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The energy travels through space as electromagnetic waves. They are made when electric and magnetic fields move around each other. In other words, EM waves are made up of magnetic and electric fields that move back and forth.

## Description:

Electromagnetic waves are made when an electric field meets a magnetic field. So, we call them “electromagnetic” waves. An electromagnetic wave has both an electric and a magnetic field, but they are at right angles. They also don’t go in the same direction as the EM wave.

In a hoover, the speed of EM waves is always 3.00 x 108 ms-1.

Neither the electric nor magnetic fields can make them move in a different direction. On the other hand, they can show interference or diffraction.

Electromagnetic waves can move through air, solid matter, or even a vacuum.

It can spread from one place to another without the help of a medium. Mechanical waves, like sound or water waves, need something to move through in order to move.

## Transverse waves are what EM waves are.

This means their height (amplitude) and wavelength (a measure of how far apart the peaks and valleys of two waves are from one another) are used to measure them.

The part of a wave that is the highest is called the “crest,” and the part that is the lowest is called the “trough.” Electromagnetic waves can be broken up into a number of different frequencies.

The electromagnetic spectrum is what we call this.

• Microwaves,
• Infrared,
• X-rays,
•  Gamma rays and so on are all types of EM waves.

## Types of electromagnetic waves

Gamma rays, X-rays, ultraviolet light, visible light, infrared light, and radio waves are the various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum that are named in order of increasing energy.

The microwave range of the electromagnetic spectrum includes the waves used in microwave ovens.

## Example of electromagnetic waves

Electromagnetic waves: a picture

Electromagnetic waves are made up of things like radio waves, TV waves, and microwaves. The only thing that makes them different is the wavelength.

Electromagnetic waves are made up of two waves that move in opposite directions from each other. One is an electric field that moves back and forth, and the other is a magnetic field that moves back and forth. The Wave moves in a direction against the electric and magnetic fields.

There are three main types of electromagnetic waves:

Even though they are made differently and found differently, they are not really different. Electromagnetic radiation includes radio waves, gamma rays, visible light, and everything else on the electromagnetic spectrum.

This happens most often:

The highest frequency in the electromagnetic spectrum is found in gamma rays. Their frequency is in the range of 1020 to 1022 Hz.

## Type of electromagnetic Wave:

A Gamma-ray is a type of electromagnetic Wave.

X-ray.

Ray of infrared.

UV ray.

Seeing the light.

Microwaves.

## ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

Changes in a magnetic field will cause changes in an electric field and vice versa.

Electromagnetic waves are made up of these fields that change. Electromagnetic waves don’t need something to travel through as mechanical waves does.

Electromagnetic (EM) Spectrum

Sun’s range of visible light.

The part of the Sun’s spectrum that we can see. With our eyes, we can only make out a band of the electromagnetic spectrum that is very narrow.

Normal white light is made up of all the colours of the rainbow, from red and orange to blue and purple.

Light comes in many other “colours” that we can’t see.

These include “light” like ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR), which humans can’t see.

They also include X-rays, gamma rays, and radio waves, which are less common types of radiation.

The EM spectrum, which stands for the electromagnetic spectrum, is a term for all of these different “colours” of light.

The photons in each part of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum have their own energy levels, wavelengths, and frequencies.

Gamma rays are the most powerful, have the shortest wavelengths, and travel at the fastest speeds.

On the other hand, radio waves have the least energy, the longest wavelengths, and the lowest frequencies.

All types of EM radiation. The parts of the EM spectrum are called gamma rays, X-rays, ultraviolet radiation, visible light, infrared radiation, and radio waves, from most energy to least. Microwaves, like the ones in microwave ovens, are a part of the EM spectrum’s radio wave section.

## How electromagnetic waves work

• Electromagnetic waves are made up of two waves that move in opposite directions from each other.
• One is an electric field that moves back and forth, and the other is a magnetic field that moves back and forth.
• The Wave moves in a direction that goes against the electric and magnetic fields.
• They move in different directions and don’t need a material medium to move. They move at 3 x 108 m/s, which is the speed of light.

The basics

Electromagnetic waves move in a way that is called “transverse.”

• Waves move by changing the electric and magnetic fields around them so that Both fields are not in the same direction. And in the right way in which the Wave is moving.
• An electromagnetic wave travelling through a hoover cleaner travels at the same speed as, according to the third property. The waves are moving at a speed of 3 x 108 m/s.
• Electromagnetic waves are waves that are not made of matter. They can spread without needing anything physical.
• They agree with the equation c = f. Here, f is the frequency in Hertz and is the length of the Wave in metres. The speed of light is 3 x 108 metres per second, and the product of the wavelength and frequency is a constant c. By looking at the relationship between wavelength, frequency, and the speed of light, we can see that electromagnetic waves will always move at the speed of light, no matter their wavelength or frequency.
• The magnetic field and the oscillating electric field are in the same phase. An electromagnetic wave’s velocity is proportional to the ratio of its electric field strength to its magnetic field strength.

## List the seven different kinds of electromagnetic waves

1- Waves that travel through the air

2- Microwaves

Microwave radiation can cook your popcorn in just a few minutes. Astronomers use it to figure out how nearby galaxies are put together.

3- Infrared

The infrared light that our bodies and hot things give off is what night vision goggles pick up. We can use infrared light to map the dust between stars in space.

4- Light you can see

Our eyes detect visible light. Light can be seen coming from fireflies, light bulbs, and the stars.

5- Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet rays come from the Sun, which is why our skin tans and burns. UV radiation is also given off by things in space that are “hot.”

6- X-rays

A dentist uses X-rays to take pictures of your teeth, and airport security uses them to look through your bag. X-rays can also be given off by hot gases in the Universe.

7- Gamma-rays

Gamma-ray imaging is a way for doctors to look inside your body. The Universe is the biggest source of gamma rays of all.

## The most dangerous kind of electromagnetic waves are:

• Gamma rays. People can also be hurt by ultraviolet rays, X-rays, and microwaves.
• The bad things that electromagnetic waves do Electromagnetic waves can cause anxiety, nausea, headaches, fatigue, early ageing, liver spots, and other problems.
• Electromagnetic waves move in all directions.
• The range of electromagnetic waves

The range of all types of electromagnetic (EM) radiation is called the electromagnetic spectrum.

Radiation is energy that moves and spreads out as it goes. For example, the light from a lamp in your house and the radio waves from a radio station are both types of electromagnetic radiation.

• Radiation types include microwaves, infrared, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays. Are the other types of EM radiation that make up the electromagnetic spectrum.

You know more than you might think about the electromagnetic spectrum.

Even though they are made differently and found differently, they are not really different.

• Electromagnetic radiation includes radio waves, gamma rays, visible light, and everything else on the electromagnetic spectrum.
• Electromagnetic radiation is a stream of massless particles called photons that move in waves at the speed of light. Every photon has a certain amount of energy inside of it. The amount of energy in the photons tells us what kind of radiation it is. In radio waves, the photons have low energies; in microwaves, the photons have slightly more energy than radio waves; in infrared, the photons have even more energy. There is even more energy than infrared photons, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma-rays, which have the most energy.

## Getting a handle on electromagnetic radiation

You can talk about electromagnetic radiation in terms of its energy, wavelength, or frequency. Hertz are the units used to measure frequency.

Meters are used to measure length. Electron volts are used to measure energy. Each of these three numbers used to describe EM radiation has a precise mathematical relationship with the other two.

Scientists don’t like to use numbers that are bigger or smaller than they need to be. “Two kilometres” is much easier to say and write than “two thousand metres.” Scientists usually use whatever units work best for the type of EM radiation they are studying.

Electromagnetic radiation is a stream of massless particles called photons that move in waves at the speed of light.

Every photon has a certain amount of energy inside of it. The amount of energy in the photons tells us what kind of radiation it is.

Photons in radio waves have low energies, while those in microwaves are slightly more energetic.

Infrared photons have even more energy than infrared photons, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma-rays, which have the most energy.

## Getting a handle on electromagnetic radiation

• Energy, wavelength, or frequency can all be used to describe electromagnetic radiation.
• Hertz are the units used to measure frequency.
• Meters are used to measure length.
• Electron volts are used to measure energy.
• Each of these three numbers used to describe EM radiation has a precise mathematical relationship with the other two.
• But why do we need three ways to talk about things, each with its own set of physical units?

