Endangered animals are animals that are at risk of demise and extinction for several reasons, the most important of which are their death and sudden, dramatic decline in large numbers around the world or the loss of their ecological habitat.
Definition of Animal Extinction
Biology defines extinction as the disappearance and death of a certain type of organism. Extinction is the result of several reasons, the most important of which is the great exploitation by humans, whether for trade or as a source of food, as well as some other biological reasons, and this extinction of large numbers of the same type of organisms at the same time is called «mass extinction».
However, later this was classified into several classifications, including endangered, critically endangered, endangered, near threatened species, and vulnerable species according to specific criteria. It is estimated that the loss of those rare species in the world varies between 50.000 and 100.000 species yearly and the rate has doubled in the last 4 years.
In case this level of deterioration is not stopped or at least seriously reduced, the environment will lose more than half of the species in the world for good within the coming 100 years. The history of the planet has witnessed similar losses in biodiversity which have had severe effects on the species that were lucky enough to escape extinction.
Experts assume that within the coming 30 years, almost 25% of living mammals and bird species are going extinct because of rapid climate change and the loss of their natural habitats. This is in addition to a huge number of insects and worms that are also close to extinction. Usually, after a certain species become extinct, it makes a gap in the ecosystem, and it may distort our understanding of the environment.
As a matter of fact, every extinct organism prevents us from lots of information, hence changing our understanding of the history and evolution of the world. When the last member of a species dies, we lose all information about the adaptations that have accumulated over millions of years of its life.
Reasons for the Extinction of Animals
Planet Earth is full of life, as it includes thousands of species of vertebrate animals such as reptiles, fish, and birds and invertebrates such as insects, crustaceans, trees, bacteria, and many other organisms that live within complex ecosystems. Since the beginning of life on Earth, approximately 99% of animal species have become extinct for a number of reasons, the most important of which are:
Humans cut down trees and destroy forests in order to build cities and roads, destroying the habitats of several animals, plants, and other organisms. Deep within the ancient forests of the Pacific Northwest live some of the oldest and largest trees in the world, and for centuries they have remained Douglas fir trees «Evergreen Pine».
Cedar trees cover the forest floor, which is a small part of the rich areas known as ancient forests, which provide a safe haven for many animals, and the vital habitat of many living creatures, but unfortunately these forests are gradually disappearing due to the excessive cutting of trees.
Environmental pollution is a real and major problem that directly affects environmental diversity, and this is evident through garbage and plastic bags that intertwine with wild plants as a result of random dumping. Also, acid rain contributes to the destruction of forests.
Moreover, there is oil leakage in the water which causes the death of plants and marine organisms. As well as the discharge of toxins into waterways, all of this exacerbates the problem of environmental pollution and threatens the life of living organisms.
Human activity negatively and directly affects the climate, as the increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting from vehicle exhaust and factory exhaust that operates by combustion of fossil fuels, in addition to causing waste decomposition in landfills, and increasing livestock farming leads to a high percentage of methane in the air.
Thus, the high temperatures that contribute to the melting of the towering icebergs due to global warming. This leads to higher sea levels and an increased risk of flooding. In addition to forest fire, due to the unprecedented rise in planet temperature.
Fishing and Illegal Trade
In prehistoric times, hunting was considered one of the important roles along with harvesting plants for human survival, but now many people treat hunting as a recreational hobby, as millions of animals are killed annually because of this hobby, some of which are injured and die slowly from pain.
It is estimated that the financial return from the illegal trade in various living creatures and plants ranges between 8 billion euros to 20 billion euros annually, including 100 tigers and more than 1,000 rhinos annually.
Lack of Genetic Diversity
The lack of biological diversity is one of the reasons that threaten the extinction of many animals. Once the numbers of animals begin to dwindle, there are few numbers of them, or organisms that carry the pure biological type for them, so it is preferable for organisms to mate with alien species to preserve biological diversity and not to marry of the same species or the so-called inbreeding.
Because of its many risks, such as exposure to the risk of carrying undesirable genetic traits, and susceptibility to fatal diseases, a vivid example of this is the African leopard, which suffers today from low genetic diversity, which reduces the chance of its survival.
