migrated to Spain in two waves. The first wave was around 900 B.C While the second one was around 700-600 BC. The first group settled in Catalonia. The latter group lived in the northern coast of the peninsula, and south to the Tagus valley. 

Some historians believe that the Celts integrated with the Iberian tribes, other tribes, and formed their own culture. Others believe that the Iberian were strong tribes and they remained apart. They were warlike tribes according to the Romans. 

 

Who is The Druid?

The druids were responsible for all religious rituals, because the only person who could talk to a god was a druid. They were members of the learned class in the pre-Christian, ancient Celtic societies. They were the fortune tellers, the teachers, the doctors, the philosophers, and the lawyers in Celtic society. They were highly respected, and powerful.

To become a druid, you had to study with the druids for at least twenty years. The druids had their own universities. The Celtic people went to the druids for everything. They went for them to cure their kids with their medicine, to find resolution for conflicts over boundaries. 



Who Was Boudicca?

Boudica was a Celtic Queen who led a rebellion against the Roman occupation of Britain. She was married to King Prasutagus and they had two daughters. She reached a compromise with the Roman to divide the kingdom between the Romans and herself along with her two daughters. 

However after the death of the king the Romans took over the kingdom and ignored the deal. Around 61 AD, Boudicca gathered her tribe and began a revolt, destroying Roman towns and cities. They burnt the Roman cities to the ground and killed their inhabitants mercilessly. Finally, The Roman governor gathered an army of Roman soldiers and managed to defeat them.

Celtic warriors

Celtic warriors usually fought each other. They were fierce Warriors. Tribes had different dress standards for battle; some warriors wore chain mail and/or leather armor. Some wore only clothes and some were known to fight fully naked. They also had their own type of sword that was very strong and a shield that was very protective. 

 

The Celts were a group of people who spread throughout Europe in the Iron Age. There were many tribes in different parts of the world. They expanded from Britain to Europe including France and Italy. They had their own lifestyle. They liked to be clean and have a nice smell as well. They were mostly farmers.

 

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