## The wavelength, frequency, and energy are all related

• Compare the electromagnetic spectrum’s wavelength, frequency, and amount of energy.
• Scientists don’t like to use numbers that are bigger or smaller than they need to be. “Two kilometres” is much easier to say and write than “two thousand metres.” Scientists usually use whatever units work best for the type of EM radiation they are studying.
• When studying radio waves, astronomers usually Use frequency or wavelength units.
• Most of the electromagnetic radio spectrum lies between 1 centimetre and 1 kilometre (30 GHz to 300 kHz).
• Radio is a very large part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
• Astronomers usually use wavelength to study both infrared and visible light.
• Infrared astronomers measure wavelengths in microns (millionths of a metre), so their part of the electromagnetic spectrum is between 1 and 100 microns. .
• If you measure light in nanometers, violet, blue, green, yellow, orange, and red are the visible spectrum’s visible light colours.
• They are between 400 and 700. (This range is a small part of the electromagnetic spectrum.) This means that the light our eyes can see is only a small part of all the electromagnetic radiation around us.

In the EM spectrum, the wavelengths of ultraviolet, X-ray, and gamma rays are very small. Astronomers studying these parts of the EM spectrum usually talk about photons by their energies, measured in electron volts, instead of their wavelengths (eV). UV light has energies between a few electron volts and about 100 eV. Photons that give off X-rays have energies between 100 eV and 100,000 eV. (or 100 keV). Then, all photons with energies higher than 100 keV are gamma rays.

## Why do we send telescopes up into space?

-This shows how far different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum can reach into the air.

Most types of electromagnetic radiation from space can’t get to the surface of the Earth because of the atmosphere.

-This shows how far different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum can travel into the atmosphere before being absorbed.

-Radio waves and light that can be seen don’t reach the surface.

-Most of the electromagnetic radiation from space can’t reach the Earth’s surface. Radio waves, light that can be seen, and even some ultraviolet light can reach sea level.

-By putting telescopes on mountaintops, astronomers can look at some infrared wavelengths. Experiments that use balloons can go up to 35 km above the ground and last for months.

Instruments can be taken above the Earth’s atmosphere on rocket flights, but only for a few minutes before they fall back to Earth.

## How an electromagnetic field works Wave

• Energy is a way to measure the ability to do work. It can take many different forms and change from one to another.
• Batteries and the water behind a dam are examples of things that can hold or store energy. Kinetic energy is shown by things that are moving.
• When charged particles like electrons and protons move, they create electromagnetic fields. These fields carry electromagnetic radiation or light.
• Waves can be electromagnetic or mechanical.
• Mechanical and electromagnetic waves are two of the most important ways energy moves worldwide. Mechanical waves are like waves in the water and sound waves in the air.
• Matter, whether solid, gas, liquid, or plasma, can make mechanical waves when it moves or shakes. A medium is any material that waves can propagate through.
• In a liquid, water waves cause vibrations, and sound waves are made in a gas (air).
• These mechanical waves move through a medium by making the molecules bump into each other like falling dominoes, passing energy from one to the next.
• There is nothing that can carry mechanical waves through space, so sound waves can’t travel there.

## ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

• Static electricity is like the kind of energy that makes your hair stand on end.
• A refrigerator magnet is an example of static magnetism. Changes in a magnetic field will cause changes in an electric field and vice versa.
• Electromagnetic waves are made up of these fields that change.
• Unlike mechanical waves, electromagnetic waves Are not necessarily used as a medium to travel from one location to another.
• Electromagnetic waves can penetrate not only air and solid objects but also empty space.
• A Scottish researcher named James Clerk Maxwell came up with a way to measure electromagnetic fields in the 1860s and 1870s. Of measuring the speed of light.

With a scientific theory to explain electromagnetic waves.

He noticed that electric and magnetic fields could combine to make electromagnetic waves.

He put together what are now called “Maxwell’s Equations” to show how electricity and magnetism work together.

## The electromagnetic spectrum: An introduction

How do you define electromagnetic energy?

• Electromagnetic energy moves in waves and has a wide range, from radio waves that are very long to very short gamma rays.
• Only a small part of this spectrum, visible light, can be seen by the human eye.
• A radio picks up a different part of the spectrum, and an x-ray machine uses a still different part.
• NASA’s scientific instruments use the whole spectrum of electromagnetic radiation to investigate our planet, our solar system, and the cosmos beyond.
• You use electromagnetic energy when you tune your radio, watch TV, send a text message, or pop popcorn in a microwave.
• You need this energy every single minute of every single day. Without it, you could not live in the world you know.

## Our atmosphere keeps us safe

• Our Sun is a source of all kinds of energy, and its electromagnetic radiation always hits our atmosphere.
• But the Earth’s atmosphere keeps us safe from higher-energy waves that can be dangerous into being, bring into being, bring to life. Electromagnetic radiations are known as gamma rays, x-rays, and some ultraviolet waves “ionising,” which means they have so much power that they can knock electrons out of atoms.
• When these high-energy waves hit atoms and molecules, they can change them. They can also damage cells in organic matter.
• Sometimes these changes are good, like when radiation is used to kill cancer cells, but sometimes they are bad, like when we get a sunburn.
• Several gases in the Earth’s atmosphere mostly reflect or absorb electromagnetic radiation.
• Water vapour, carbon dioxide, and ozone are some of the most important of these gases.
• Some types of radiation, like visible light, mostly pass through the atmosphere. “Atmospheric windows” are these parts of the electromagnetic spectrum with short enough wavelengths to penetrate the air.
• Some microwaves can even get through clouds, which is why they are the best wavelength for satellite signals.
• Even though our atmosphere is important for preserving Earth’s habitability and the survival of its living organisms, it could be more helpful in studying the sources of high-energy radiation in space.
• To “see” quasars and other high-energy light sources, instruments must be placed high above Earth’s atmosphere, which soaks up energy.

## The best way to explain what electromagnetic means:

• Having to do with or causing magnetism that is caused by electricity.
• Magnetism is the ability of an object to draw other objects to it. Physics.
• Electromagnetic can also have to do with the science of how electricity and magnetism work together.

## The colour has the most life force:

• Violet light

Violet light has the shortest wavelength, so it has the most energy out of all the colours you can see.

## The five things you know about electromagnetic waves:

• These waves can send energy through empty space.
• Energy is carried by electromagnetic waves.

Trough refers to the lowest point of a wave, and the highest part is called the crest.

• Remote controls use waves that are close to the infrared range
• Radiant heat is what far infrared waves are.
• Most energy comes from gamma rays.

The names for electromagnetic waves are:

Electromagnetic waves can be broken up into a number of different frequencies.

The electromagnetic spectrum is what we call this. Radiation of all kinds—radio, microwave, infrared, X, gamma rays, and so on are all types of EM waves.

## 5 ways electromagnetic energy is used:

-Radio waves are one of them.

– Waves on TV.

– Light.

– Ultraviolet Light (This is what causes Sunburns)

– X-rays (just like the ones you get at the doctor’s office)

– Little waves.

Three kinds of gamma rays are:

and checking for quality are all examples of things that use gamma waves.

## These are the important things about electromagnetic waves:

• In an empty space, these waves move at a speed of 3108 m/s.
• They don’t move away from either an electric or a magnetic field.
• They can show how light interferes or bends.
• They are waves that go across.

Electromagnetic waves travel in all directions, and the electric and magnetic fields are the same size.

No transmission medium is required for electromagnetic waves.

Electromagnetic waves travel at a speed of 3108 m/s in a vacuum.

Electric and magnetic fields carry the same amount of energy in an electromagnetic wave.

## Things in your home that emit electromagnetic waves

Things we use every day that give off radiation

• Power lines and electrical items. Wi-Fi. 5G technology, cell phones, cell phone towers, and antennas. Hand-held lasers and laser pointers. Tanning beds and lamps. Smart metres. Compact fluorescent lamps. Microwave ovens.
• Electromagnetic fields are made by many household items, like low-energy light bulbs, TV and computer screens, electric radiators, and even electric blankets.
• These everyday things give off electric or electromagnetic fields or use them to work.
• Radio waves: a way to talk.
• Microwaves are used to heat things.
• Infrared waves are used for things like imaging and remote control.
• A light that we can see lets us see everything around us.
• Ultraviolet waves help scientists learn about galaxies.
• Electrical gadgets like an electric bell, fan, electric motor, loudspeaker, etc.

Electromagnets are used every day for many different things. Electromagnets, for example, are used in the big cranes in rubbish yards.

Electromagnets are also used in a wide range of electronic and electromechanical devices. Here are some common ways to use it.

Generators, motors, and transformers all use electromagnets.