Invasive Species of Animals
Struggle for survival is a tactic from ancient times but sometimes the match is faster, fiercer, bloodier and also one-sided. For example, if a plant or animal from another ecosystem is inadvertently transplanted into a system by a human or animal host, it can reproduce randomly, crowding out the original organisms in the system and contributing to their demise.
Lack of Food
Food shortage and mass starvation is the fastest and sure way to extinction, especially since organisms that suffer from hunger are more vulnerable to disease and predation than other organisms, which directly and disastrously affect the food chain.
It is worth noting that scientists have finally found a way to eradicate malaria by exterminating all mosquitoes on the face of the earth. At first glance, it seems very good news, but when you think about the impact on the survival of other creatures that feed on mosquitoes such as frogs, and animals that feed on frogs. So, even the bottom of the food chain is worth rethinking in order to find another solution without threatening the life of the species.
The following is a classification of threatened animals into 3 categories; critically endangered, endangered, and vulnerable species.
Critically Endangered Species
There is a group of animals that need to be protected from extinction, as there are currently 41,415 species on the Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), of which 16,306 are threatened with extinction, and it is on the rise and increase over previous years, where these species are classified as endangered if their numbers decrease by a range of between 50% to 70%.
The unique Hainan Gibbon is the rarest monkey in the world and perhaps the rarest mammal in the world, with a total number of about 25 individuals. These monkeys were previously scattered throughout eastern China, but they suffered greatly from hunting over the past hundred years, and Hainan Gibbon is only found now in a patch of forest in Baoangling National Nature Reserve, Hainan Island, China.
The Hainan gibbon is about 60 cm in height, and has a slender body and long arms and legs, while the adult males have a black body and the adult females are golden yellow. The rare monkey lives an arboreal or tree-based life to help it cross gaps in forests, as it has never been seen on land. Its habitat consists of broadleaf forests and semi-deciduous seasonal forests. It feeds on ripe fruits rich in sugar, such as figs, and sometimes leaves and insects.
It is a very rare species of dolphin and it is on the verge of extinction, as there are only about 12 individuals alive today in the Gulf of California. Interestingly, this animal does not live anywhere else on earth. Vaquita lives in shallow, warm coastal waters, and can withstand temperature fluctuations, in addition to an abundance of food.
Vaquita is known for its small size, gray color, and large fin on its back, it is characterized by a round black spot around its eyes, in addition to its lips that appear to be smiling. The female vaquita is larger than the males and grows to about 1.4 meters, however, this type is considered one of the smallest dolphins in the world. Usually, members of the vaquita move alone or in small groups of two to three individuals, and this animal feeds on bony fish and squid.
The vaquita has been classified as the most endangered animal by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The numbers of the vaquita have decreased due to the increase in mortality rates for this animal, the main cause of these deaths is drowning in the gill fishing nets, the fish gets stuck and tries to free itself from the nets, which causes serious injuries or death.
Hawksbill Sea Turtle
The hawksbill is a sea turtle with global distribution in the majority of the planet’s oceans. The hawksbill sea turtle’s shell has serrations around its edges and has a long, curved beak more pronounced than other subspecies of turtles. Adults grow to an average weight of 10 kg and 90 cm long.
These turtles are distinguished by their sharp, hooked beak that distinguishes them from other turtles, in addition to the sharp edges of their shells that look like a saw. The skin colour of hawksbills changes with the variation of water temperature they live in.
Hawksbill sea turtle is in danger of extinction due to fishermen, and for a time this species was the main source of turtle shells that were hunted and traded for decoration. Other reasons for the turtle’s population decline are pollution and the destruction of their nesting areas by human settlements.
The rhinoceros is subjected to poaching because of its distinctive nose, which is used in traditional Chinese medicine, in addition to its use as a symbol of wealth and status, and it has a very high value, as one kilo of Javanese rhino horn is sold on the black market for nearly $30,000. For this reason, 3 of the species the five rhinos that are threatened with extinction from the world are the Black Rhinoceros, Javan Rhinoceros, and Sumatran Rhinoceros.