Electric bells and buzzers

– There are headphones and speakers.

– Valves and relays

– Devices that store data, such as VCRs, sellotape recorders, hard drives, etc.

– An induction cooker

– Locks with magnets

– MRI machines

– Particle accelerators

Spectrometers for mass

Electromagnetism is used in a lot of home appliances. It is the basic principle behind how most home appliances work.

Electromagnets are used in many things around the house, like electric fans, electric doorbells, an induction cookers, magnetic locks, etc.

Electromagnets are also used in the field of medicine. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, short for “MRI scan,” is a machine that uses electromagnets. With the help of electromagnetism, the device can scan all the tiny parts of the human body.

– Used in computer hardware and memory storage devices

The bytes and bits that makeup bytes and bits are used to store data in ebook readers and phones.

Electromagnetism is also at work in the magnetic tape that is part of the computer hardware. Electromagnets were a big part of how VCP and VCR stored data even back in the old days.

– Used in power circuits and communication devices

Electromagnets could have been used to make the phones and cell phones we use to talk to people far away.

The electromagnetic pulses and the way the signals interact make cell phones and phones very useful.

## The Mag-Lev trains

Mag-Lev trains are trains that stay in the air with the help of magnets.

This happens because there are big magnets on the bottom of the train and on the tracks, and these magnets push against each other. This means these trains can go very fast, up to 200mph.

So there you go! If someone asks you, “What are magnets used for?” you’ll be able to show them how smart you are.

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We live in an automated world. Almost everything around us is done by machines. These machines make our lives easier and better. They do energy-consuming tasks and chores and save us time to dedicate to more important things.

Not only that, but automated machines also drive cars, ships, and planes. They circulate our planet, land on Mars and the Moon, travel far into outer space, and send us back huge data about the universe.

Having said that, we have grown to take machines for granted. Does anyone, for real, ever take a minute to think how life would be if these inventions disappeared all of a sudden?

It surely is an unimaginable situation. Though, if it did happen, we would immediately be struck by the indispensability of machines. We would also feel extreme gratitude for the people who worked so hard for years and years to bring them into existence.

In this article, we are going to introduce you to one of the most marvellous inventions of the 20th century: the radio. We will take you through the stories behind its development and how it inspired the advanced communication systems we cannot live without now.

But before we get started, we must clarify that the radio did not burst out of nohwere. It emerged from ideas and questions that scientists of the past had. These ideas were followed by extreme hard work, research, and lots and lots of experiments that developed into something over time.

Though evolutionary, not many youngsters are quite familiar with the radio. That is mostly attributed to the widespread use of other broadcast media such as films, television, YouTube, or even podcasts. All of that and more made the use of radio rather limited. Ironically, all these media would not exist if it were not for radio technology.

Simply put, radio broadcasting is the wireless transmission of audio to a large public audience. The word ‘radio’ refers to the type of electromagnetic waves that carry the audio.

Most of the time, the radio is used to air news and entertainment shows. However, it was also used in many different fields to exchange messages. Most notably, it was used to communicate with ships that were out at sea in the late 19th century and the early 20th century. As we will see later on, the famous Titanic ship used a radio system to ask for help from nearby ships.

In addition, the radio was also used in secret broadcasting. This is the kind of message transmission that was not intended to feed a large audience. It was often used in the military or during wartime to exchange secret information through encrypted messages.

Unlike mobile phones, audio transmitted by radio is rather limited. We know it is possible to phone others in remote areas; even on other continents. However, it is difficult to pick up a radio signal broadcasted in another country and sometimes even in another city unless other means of signal amplification are used.

The invention of the radio both as a technology and equipment made the transmission of information ridiculously easy. It also paved the way for every other form of remote communication we have nowadays. That said, the radio was developed for a reason.

People in the past used to communicate by exchanging letters. They would write them and send them with a person who was travelling to the same destination as the letter. Then they would wait in vain for months to receive a reply. After that, the postal service arrived on the scene. Thanks to it, the exchange of letters became a lot easier and much more organised.

But such the transmission and reception of written messages still took time. So the telegraph was developed. A telegraph is a small device that was used to send and receive short messages using electric signals. It was developed in the 19th century by the American inventor Samuel F. B. Morse.

The idea behind the telegraph is so simple. Every letter of the alphabet was represented by a different electric signal. Based on that, a written message could be broken into a set of signals. These signals were transmitted through power lines to another telegraph at the receiver side. Once received, the process was inverted. The electric signals were converted back to words. This method of encoding messages was called Morse Code.

Using telegraphy allowed messages to be transmitted in mere minutes. Soon enough, it was implemented everywhere. Power lines and cables were extended to connect towns, cities, and countries. There were even telegraph cables beneath the Atlantic Ocean that connected the US to Europe.

The telegraph grew to be far-reaching. However, the technology still comprised some limitations. Since it was centred on fast transmission, messages had to be short. However, when the messages got bigger, they took longer to be received.

For example, the longest message ever transmitted by Morse Code was the 16,543-word Nevada State Constitution sent by Governor James W. Nye in 1864 from Nevada to Washington. The text took seven hours to encode and two days to be received as the two states were 1404 km apart.

That made telegraphs mostly exclusive to important and emergency messages. That is why the average length of a telegraph message was found to be about 15 words only. In other words, telegraphs were not suitable for sending longer messages fast. That meant another great development was just around the corner.

## Heinrich Hertz: Discovering radio waves

Radio waves are a form of electromagnetic waves. They were first predicted by Scottish Mathematician James Clerk Maxwell in 1864. He developed mathematical equations that proposed the existence of electromagnetic waves. Such waves could travel through space at the speed of light; 300,000 km/s. However, neither Maxwell nor anyone else at the time was actually able to confirm that claim.

In the 1880s, German Physicist Heinrich Hertz could successfully generate radio waves for the first time. Such an achievement hence proved Maxwell’s equations correct. Sadly, Maxwell himself had been long dead by that time. He did not know how much his work was that of a genius.

On the other hand, Hertz ironically did not know what to do with these radio waves he discovered. He had absolutely no practical application for them. But as an appreciation for his great contribution to the field, radio waves were named after him: Hertzian waves. That term remained in use in the scientific community up until 1910. Afterwards, the waves were referred to as radio waves.

## Guglielmo Marconi: The technology of radio

After the discovery of the radio waves, numerous scientists started working on building systems that would transmit wireless signals. But none of these systems was successful. It was not until an Italian genius called Guglielmo Marconi foresaw great possibilities with radio waves.

Guglielmo Marconi was bright as a kid. He showed huge interest in science from a young age. So his father, who was a wealthy man, took good care of his son’s education. He hired the finest teachers to help develop Guglielmo Marconi’s extraordinary mental skills even more.

In 1894, at the age of 20, Marconi had the idea of developing a wireless telegraphy system. Given that these electromagnetic waves can travel incredibly fast, Marconi thought of transmitting messages as radio waves instead of electric signals. That would allow messages to be received instantly.

At the time, no other inventor was actually pursuing such an application of radio waves. This fired up Marconi to go on with his findings, pioneer radio technology, and take credit for the invention of radiotelegraphy as we will see later on.

So Marconi began conducting laboratory experiments that took place in his father’s home attic. He was able to come up with an apparatus that could generate radio waves. He then used the same Morse Code to encode letters to radio wave pulses. And with an antenna that he put together, Marconi could transmit those radio waves between the rooms.

In 1895, Marconi moved his experiments outdoors, placing the antenna in the air. After some changes in its position, Marconi was able to transmit a radio wave over a distance of 800 metres. Although British Physicist Oliver Lodge, who also had his own experiments with radio waves, had claimed earlier that radio waves could never travel farther than one kilometre, Marconi went on to prove him wrong.

Little did Lodge know, when Marconi made some key improvements to his radio transmitter invention, he was able to extend the distance a radio wave could travel. For instance, he increased the height of the antenna and grounded the transmitter and receiver. That successfully resulted in a radio wave travelling a distance of 3.5 km.

Such success gave more room for improving the radio transmitter. So Marconi wrote to the Ministry of Post and Telegraph in Italy, demonstrating his radiotelegraph machine and requesting funds to further develop it. Unfortunately, no one seemed interested enough in Marconi’s invention. They did not even bother to reject his appeal.

Marconi knew that he needed to find support elsewhere if he was to continue his experiments. So in 1896, Marconi, only aged 21 and accompanied by his mom, set off for Great Britain. There, he found more interest and aid. He also received the necessary funds to develop his extraordinary experiments.

With enough determination and encouragement, Marconi continued to develop his wireless radiotelegraph. Every time he was able to send messages over longer distances. In 1899, Marconi could send radio messages over the English channel. That is a distance of around 34 km.

The accelerated progress Marconi made was very promising. And he himself saw the potential of his radiotelegraph. So he decided to put it into practice. In 1898, Marconi established the first radio factory in the world. He hired excellent engineers and technicians to manufacture radio operators that ships could use.

A year later, Marconi thought about taking the challenge to the next level by making his debut in the US. So he equipped two American ships with wireless radio systems from his factory. The point was to allow these ships to instantly report to the New York Herald newspaper about the progress of the America’s Cup Yacht Race.

This successful endeavour allowed greater interest in Marconi’s wireless radio system. Soon after, ships started to implement wireless radiotelegraph systems to facilitate communication with each other in the open waters and with onshore stations. Such practice proved highly important, especially after the role it played during the sinking of the Titanic—we will see how in a few paragraphs.

But despite his great achievements in radiotelegraphy, Marconi felt he did not fully surpass the regular telegraph system. He was still unable to transmit radio signals between far-flung places, for example, continents. But he did become capable of that.

At the turn of the 20th century, Marconi could transmit the first transatlantic radio signal—that is more than 2800 km! Interestingly, and due to the curvature of the Earth, the radio wave sent from England was headed to space and then reflected by the ionosphere back to the Earth, precisely to its destination in Newfoundland, Canada.

## The Titanic

As we have just mentioned, many ships started to adopt Marconi’s wireless systems to better navigate and communicate with other ships. Every system used to have a radio transmitter and receiver as well as a small telegraph apparatus and a headset.

When messages were received, short and long beeps were heard through the headset. These represented the dots and dashes of the Morse Code. The beeps were then translated into messages. When messages were transmitted, someone would use the telegraph apparatus to encode the letters to radio waves. These were also heard as beeps at the receiver station.

So the Titanic was equipped with the finest and most advanced wireless radio system from Marconi’s company. In addition, two employees from the same company were hired onboard to be in charge of communication. However, they were not considered part of the ship’s crew.

The primary responsibility of those two employees or radio operators was to send private messages from passengers onboard to their family and friends on land. Weather reports then came as a secondary concern.

What really happened on the Titanic shows how highly important radiography was at the time. It did play a crucial role in saving the lives of 706 people. It even could have prevented the sinking of the ship altogether should the circumstances had been a little different. So here is how the story goes.

One day before the Titanic tragedy, the wireless radio system on the ship had failed. In such a case, employees were advised to ‘leave everything as is’ and rest until they got to shore so experienced engineers would take care of the problem.

But onboard radio telegraphist Jack Phillips broke the rules and decided to repair the operator himself. After a while, Phillips was able to bring the machine back to life. Yet, he had a mountain of delayed private passenger messages accumulated when the operator was down. So he kept busy sending these messages.

Since the afternoon of the Titanic’s last day, the ship had received messages from nearby ships, warning her about many icebergs and ice fields ahead. Philips acknowledged all those warnings. But he did not pass them to the bridge. The bridge is the room from which the ship was commanded. As a result, the Titanic’s Captain Edward Smith never knew of these warnings beforehand.

Only an hour before the Titanic struck the iceberg, Philips received the sixth and last message from the nearby ship the Californian. It was warning the Titanic about an iceberg just a few miles ahead.

The Californian herself had encountered a large iceberg so her captain decided to stop and wait till the morning. He saw lights from a ship that was approaching and knew from his wireless operator Cyril Furmstone Evans it was the Titanic. So the Californian’s captain asked Evans to warn her and all the other ships in the area.

Philips received this final warning from the Californians but again decided to ignore it. He, later on, justified his act. He said that the messages were not prefixed ‘MSG’, or Master Service Gram, which usually referred to messages intended for the bridge.

Philips even replied to Evans, shouting ‘Shut up! Shut up! I am working Cape Rock’ and went back to sending the passenger messages. Evans was frustrated at Philips’s rude reaction. So he turned off his radio system and went to bed.

It was not only the rejection of the warnings that got the Titanic to eventually hit the iceberg. It was also the fact that the ship was going full speed. So by the time the officers were able to view the iceberg, it was already too late for the Titanic to change course.

Philips never understood how disastrous his rejection of the warnings was until Captain Smith a few minutes after the collision rushed into the wireless room and urged Philips to send a distress call to all nearby ships. He also gave Philips the position of the Titanic to send with the message.

For the next few hours and before the Titanic sank in the Atlantic, Philips kept sending distress messages, hoping that any ship would pick them up and come to the rescue.

Unfortunately, the Californian, which was the closest ship to the Titanic, received none of these messages since its receiver was turned off by Evans.

Even though the Titanic was in the sight of the Californian and its flares were spotted by the Californian’s captain, he did not attempt to help the Titanic. And that was not because the man was evil. First, the Californian itself was stuck in an ice field. Second, the captain, for some reason, did not think the rockets were a desperate call for help.

Carpathia was a ship that was in the waters that night. Unfortunately, it was four hours away from the Titanic. But when it received one of those distress messages, it headed to where the Titanic was.

It was not too late for Carpathia to save lives. Though it already arrived a few hours after the Titanic had sunk, Carpathia could save the 706 survivors who made it to the lifeboats. If it had not been for that ship, those poor people may have frozen to death. That said, Operator Jack Phillips unfortunately was not among the survivors.

In a twist of fate, Marconi received a free ticket to travel on the Titanic. But he preferred to board the Lusitania. That was another British ship that set off three days before the Titanic’s first and last voyage.

After that tragedy, it was clear how significant wireless radio transmission was, having saved the lives of hundreds of people. As a result, Marconi gained even more popularity and recognition for his achievements in that field.

Up until that point, all the messages transmitted through Marconi’s radiotelegraph systems were text messages encoded using the Morse Code. However, there was no way to transfer audio.

In fact, Marconi did find these encoded messages pretty adequate. Some people even claimed he was entirely uninterested in transmitting voice messages. Such huge development in the audio transmission is attributed to the Canadian inventor Reginald Fessenden.

While Marconi was grabbing the world’s attention, travelling everywhere, and giving demonstrations of his wireless radiotelegraph, Fessenden was wondering if he could transfer audio over radio waves instead of using Morse Code to encode text messages. So he started experimenting with that.

Fessenden’s idea was to overlay an audio signal with a radio signal which in that case would play the role of a carrier. With some changes in the frequency, the resultant paired signal would have the shape of a sound wave that was able to travel remotely way faster thanks to the radio wave that carried it. On the other side, the receiver would then separate the radio wave and reproduce the original sound signal.

After some trial and error, Fessenden succeeded in transmitting audio between two stations that were 1.6 km apart. That was in late 1900.

This technology was called radiotelephony at the time. Fascinated by the promising start he had, Fessenden kept working on his invention. Every time, he made some changes to improve the performance of the audio transmitters and receivers. That allowed him to send audio signals over longer distances.

In 1902, Fessenden received an offer from an American company to manufacture his invention. If ships were equipped with those wireless radio telephony operators, it would be much easier and faster for them to communicate and take action during an emergency. That American company also wanted to compete with Marconi whose wireless radiotelegraphy system was already booming at the time.

In December 1906, ships that were sailing off the coast of New England in the northeast United States picked up a strange signal. Instead of hearing the regular beeps of Morse Code, they heard someone reading the Bible and playing the violin. The signal ended with the voice wishing them a merry Christmas. Then the sailors heard the normal beeping again.

That was Fessenden’s breakthrough. He could successfully send human voice over a long distance in the form of radio waves.

A year later, in 1907, American Inventor Lee de Forest came to the fore. Through his experiments, he could make the transmission of audio much more efficient. He also came up with the radio as equipment, a device that people could buy.

## George Westinghouse: The first radio channel

For the next decade, more and more inventors and engineers continued to develop the radio, as a technology and a device. It was introduced to the people and they did find it amusing.

Radio also gained more popularity after World War I. During the war, it was used to send war updates, news, and orders. So after the war had ended, many companies started to manufacture and sell radio devices to the public.

However, the spread of radio did encounter a few setbacks. One of them was that the public was not very convinced of why they should buy a radio device in the first place. It sure was fun to listen to others speaking from remote places. But that had no direct benefit to them.

However, necessity is the mother of invention. And it was necessary for the American Manufacturer George Westinghouse to sell radios. So he had the idea of programmes. If he wanted people to buy radios, he had to offer them content to consume with them.