South Africa is the main home for about 80% of the rhinoceros, but the killing rate of the animal has increased in recent years due to the well-known belief that its horns are a cure for cancer, and in countries such as China and Vietnam, there are people who pay huge sums to get rhino horns. This is why the hunters are getting more and more brutal. The Javanese rhinoceros is the most endangered species with its current number ranging from 46 to 66 individuals, all of them inhabiting the Ujung Kulon National Park in Indonesia.
Cross River Gorilla
This type of gorilla is considered one of the most endangered species. The Cross River gorilla lives in the forested hills and mountains in the Cross River region, which forms the border area between Cameroon and Nigeria and the number of individuals remaining of this species is now less than 250. There are many reasons why this gorilla is hunted by local people for meat and fur.
Cross river gorillas differ from other types of gorillas in both skull and teeth scales. Based on these differences, river gorillas are described as distinct subspecies. Loss of genetic diversity due to living in small groups that rarely interact with each other is more likely to make this species become extinct.
Siberian tigers are among the most giant tigers in the world, which males of this tiger, can reach a length of 4 meters and weighs about 300 kg. Before conservation measures were implemented on Siberian tigers in the 1930s, their numbers collapsed to about 40 tigers.
It is believed that the overhunting of the Siberian tiger is the biggest threat to its life due to the prevailing belief that its bones and organs have magical healing powers, in addition to cutting trees and reducing the number of habitats for such animals that need large grassy areas to feed. Where figures indicate that 10 thousand hectares of forests disappear annually in these areas.
It is known that tigers are the most predatory organism in all the ecosystems in which they live. In fact, the danger surrounding tigers is considered the main cause of illegal hunting for tiger skin and meat and parts of its body that they use in folk medicines. Thus, poaching and consumption of endangered animals were banned in these regions.
The snow leopard is a feline, endemic to mountain ranges, but it is more closely related to tigers. It is a large species of mountain cat living in China, Nepal and Mongolia. It is up to 1.1 meters long, weighs about 32 kilograms, and has a gestation period of 101 days.
Unlike other big cats, the snow leopard lives in the highlands in cold places. Its habitat is among the snow and its white colour makes it invisible in its surroundings, which makes it easier for it to catch its prey. The snow leopard has very thick fur around its feet, which helps it move over the snow without sinking. Unlike other cats, the snow leopard is unable to roar, but it does make sounds similar to a domestic cat.
About 6,500 tigers remain in the wild, the largest number of which are found in China and Mongolia, with their presence also in abundance in India and Kyrgyzstan. It feeds on blue sheep, and mountain goats, and also feeds on some animals. Poaching poses a major threat to the snow leopard’s survival.
The Tasmanian devil has acquired this name because of its great brutality and ferocity, as it preys on larger mammals such as small antelopes and snakes, an animal that loves to live and hunt alone, and its food consists of poultry, small mammals and insects.
Tasmanian devils are the largest carnivorous marsupial in the world, growing up to 65 cm in length, they are considered to be predators at the top of the food chain, and their future on the mainland could help control the spread of feral cats and foxes. Like most marsupials, the female Tasmanian devil carries her young in a pouch on her stomach, where she continues to feed until they are fully developed.
The number of Tasmanian devils has been reduced by nearly 60% due to contagious cancer known as carcinomatosis, which has continued to wipe out the species that inhabit the Australian island of Tasmania, leaving only 10,000 creatures that have been individually cared for and a vaccine developed to treat their cancer. In order to protect them from this disease, they were gathered and isolated on distant islands, in order to preserve this animal from extinction.
Orangutans are one of the rarest animals in the world and are somewhat similar to chimpanzees and gorillas, it is also one of the largest mammals known for their great cognitive ability. They are limited to the islands of Borneo and Sumatra in Southeast Asia and number a total of 800 individuals, which makes orangutans one of the rarest great apes around the world.
Orangutans live in large groups and roam between trees, and are likely to be at risk of extinction due to people’s obsession with hunting these exotic apes. They lived on the planet about 10,000 years ago, according to fossil evidence, and have inhabited most of Southeast Asia, from southern China to Indonesia. But today there are only 3 species of orangutans that are very intelligent.