Westinghouse was a successful businessman and he had lots of powerful connections. So he used them to establish the first transmitting radio station in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It was named KDKA—that abbreviation does not stand for anything.

On November 2nd, 1920, the first ever radio broadcast was made which thousands of people listened to. Westinghouse was really smart. He chose that very day because it was the day of the elections. To convince the people with the power of radio, the election results were announced publicly before they were printed out in newspapers. Westinghouse was right. The success that followed this radio debut was unimaginable.

After that, more and more stations were built and radio sales sky-rocketed. Radio programming also took shape. Performers and musicians were hired to sing and play live on air. Advertisers also came in to help spread the word about their products and support stations financially so they could keep going.

And they did.

## Conclusion

The evolution of radio was extraordinary. From the mid-19th century, scientists, mathematicians, physicists, and inventors made huge contributions that influenced the development of radio broadcasting. Such development was the base for every sort of remote communication we now have.

In this article, we learned the story behind the radio and how it was an absolute need to enhance communication. From the equations of Maxwell and Hertz’s discovery of the radio waves to Marconi who put them into practice and Fessenden who developed audio transmission.

So every time you listen to your favourite programme on the radio or use your mobile phone to call a friend, remember those great scientists and inventors who dedicated their lives to our mere benefit and the advancement of humanity.

## What is Energy?

Energy is a physical quantity that expresses the capacity of a system or a body to do work. At the moment, we don’t know exactly what energy is. We can only measure its various manifestations: a burning fire, a running athlete, the electric current that feeds our homes, the blowing wind, the warming sun, the peaceful flow of a river, or the violent fall of a waterfall.

It is a definite quantity that makes up the entire plane of reality. And you can move it from one point to another, you can convert it from shape to shape, but you will never change what it is and what it was and what it will be in the future.

Even our body heat, or our simple scream, is energy!

Energy is crucial to our lives as it plays an important role in all aspects of life such as in homes and industries.

In modern society, to carry out any activity, some form of energy is needed. Of all the existing forms, electricity is certainly the most versatile since it can be transformed and transported reasonably.

## Types/Forms of Energy

Energy has many different forms, such as:

### Chemical Energy

Chemical energy comes from the interaction between atoms and molecules.

It is the energy held in the bonds between atoms and molecules. Exothermic chemical reactions are able to break these bonds and release the energy they contain.

It is a form of potential energy (stored energy). It is kept in the bonds that connect molecules and atoms. Chemical energy is what holds the atoms together in a molecule. It is also what contains the molecules of a substance together.

During combustion in an exothermic reaction, oil, gas, coal, and biomass transform Their chemical energy is converted into heat, often in the form of light.

The body converts chemical energy in food into mechanical energy in motion, which then becomes heat energy. The chemical energy contained within a battery can be converted into electrical energy used to power a flashlight.

### Electrical Energy

Electricity is energy in motion. It is the movement of tiny particles known as electrons and protons. Lightning, which is a significant number of electrons flowing through the air all at once, is an example of electricity in nature.

It is the energy transferred from one system to another using electricity, or it is the energy stored in the case of electrostatic energy.

In other words, electrical emission is the movement of charged particles. That is commonly used in our lives;

Systems that can generate electricity include batteries and generators, while systems that can receive electricity include resistors, lightbulbs, and electric motors.

Electricity is the easiest to explain to children because it can be associated with the electronic objects we use every day.

People have learned to produce electricity and control it. Electricity is sent through wires or the air to power things like light bulbs, ovens, and washing machines.

### Gravitational energy

Large bodies such as the Earth and the Sun create gravity and gravitational energy.

This energy can be used to generate mechanical energy, such as the potential energy of a shelf object or the kinetic energy of the moon in its orbit around the Earth.

### Thermal energy

Everything in our environment is made up of particles known as molecules. Molecules always move randomly within a substance or object. Thermal energy is the total energy in motion (or kinetic energy) of all the molecules of a substance. All substances have thermal energy since the molecules that make up all substances are constantly in motion.

It is simply heated, resulting from the movement of molecules and atoms within materials, and therefore thermal energy represents the internal kinetic energy of the body;

for example, thermal energy is converted into mechanical energy in a steam engine or turbine, and thermal energy is converted into electricity in a thermal power plant The heat energy inside the Earth (geothermal energy) can also be used for heating or power generation.

### Light Energy

Light energy is also called (radiant energy). The Earth gets much of its energy from sunlight.

Light energy is also called radiant energy. There is no type of radiant energy that can be seen with the naked eye except Light. The energy carried by electromagnetic radiation is known as radiant energy.

Radiant energy also includes radio waves, gamma rays, and microwaves X-rays as Electromagnetic radiation travels in waves.

In addition to light energy, The sun emits the entire radiant energy spectrum carried by electromagnetic radiation.

Light energy is energy in motion. It travels through space and air in the form of waves. The various wavelengths of visible light are perceived as different colors.

### Potential and Kinetic Energy

Each type of energy can be classified as either potential energy or kinetic energy.

Potential energy is stored energy.

For example, Food’s chemical energy is stored energy.

When anybody starts eating, his body transforms stored energy into energy of movements such as heat energy or mechanical energy.

Potential energy can also be in just the location of an object. An object with potential energy has the ability, or potential, to move depending on its position. For example, potential energy can be stored in a rock leaning against a cliff or an arrow strung on a string. The rock falls if the cliff crumbles beneath it. If the string is released, it moves forward and pushes the arrow onto the target.

Kinetic energy: It is the energy that results from movement, and the faster the body moves, the greater its kinetic energy, and examples of it: are river energy (hydraulic energy) and wind energy, as this energy can be converted into mechanical energy through water mills, or windmills, or pumps connected to turbines, or to electricity when a generator is running.

When the rock and the arrow start moving, the energy turns into kinetic energy.

Kinetic energy is energy in motion. All moving objects have kinetic energy, even atoms.

Kinetic Energy: Anything that moves has energy. This energy is also called kinetic energy.

### Mechanical Energy

The moving energy of an avalanche rolling down a mountain is called mechanical energy.

Mechanical energy is the summation of potential energy and kinetic energy. Mechanical energy, unlike other types of energy, can exist as both potential and kinetic energy.

A hammer, for example, uses mechanical energy to drive a nail into a board. When the hammer is raised, it gains potential energy from the lifting action. When the hammer hits the pin, the potential energy becomes kinetic energy, which allows the pin to be driven into the board. When the hammer strikes the nail, energy is transferred to the pin, which is then transferred to the board.

### Nuclear Energy

Huge amounts of nuclear energy can be generated by splitting atoms.

It is the energy stored in the center of atoms, specifically in the bonds between the particles (protons and neutrons) that make up the nucleus of the atom. We can say that it is the energy that holds the nucleus of an atom together. Atomic energy is another name for nuclear energy. An atom contains one nucleus, which is the core of such an atom, it can be released by splitting an atom, and it can also be released by joining two cores together to form a single core.

Some of the emitted heat is converted into electricity, and in stars such as the sun, atomic energy is released when the nuclei unite in a process known as fusion.

### Acoustic Energy

It is the energy of sound waves that travel through the air or any other medium. An example of this is the human voice.

### Ionization Energy

It is a form of energy that binds electrons to the nucleus of its atom, ion, or molecule, as the first ionization energy of an atom is the energy required to completely remove one electron from the atom.

## Sources of Energy

Sources of energy are divided into primary and secondary sources:

Primary sources are those whose energy content can be used directly (energy products in their natural state such as coal, crude oil, nuclear fuels, hydraulic and geothermal energy) and whose transformation into another form derives secondary energy sources.

### Non-renewable Sources

Fossil sources: coal, oil, methane

Without a doubt, fossil fuels are the master of the modern world revolution, all industries depend heavily on the use of fossil fuels.

Energy used for Electricity or in homes and industrial operations is produced through the use of non-renewable resources like fossil fuels, coal, oil, and methane.

Coal: Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel available on Earth. It was formed due to the decay of ancient plants and animals many centuries ago. Coal is mainly found underground and is the primary source of fuel for electricity generation today.

Most power plants on Earth require vast reserves of Coal to produce electricity continuously without interruption; when coal is burned, it produces heat that is used to convert water into the current.

The steam is then used to drive turbines, which in turn activate the generators that produce electricity. Coal contains an excessive amount of carbon, and when it is burned to produce energy, it mixes with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide.

And unfortunately, Carbon dioxide is one of the gases responsible for global warming.

Since its discovery, the use of coal and other fossil fuels has increased, as its excessive extraction and use have led to environmental degradation and ecological imbalance. Although coal is still available in large quantities on this Earth, it is expected that it will not last for more than 40-50 years if it is not Switched to green or clean energy.

Oil: Oil is abundant in most Middle Eastern countries, including Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iran, Iraq, and the United Arab Emirates. While there are some little oil wells in North America and Canada, most countries are still highly dependent on these countries for their oil requirements; when they died, Plants and animals were covered with a thick layer of mud and sand, which caused high-pressure and temperature and led to the discovery of coal, oil and natural gas.

The widespread use of petroleum and petroleum-related products has resulted in massive air pollution; Because it is a significant source of fuel used in vehicles, due to the combustion process, harmful gases such as carbon dioxide are released when burning oil, for example about 19.7 million barrels of oil are consumed per day in the United States alone.

Oil is transported to other countries using pipelines or ships, where ship spills lead to oil spills that affect animals and plants that live in or around the sea. Just two years ago, a ship containing oil from British Petroleum (BP) caused an oil spill That led to the killing of many whales, fish, and small animals that live inside the sea.

Natural gas: it is a mixture of several gases, including methane, ethane, propane, and butane. Natural gas burns completely, leaves no ash, causes almost no pollution, and is one of the cleanest forms of fossil fuels.

Among these gases, methane is highly flammable, as it has no color, taste, or smell, which is why some chemicals are added to it before it is supplied to individual homes so that the leak can be detected easily. Middle Eastern countries, especially Iran and Iraq, have high reserves of natural gas. The beauty of this fuel source is that it almost does not cause any pollution. Cheap and environmentally friendly.

• The main advantages of non-renewable energies are that they are available and affordable. For example, oil and diesel are still good options for powering vehicles.
• Non-renewable energy is cost-effective and easier to produce and use.
• The global economy depends on the existence of some non-renewable energy sources, as the world’s governments support more than \$5 trillion in expenditures directly related to the non-renewable energy sector, and this figure represents nearly 7% of the global GDP each year.

• Non-renewable resources will expire one day, and we have many endangered resources to create more non-renewable energy sources.
• The speed at which these resources are used up can have profound environmental changes.
• Non-renewable sources release toxic gases into the air upon combustion, which are the leading cause of global warming.
• Since these sources are going to end soon, the prices of these sources are rising day by day.

### Renewable Sources

Renewable or non-fossil energy sources

Renewable energy sources are non-fossil energy sources that are available in nature and are not subject to depletion from human use.

What are the types of renewable energy sources?

Solar Energy: Sunlight is one of the first sources of renewable energy, this is why life thrives on planet earth, and it is the only renewable source of energy. About 70% of sunlight is reflected back to space, and we only have 30% of sunlight to meet our energy needs.

Solar energy has become very practical for use, and many applications have been created for it, the first of which is solar heaters, whether it is industrial-grade water heating or simple heating for cooking food. Solar energy can be used quite easily.

It can also be used to generate and store energy as solar panels, and photovoltaic cells have been developed lately more than ever.

Solar-powered homes, cars, and appliances are becoming common these days, as well as solar farms that provide electricity to off-grid areas. Solar energy for drying clothes can also be used by plants in the process of photosynthesis and by humans to keep their bodies warm during the winter seasons.

Wind power: Windmills have been used by many for a long time. The initial use was to transport machines that would grind wheat into flour. Scientists were able to create windmills that rotate at higher speeds. Windmill farms were established in areas where the speed rates were as high as enough to produce viable amounts of energy.

The blades of a windmill are connected to a turbine which converts kinetic energy (the energy of motion) into electricity. Countries with an abundance of empty land and high wind speeds have been able to use these renewable energy sources to bridge the gap between supply and demand from traditional means of energy.

Most wind turbines are installed at high altitudes, as the wind speed is higher than at low altitudes, which helps to generate a large amount of electricity. Wind energy does not cause any pollution as it is completely renewable. Thus, we can reduce our alliance with foreign countries to supply oil and gas.

Hydroelectricity: There is a large amount of kinetic energy stored in water, as it is available for use when rivers and streams flow towards the oceans, and the possibility increases when it turns into waterfalls. Hydroelectricity has become a common source of electricity production in the 21st century.

Most of the dams that are being built contain an infrastructure that allows them to obtain energy from water. Then the kinetic energy is used to transport the water by hydroelectric power stations to give mechanical energy to the turbines, which in turn convert it into electrical energy through generators.

It is also seen as a simple and effective way to supply energy to areas that are not easily accessible by the regular power grid. A lot of research is done on the efficient use of our water resources on this. Planet, that hydropower is renewable, environmentally friendly, and does not produce toxic gases.

Geothermal energy: inside the Earth, there is a great deal of energy trapped within the molten magma; All of this heat is transferred to the deep reservoirs of water and air that flow through the Earth, releasing heat and regulating the temperature of the core hot water.

And the air is released through vents seen, Which are holes in the Earth’s crust; vents of hot air and steam are used to generate power which is another renewable source of energy. By harnessing the natural heat below the surface of the Earth, geothermal energy can be used to generate electricity and also to heat homes directly. Although it uses energy directly under our feet, geothermal energy is of little importance in some countries of the world.

Biomass Energy: Finally, biofuel and biogas are considered renewable sources of energy, as they are obtained from plants, vegetable waste, crops, landfills, municipal and industrial waste, trees, and agricultural waste, which makes them “biological” in nature. Biogas was produced under natural conditions thousands of years ago.

It has applications in transportation, power generation, and home heating. Biomass energy produces no greenhouse gases, helps reduce landfills, and is renewable as long as plants, crops, and waste are present. In the same way, biofuel is essentially ethanol that is made when sugar is fermented.

Ocean energy: Ocean energy has enormous potential, as 70% of the Earth is covered with water. Tides that hit the seashore have massive potential in them and can be used to convert into electrical energy; There are three ways to capture ocean energy: (a) wave energy, (b) tidal energy, and (c) ocean thermal energy conversion(OTEC).

Wave energy is captured directly from the surface of waves which are nothing but regular disturbances produced on the surface of the water. Tidal energy is the capture of kinetic energy from rising and falling tides, and a tidal energy generator uses that kinetic energy and converts it into electrical energy. OTEC uses heat stored in seawater for conversion into electricity. Both of these energy sources are entirely renewable and have the potential to significantly reduce our reliance on non-renewable sources.

Hydrogen Energy: Hydrogen is the most abundant element on Earth; Because it is abundant in water and has the potential to be a tremendous renewable source of energy for powering ships, missiles, homes, vehicles, marines, and industries, water (H2O) contains two-thirds of hydrogen but is usually found in combination with other elements.

Once separated from the water, it can be used as fuel or it can be used to generate electricity. Hydrogen energy is entirely renewable, environmentally friendly, leaves no toxic emissions, and can be produced on demand. Extracting hydrogen from other elements requires a lot of energy and thus proves to be a bit expensive to extract.

• The sun, wind, geothermal energy, and ocean energy are abundant and free to use.
• Renewable sources have low carbon emissions, so they are environmentally friendly.
• Renewable energy helps stimulate the economy and create job opportunities, as the money used to build these factories can provide job opportunities for thousands to millions of people.
• Renewables can cost less than the consumption of the domestic electricity supply, and in the long run, electricity prices are expected to rise; Because it depends on the price of crude oil, renewables can really cut your electricity bills.
• Renewable energy provides various tax incentives in the form of tax breaks and credit rebates to some individuals and companies who wish to go green.

• It is not easy to set up a factory because the initial costs are very high.
• Solar energy can be used during the day and not during the night or in the rainy season.
• Geothermal energy that can be used to generate electricity also has side effects, as it can bring toxic chemicals underground to the top, and environmental changes can occur.
• Hydropower provides a pure form of energy, but building a dam across a river is very expensive and can affect the natural flow and affect wildlife.
• To use wind energy, we have to rely on strong winds, so we have to choose the appropriate location to operate it, and wind turbines can also affect birds because they are very high.

## Renewable resources and Technology

Technology is involved in many useful aspects of life; energy can be one of them.

As previously stated, renewable energy plants use the sun, wind, water, tides, and the transformation of organic and inorganic waste or biomass to generate electricity.

Biogas plant: biomass is the renewable energy source that, it is estimated, will be used the most in the coming years.

Waste recovery for energy production: biogas

Waste is not always useless; you will be surprised when you hear that it can be a good source of energy.