The Iberian lynx is a species of wild cat indigenous to the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe and is listed as a critically endangered species on the IUCN Red List. This Iberian lynx feeds almost exclusively on the European hare. The sharp decline in hare numbers, the fragmentation of pastures and forest habitats, and poaching were the main reasons behind its extinction.
The Iberian lynx is a small feline, similar in shape to the rest of the lynx. It is yellow, spotted and has short fur, a short body, long legs, a short tail, and a small head with tufted ears and facial whiskers, with a fur collar under the chin. Its thick coat provides the Iberian lynx with warmth during the cold seasons.
They used to live on the entire Iberian Peninsula, southern France, north of the Mediterranean to Galicia, parts of northern Portugal, and central to southern Spain. However, now they are limited to confined areas in the Iberian Peninsula.
The Asian unicorn or saola is among the critically endangered species. It is not entirely clear how many are left of the animal because of its ability to evade and disappear. Saola is a species between goats and antelopes, it is considered one of the rarest mammals in the world.
The saola is only found in the Annamite mountain range in Laos and Vietnam, and this animal, also known as the Asian rhinoceros, was not discovered until 1992, and the first photo of it was taken in 1999, and it is very rare that it is known as the Asian rhino, and it was not discovered Science only in 1992 when the remains were found in the Phu Quang Nature Reserve in Vietnam.
The Ili pika is a small mammal that lives in the mountains and only a few of them remain. It resembles a rabbit in its external appearance. There are only a thousand animals of the rare Ili pika species that inhabit the mountains in areas of North America and Asia.
Ili pika feeds on the herbs that grow on the slopes of the rocks where it is located, but the rise in global temperatures due to climatic changes led to the dwindling of food resources for this animal, which caused a dangerous decline in its numbers. It is believed that climate change is the main reason for the small number of these creatures that usually live in bare and sloping rocks, as rising temperatures have forced them to retreat towards the tops of mountains.
The rise in global temperatures led to the receding snow from the tops of the Tianshan Mountains, and to the melting of glaciers, and the animal was left with no choice but to migrate towards the summits, where it was found at altitudes between 3200 to 3400 meters, and now it can be found at an altitude of 4100 meters.
Today there are only 750 individuals of these rare bats. They all live in just one cave in Cueva la Barca, in the western part of Cuba and the natural degradation of the cave has led researchers to believe that Cuban bats will be an extinct species in the near future. These creatures have dark fur, large ears, and a long tail covering their bodies and heads together.
Golden Mantella Frog
The golden frog is one of the most famous types of frogs, which is considered one of the most attractive frogs due to its distinctive colour. This type of frog lives specifically in rainforests, and the females in this species of frog are longer than the males. The golden frog lives on invertebrates and insects. The golden frog is a hearty meal for many Among other animals, it is the focus of attention of snakes and some types of birds. Some fish that live in lakes also prefer to eat it.
Unlike many frog species, this type is highly active during the day and less active at night, as frogs, in general, are not active until during the night period and this class of frogs communicate with each other also through several rare ways, including hands and It is also possible to communicate through sounds, which is the most famous among many creatures on the surface of the earth and under the sea as well.
During the past few years, the golden frog was placed on the list of endangered animals, and this announcement came as a surprise to many people due to the absence of reasons that threaten this creature. It is not known how long the golden frog lives, but many biologists have confirmed that it can reach nine years, but this type of frog is considered an endangered animal due to many factors, including environmental factors.
Greater Bamboo Lemur
As its name suggests, the great bamboo lemur is the largest bamboo lemur in Madagascar, weighing about 2.5 kilograms, and until the late 1980s, it was actually believed that this species had become completely extinct, but about 500 individuals have been discovered living in the southeast of the island near the Ranomafana National Park.
Larger bamboo lemurs live in groups of up to 28 individuals. This species may be the only lemur in which the male predominates, although this is not certain. Due to their social nature, the largest bamboo lemur has at least seven different calls. It has been observed that males take the bamboo pulp away from the females who have put a lot of effort into opening the bamboo stems.
Blue whales are among the largest animals that have ever lived on Earth, and these magnificent mammals are the rulers of the oceans with a length of up 30 meters, and a weight of more than 200 tons, its tongue weighs the weight of an elephant, and its heart is the size of a small vehicle.