Many studies and research are currently being conducted to fine-tune technologies and reactions for extracting energy from waste, some of which can be converted into excellent fuel. One method of generating energy from waste is the recovery of biogas, which are gases produced by the decomposition of organic material (e.g. the wet fraction of municipal solid waste).

## Why is the cost of energy increasing?

The elements that have contributed to the rise in the cost of energy

Starting from April 2020, the cost of oil increased by 200%, and the following year the price of natural gas increased by 70%, but the increase in the cost of energy is a global phenomenon due to various factors.

Raw material prices have risen; as far as Europe is concerned, there is a depletion of some basins, such as those of the Netherlands, and research problems in other areas, such as the Baltic Sea.

The economic recovery after the first phase of the pandemic has shifted some political balances. For example, Russia has reduced supplies to Italy, favoring those more profitable to the expanding Asian market.

The threat of climate collapse has made specific environmental regulations necessary, which, especially over the last twenty years, have increased production costs: system charges have increased, which represent 20% of the final cost for the consumer and include many items, including incentives for renewable sources, but the prices of CO2 emission permits for the ETS-Emission trading system have also increased.

## The relation between energy and work

Energy is defined as the ability of a body (entity) to perform work, and the measure of this work is also a measure of energy.

How the formula is represented?

the work can be expressed as W=F * s.

Where (W) represents the workforce or the quantity that represents the combination of a force with displacement, (F) the force, and (s) the displacement (with the same direction and magnitude).

### What is a joule?

The joule is the unit of measurement adopted by the international system for work, energy, and heat.

The name was derived from James Prescott Joule, a British entrepreneur with a passion for science. In the first half of the nineteenth century, he was known above all for being a beer producer, and it was precisely from this that he had the idea of trying to measure energy practically.

So a joule is a work done by exerting a force of one newton on an object over a distance of one meter, i.e. the work done by the force of 1 newton when it moves its point of application by one meter.

Symbolic representation is (J) which is the unit of work.

## Key Concepts

The energy sources

Primary Energy Sources: Natural energy products such as coal, crude oil, nuclear fuels, hydro and geothermal energy

Secondary energy sources: sources in which the energy derives from the transformation of primary energy into another form of energy or from subsequent processing of secondary sources.

Renewable Energy Sources: Non-fossil energy sources that regenerate naturally at least as fast as they are consumed, are available in nature, and are not subject to depletion by human use, unlike fossil and nuclear fuels.

The concepts of energy and work in physics: energy is one of the key concepts in physics and is commonly defined as the ability of a body or, more generally, of a physical system to perform work, and the measure of this work is also a measure of energy. The work of a force (W) is a quantity that measures the effect of the combination of a force with a displacement.

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Howdy young learner, how have you been? We will be talking about Science branches for kids on this ride. So get ready for a whole new adventure full of interestingly fun information. Let us get started by breaking down our journey.

First, we will be mentioning the etymology of the word ‘science’. The etymology of a word means the origin of the word. Second, we will trace the history of science. Third, we will discuss some different branches of science. We will do our best to try and elaborate on each branch of science, extensively. So, let us begin!

## The Etymology of the Word Science

Science came from Old French. It meant knowledge, learning, and application. That is its English origins. As for its Latin origins, it came from the word ‘Scientia’ which meant knowledge as well as knowledge and experience.

In Ancient Greek, the word for knowledge is episteme. They made quite the observations. That was mainly concerned with the natural world. In addition to the records of various sorts of experiments that were carried out. The word ‘Science’ is original ‘Knowledge’ in Latin.

# History of Science

It was in the 16th century that modern science took over. It was when the world began to be examined more closely with the use of the telescope, microscope, clock, and barometer. Science has taken part in so many different fields ever since.

Education is one of those fields. Thus, we find STEM education. The S stands for Science. The T in the word goes for Technology. The E is for Engineering. Finally, the M is for Mathematics. You can find a detailed article about STEM education on Learning Mole. However, the history of science dates way back.

It can go way back to the ancient times of Aristotle and Plato. Where traces of the first recorded science practices can be observed. Three major branches of science can be traced throughout the history of science.

These are: natural, social, and formal. We will talk extensively about each in a minute. First, we should probably mention that the earliest roots of science can go back to Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia from around 3000 to 1200 BCE.

Natural science is one of the branches of science that is concerned with the description, understanding, and prediction of natural phenomena. That is of course based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.

There are two main branches of natural science. Those are life science and physical science. Life science is all about the study of the living. In other words, the living organisms. That includes microbes, human beings, animals, fungi, and plants.

While physical science is more about the study of non-living. In other words, the inorganic world. In other words, it has nothing to do with living things. There are four main branches. That is of physical science. They are astronomy, physics, chemistry, and the Earth sciences.

Earth sciences include meteorology and geology. The second is social science. Social science is considered any branch of academic study or science that deals with human behaviour in its social and cultural aspects.

Social science can be anthropology, sociology, psychology, political science, and economics. The third is formal science. Formal science is the study that uses formal systems to generate and produce knowledge.

We can trace that in Mathematics and Computer Science. They are important subjects. That is because all quantitative science depends on them. Quantitative science is the application of mathematics and statistics to answer questions in biological and environmental science.

There is also a qualitative scientific method. It follows observation to gather non-numerical data. We will take a few picks and explain each of them in order. Keep on that knowledge seat buckled, my friend.

## Biology

Science has so many different branches and Biology is just one of those many branches. Biology deals with the living. In other words, the living organisms. In addition to their vital processes. Biology includes many more fields within. In other words, it is divided up into many more categories of studies.

For example, botany, conservation, and even ecology. Others are evolution, genetics, marine biology, and medicine. It may even include microbiology, molecular biology, physiology, and zoology. Biology is more or less the study of life in all its shapes and forms.

The word itself says so. Biology is divided into two parts of the Greek word’s origin. Those are ‘bios’ and ‘logos’, the first means life and the second part means study. If you put those two parts together, you will have the word Biology which means the study of life.

The study of life is one of the two branches of natural science. Therefore, Biology means the study of life and living organisms. We know what you are wondering, what is an organism? Well, to put it simply, an organism is a living entity that consists of one cell or several cells.

Some organisms consist of one cell and those are similar to bacteria. Whereas, other organisms consist of several organisms like animals, plants, humans, and fungi. That cell or cells of living organisms contain hereditary information.

That hereditary information can be encoded in genes. Those genes can be transmitted to future generations and passed down even further. Biology does have many aspects to consider, but we will break it down into three categories. They are botany, zoology, and microbiology.

However, we should mention that the Biology of our world in today’s science is based on five principle basic foundations. Those are cell theory, gene theory, evolution, homeostasis, and laws of thermodynamics.

Let us go back to discussing the three categories of Biology; the first is botany. Botany is a branch of Biology. It is mainly concerned with the study of plants. It investigates all there is to plants; their structure, properties, and biochemical processes.

It is also concerned with plant classification and the study of plant diseases. It also explores its interactions with the environment. Botany is very concerned with the study of plants to the point that it is even called plant science, biology, or phytology.

It is the science of plant life. Just like Biology is the study of life, botany is the study of plant life. It is as we mentioned, a branch of Biology. What do we call those who specialize in botany, you ask? Well, we simply call them a botanist or a phytologist.

They are known as scientists who specialize in this specific field. We have briefly discussed the first branch of Biology that we found relevant to our scientific exhibition. Second, we have zoology.

Zoology is the second branch of Biology that we will be briefly mentioning and discussing. Zoology is also known as animal science. It is the branch of biology concerned with the study of animal life.

Just like Biology is the study of life, botany is the study of plant life, and zoology is the study of animal life. Zoology is both descriptive and analytical. So, we can discuss it as basic science or as applied science.

What is the difference, you ask? Basic science is the study of the fundamental processes that are essential to the continuation of life on our planet, Earth. As for applied science, it is the use of scientific methods and knowledge that we obtained through conclusions from the methods to attain practical goals. Zoology can be treated as either such.

Zoology studies the animal kingdom, including its structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and the distribution of all animals, both the living and the extinct. That is why you would probably find some of the most interesting videos on Learning Mole about our extinct friends:

It also investigates how they interact with their ecosystems. Finally, we come to the last branch of Biology on our journey before we jump onto the physical science branches and leave the natural science branches.

Microbiology is the third branch of Biology we will be discussing briefly. It is the study of microscopic organisms. Those may be bacteria or viruses. Maybe even archaea or other. Microbiology includes fundamental research on the biochemistry, physiology, cell biology, ecology, evolution, and clinical aspects of microorganisms, which includes the host’s response to these agents.