Blue whales reach this bewildering size due to their diet of small animals, called krill, at certain times of the year, an adult single whale consumes about 4 tons of krill per day. Blue whales are baleen whales, meaning they have fringed plates of nail-like material hanging on their upper jaws. These giant animals feed by first swallowing a huge amount of water, and distributing it over the folded skin of the throat and abdomen to contain it.
Then the giant tongue of the whale pushes the water out, through the overlaps of the baleen plates to keep the krill stuck behind the pushed water and swallowed by the whale. Blue whales are indeed one of the most endangered animals on the planet, as there are currently less than 25,000 whales around the world. Blue whales live in most oceans around the world, and their number has decreased by up to 90% due to overfishing in the 20th century, in addition to the risk of collision with ships, and being trapped in fishing nets.
The Asian elephant is the largest terrestrial mammal in the world, reaching a length of 6.4 meters and 3 meters at the shoulder, and weighing up to 5,000 kg. However, it is worth mentioning that the Asian elephant is slightly smaller than the African elephant. Asian elephants are recognizable by their smaller, round ears.
Asian elephants live in forested areas of India and throughout Southeast Asia, including Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia and Laos. About a third of Asian elephants live in captivity. they eat roots, herbs, fruits, and bark in huge quantities. An adult elephant can consume up to 300 pounds of food per day. They usually sleep during the day and are most active at dawn and dusk.
The number of Asian elephants is approximately 40,000 to 50,000, they spread over 13 countries and their number may be declining at the present time. 50% of Asian elephants live in India and throughout Asia, which creates conflicts over space and resources, although their tusks are small compared to their counterparts. It is still hunted for its ivory tusks, meat, and hides. Farmers may kill elephants to protect their fields and families.
The American Crane looks like a stork and a heron. In 1938, the number of these species reached 29 birds, and after 3 years only 16 of them remained. In the 1960s, efforts began to save these birds through innovative breeding programs, and today there are more than 400 of these species.
Cranes are opportunistic feeders, meaning they can eat whatever they find in their environment from amphibians, fish, insects and small rodents, along with seeds, berries and various plants. Cranes are social birds, and they are birds that live in large groups called flocks. Cranes communicate within the flock through loud sounds, as they produce a wide range of sounds.
According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), many species of turtles are either critically endangered or endangered, and the flatback and radioactive tortoise are expected to become extinct in the next 45 years.
The most endangered sea turtles are the famous two species named: Hawksbill Sea turtles and Kemp’s Ridley turtles who are critically endangered. Leatherback Sea turtles are also classified as endangered. This shows that any changes in global temperature may affect gender relativity, in addition to the fact that sea level rise may lead to the disappearance of underwater breeding beaches.
Fishing is one of the biggest threats to sea turtles, their meat and skin are targeted by fishermen, they are vulnerable because of the loss of their habitat, pollution, and climate change. The sand temperature determines the sex of young eggs, the warmer the temperature means that there are females growing inside the eggs.
Sea turtles are reptiles that have hard shells in order to protect them from predators, they are one of the oldest and most primitive reptiles. Sea turtles cannot insert their head and limbs inside the shell, unlike land turtles. Turtles live all over the world in almost all types of climates and now they have become endangered animals.
Gorillas are among the wonderful creatures that share their DNA with humans by about 93%, they are able to feel emotions and sometimes share the same behaviour with us, even laughing, and there are two main types of gorillas, eastern and western, but there are 3 out of 4 individuals classified on the Red List for the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
The decline in the numbers of mountain gorillas is mostly due to poaching, habitat loss, and disease, in addition to being one of the most slowly recovering animals. It also has a low reproductive rate as females give birth once every 4 to 6 years, meaning that one female may reproduce only three or four times during her life.
Gorillas are under constant threat from farmers encroaching on their habitats in one of Africa’s most populous rural areas, as well as hunting them for their meat or obtaining exotic souvenirs to sell abroad.
Mountain gorillas live in forested volcanoes in Central Africa. Despite the increase, risks from poachers and armed groups remain in their habitat in the western Rift Valley that runs through the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, and Rwanda.
This type of white fawn was common in the trans-Saharan countries of North Africa, but due to over-hunting over the years, no more than 100 individuals remain today. These animals are close to the various types of antelope, but they differ from them in terms of having square teeth similar to those of cattle, and the lack of glands that secrete musk on their cheeks.
Addax is considered one of the animals familiar in captivity, despite its scarcity in its natural habitat, as it is multiplied in private game farms for hunting, in addition to zoos. There are less than 500 of these animals left in the wild, and fewer than 860 in captivity.
Addax is about a meter high at the shoulders and weighs between 60 and 120 kilograms. The colour of these antelopes is white on most of the body except for the chest, neck and head, which are mostly brown except for a small white spot above the bridge of the nose and around the mouth. This antelope has brown or black markings on its head that take the shape of an “X” above its nose.
Addax lives in desert areas where it feeds on herbs and leaves of any type of shrubs and bushes that it finds. It does not usually drink water, but rather gets all the juices needed from the plant eaten. This type of antelope is nocturnal and remains inactive during the day to maintain its activity and to avoid high body temperature.
Addax herds consist of both males and females and the number of herd members ranges from two to 20 heads, although the numbers were more abundant in previous times. The herd roams vast distances in search of sources of food, and these herds have a social system that is hierarchical according to age, it is believed, where the herd is led by the oldest male.
The red wolf was nearly extinct by the mid-20th century due to aggressive predator control programs, habitat destruction, and extensive cross-breeding with coyotes. By the late 1960s, there was a small number on the Gulf Coast of western Louisiana and eastern Texas, only 14 of these survivors were chosen to be the founders of a family-bred group, which was set up at Point Defiance Zoo and Aquarium. After a successful experimental relocation to the Isle of Bowles off the coast of South Carolina.
The red wolf is now confined to a small area in eastern North Carolina in the United States, where its numbers are estimated at about 40 individuals, and this type of wolf is known to be very shy and is somewhat similar to the gray wolf in terms of shape.
Southern Rockhopper Penguin
There are three different types of Rockhopper penguins: the western Rockhopper penguin, the eastern Rockhopper penguin, and the northern Rockhopper penguin. All penguins live in the southern hemisphere (south of the equator). Birds on the Rockhopper penguin live in the semi-Antarctica island, with a large decrease in its three types.
The Rockhopper penguin is a small type of similar penguin in appearance to the royal penguin and the pasta road. The upper side of the bird is characterized by the Rockhopper penguin in black and grey with bright yellow eyebrows, which end in long, legitimate, side yellow columns behind the red eye. The colour of their beaks usually comes in orange/red. All penguins are great swimmers without exception. Birds on the Rockhopper penguin use their strong fins with simplified bodies, whose feet help rise through the water.
Birds on the Rockhopper penguin depend on meat, as they are meat-eating animals that prey on the ocean. Most of their diet consists of crustaceans, small fish, caramel, and rocks. Krill and small crustaceans make up the largest part of the Rockhopper’s diet along with larger beings, including squid and different types of fish. The Rockhopper penguin can live at sea for several days, while its ability to hunt and pick up food by diving into water for minutes each time.
The average age of the Rockhopper penguin is about 10 years. It is up to 55 cm in length and weighs about 3 kg. They have bright red eyes, and the males and females are always similar in appearance. It gives birth from October to April, the warmest period in the southern hemisphere. They live in large colonies in rocky coastal areas. The female usually puts two eggs, but it embraces one only.
The giant panda is known as one of the attractive giant animals. Everyone loves the panda for its cute outward appearance. The giant panda is no longer considered an endangered animal after two decades of efforts by conservationists. The status was altered from «endangered» to «vulnerable». The efforts made by China, which has the giant panda as its national animal, increased its numbers to 1,864 adults.
The change in the status of the panda was announced in the latest update to the Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature, but this update brought bad news, as the eastern gorilla is now considered an endangered animal. So, it called on environmental conservation societies to work in support of projects to conserve and protect it, but the biggest threat to the giant panda is humans, habitat destruction, and its exposure to starvation.
Giant pandas depend on the bamboo plant and depend on it as their staple food. Although their digestive system can digest meat, they eat bamboo, which takes a 60-year growth cycle, which causes the death of large numbers of pandas and exposes them to extinction.
How to Protect Animals from Extinction
There are several ways to protect animals from extinction, the most important of which involve individual efforts which are a set of simple steps that can be followed by individuals that help protect organisms from extinction, these steps include:
- Spreading awareness among people about the types of these animals and ways to protect them, as well as the importance of preserving them. This is done through institutions concerned with the environment and through various educational institutions.
- Visiting nature reserves that are interested in protecting these types of creatures, as well as contributing to protecting their places of existence. It is possible to join these reserves through voluntary work, thus obtaining sufficient information about them.
- Not to buy products that are made from these animals, such as leather and fur. The demand to buy these products increases the keenness of fishermen to kill them.
- Preserving the surrounding environment in order for these endangered species to have a safe environment and wildlife. For example, it is possible to reduce the cutting of trees, not throw waste in forests, and preserve water channels.
There are also institutional efforts of institutions and official bodies concerned with wildlife that must begin by listing endangered species and determining the reasons for their extinction, and then start taking steps to protect them. The most important of these methods are:
The authorities concerned with preserving wildlife must prevent poaching by applying practical methods and steps to protect animals, the most prominent of these methods are the following:
- Impose a deterrent punishment for anyone who practices it and consider it a crime for which he is held accountable under the law.
- Imprisonment or payment of sums of money as a punishment for those who threaten these rare animals.
- Enable non-profit organizations (in countries where there is a lot of poaching, such as countries in Africa and Asia) that care for preserving endangered animals to promote alternative and more sustainable ways of earning money, due to the large number of traders who make their livelihood from poaching.
- Reduce people’s demand for illegal and wildlife-sourced products; If a product is not legally available, it is prohibited to obtain it illegally.
Forests in general can be protected by applying the steps outlined below:
- Develop mechanisms capable of reducing unsustainable fishing practices.
- Promote sustainable wild meat utilization management. Any meat of animals that live in the forests must not be for treading.
- Provide specialized organizations with technical assistance to enhance the capabilities of dealing with conflicts over wildlife.
- Cross-border cooperation and development of protected area management.
- Design and implement projects and initiatives related to the protection of animal forests.
These are geographical areas for which the government provides protection and support. It began to appear at the beginning of the 20th century and has great importance in preserving species and biodiversity. Yellowstone National Park in the United States of America was the first national park in the world.
Today, in all parts of the world, rural areas have been designated as wildlife reserves. The flora and fauna in these areas are protected as much as possible from human snipers and collectors, and investors and construction companies are prohibited from constructing buildings in them. Some of these reserves are vast, covering thousands of square kilometres, and others do not exceed small plots of land that have not yet been touched by urban development.
Providing a Suitable and Safe Environment for Animals
A suitable environment for animals is a place that includes all the factors they need to survive, such as light, water, food, shelter and a suitable place for reproduction. A suitable environment can be provided for animals as follows:
- Preserve the environment of animals permanently in national parks, nature reserves and wild areas, while allowing people to visit them where they are, provided that strict laws and regulations are put in place prohibiting abuse of them or the place in which they are located.
- Preserve the environment for animals permanently in farms, by fencing areas designated for animals, searching for alternatives to poisoning and shooting used to control animals, as well as leaving dead trees in their place because animals use them for nesting and to protect themselves from predators.
- Survey land before purchasing it to ensure it is not home to animals.
- Prevent fires in forests such as cigarettes and camps.
Exploiting the Idea of Industrial Inheritance
In order to preserve the biological diversity of animals and protect them from the threat of extinction, the idea of industrial inheritance can be exploited, which means storing the inherited genes of endangered animals, and exploiting them in light of industrial and technological development through the following:
- Storing biological samples of animals in biobanks is a precaution, to preserve their diversity and prevent them from extinction, by restoring their genes and helping them to reproduce.
- Employing genomics, which includes methods of improving DNA and collecting it from different environments, in order to obtain the genomes of different extinct species.
- Reducing animal disease and infection that lead to their death, by employing biosynthetic technology that can neutralize diseases that destroy wildlife.