In other words, microbiology is the scientific study of microorganisms. Such beings are unicellular, multicellular, or acellular. Microbiology has numerous sub-branches within. It includes virology, bacteriology, and protistology. Even mycology and immunology are included. As well as parasitology.

Moving onto the physical science as we briefly discussed all there is to discuss in natural science. However, there are even more stories to tell and we will be telling those along the way maybe in this journey or the next one.

So, keep on reading and exploring our journeys because there is more to come. The first branch we will consider in physical science is astronomy. Our journey is just starting, my friend. So, keep on going and see where it takes you.

## Astronomy

Astronomy is a sub-branch of physical science. As we explained, life science and physical science are two branches of natural science and we will be taking a few picks of the physical science branches there are.

Astronomy is our first pick. It is the study of celestial objects and phenomena. See that big star up there, astronomy will explain it all over for you. Don’t misunderstand, astronomy is by no means similar to astrology.

Astrology is a pseudoscience and we will tell you the difference between a science and a pseudoscience in a minute. First, let us cover all there is to know about astronomy. Did we mention that astronomy uses mathematics, physics, and chemistry?

Exactly! It uses science to explain, clarify, and simplify the origin and evolution. That includes studying planets, moons, nebulae, galaxies, and comets. So you see, astronomy is all about science.

Some may know it as the study of everything beyond the Earth’s atmosphere. People divided it up into 4 sub-sections. And no, that certainly did not make it any easier. If anything, it made it more challenging.

We will try our best in covering all there is to discuss and know about those 4 sub-branches of astronomy. The first branch is known as astrophysics. The second branch is known as astrometry. The third branch is known as astrogeology. The fourth is astrobiology.

As you may have already guessed, each of those four sub-branches of astronomy branches out into even more detailed sub-branches. We will try to briefly scratch the tip of the iceberg together and let you delve deeper on your own.

Let us start by explaining each sub-branch speciality. Astrophysics is all about applying physics and the laws of physics in space. While astrometry discusses the mapping of celestial bodies. The third is astrology. It investigates rocks, terrain, and different materials that exist in space.

Astrobiology is the final sub- branch. It deals with the process of searching for life outside the boundaries of Earth. So, get your alien friend right here. Because we will start a party. That party is all about astronomy and its branches!

People classified all those sub-branches of the sub-branches to be around 17. We will explain even more what belongs where; but first, we should investigate the classification of astronomy into 2 types.

The first type of such classification is observational astronomy. It is the usage of telescopes and cameras to collect sufficient data and information about the night sky and study it afterwards.

The second type of such classification is theoretical astronomy. It is the usage of the data and information that we collected using observational astronomy to analyze, model, out, and base theories about how the celestial objects and phenomena work and act.

Now that we covered this brief classification, let us go back to the 17 sub-categories of astronomy. The first of such is astrophysics.

When I say Physics, you say Astro! Astrophysics is the application of physics and its principles to astronomy. Makes sense we call it astrophysics. It does sound similar to geophysics.

However, as the name may entail, geophysics is the study of Earth’s physics while astrophysics is more related to the physical properties of stars, celestial objects, their processes, and the surrounding space.

The second of the 17 sub-branches categorization is cosmology. Do you want to make a guess? It is different from astrophysics. Did you guess? Well, it studies the two ‘E’s. Those are the evolution and expansion.

Not the general evolution theory, but the evolution and expansion of the universe. We call those who study this field, a cosmologist. They record all there is to know about the redshift and keep track of how fast the universe is expanding.

We covered two out of 17. That leaves us with 15 left to go. Keep going! The third on the list is spectroscopy. The name is unique indeed! It studies light; how it reflects, absorbs, and transfers between matter and objects.

The fourth is all about luminous astronomical objects that are quite mostly based on electromagnetic radiation. Specifically, the properties. That is called photometry and no it has nothing to do with photography.

Fifth is Heliophysics. It studies the sun; its radiation and how it affects its surroundings in space. There have been many space missions specifically for that purpose and that is why we call them heliophysics missions.

Such missions were concerned with the weather in space, the solar flares, and of course the consistent stream of solar particles. Those solar particles came from the sun. We can say that heliophysics is concerned with the study of the internal structure of stars.

However, it is more in concern with our sun. On the other hand, we have asteroseismology. It is the sixth sub- branch out of the 17. It is quite similar to helioseismology since they both study the internal structure of stars.

Helioseismology is the seventh sub- branch. They both study stars by measuring the radiation and the oscillations. But helioseismology is more similar to heliophysics because it is also specific to our sun.

Summary of the 7 out of 17:

1.     Astrophysics: Application of physics to stars and celestial bodies.

2.     Cosmology: The evolution and expansion of the universe.

3.     Spectroscopy: The light.

4.     Photometry: Luminous astronomical space objects according to electromagnetic radiation.

5.     Heliophysics: The sun’s radiation and how it affects its surroundings.

6.     Asteroseismology: The structure of stars by observing their oscillations.

7.     Helioseismology: The structure of stars by observing waves from their surface.

Astrometry is the eighth on our list of the sub-branches of astronomy. Physics is on one hand and astrometry is on the other. Astrometry is all about the specific positioning of celestial objects in space.

It may even provide a reference for the movement coordination of the stars and even of the individual objects in space. So to put it simply, it is the study of celestial objects’ positioning. It is quite similar to the following.

The ninth is exoplanet ology. It studies how many planets are there outside our dear beloved solar system. It is like an inventory of planets that lists all the potential residences for the new life outside our planet, Earth.

That brings us to the tenth sub- branch. That is planetology. It is all about planetary science. You bring up planets and planetology kicks in. It is how planets formed in the solar system. In other words, the planets’ formation.

It studies their composition and how they evolved throughout history. This relates so much to planter geology.

A summary of the 3 out of 17 (making it 10 so far):

1.     Astrometry: The positioning of celestial objects.

2.     Exoplanetology: The inventory of planets that are found outside our solar system.

3.     Planetology: The study of planets’ formation, composition, and evolution.

Astrogeology is number eleven on our list. It is quite similar to number twelve on the list which is exogeology since both of them focus on geology and how it relates to celestial bodies. When we say celestial bodies, we mean; moons, asteroids, meteorites, and comets.

Number thirteen on the list is selenography. It studies the features of the moon. Specifically, the physical features and not just any features. For example, it explores and records the lunar maria, craters, and mountain ranges that exist on the moon.

Fourteen is quite simple. It is how geology is composed on Mars. Just like with Mars Rover which mainly studied the surface of Mars. It is an areology.

A summary of the 4 out of 17 (that makes it 14 so far):

Astrogeology: Geology and its relation to celestial bodies.

Exogeology: Geology and its relation to celestial bodies.

Selenography: The physical features of the moon.

Areology: Geology composition on Mars.

Astrobiology is number fifteen on the list. We are almost done with the sub-branches of astronomy, my friend. Only about 3 left to go. Astrobiology is more or less all about the search for life outside Earth.

·       What is the origin of life? (The Chicken or the egg?)

·       Is there life on other planets? (Aliens, huh!)

·       Which environments can support life? (Food and water, duh!)

However, if you want to measure the probability of life in space in a more specific manner, exobiology is the way to go. It is number sixteen on the list. Exobiology considers the planetary conditions and evaluates if they are fit for life.

Exobiology studies the early evolution of life and the biological or environmental factors possible to advance with life. That leaves room for the last, but not the least, number seventeen! That is astrochemistry.

Remember number fifteen, astrobiology? Well, its roots were found in astrochemistry. It is how to better understand substances in celestial bodies, stars, and interstellar space. In other words, it is observing molecules in space.

Doing so gives a solid indication of the physical conditions that we are used to on our present-day Earth.

A summary of the 3 out of 17 (which is 17!):

Astrobiology: The origin and evolution of life.

Exobiology: Aliens? And where?

Astrochemistry: Substances in celestial bodies, stars, and interstellar space.

Science and Pseudoscience

Now that we know all there is to know about astronomy, let us learn what happens if a discipline is not categorized as a science, but as a pseudoscience. The difference is not that big of a deal, but it is a little more than not fulfilling the features of science.

The history of pseudoscience goes way back and pseudoscientific theories evolved and developed over time taking different considerations into a prospect. However, it is mostly agreeable that pseudoscience is a set of ideas that presents itself falsely as science, while it does not meet the criteria, properties, or features to properly be called a science.

We know what you are probably thinking by now, how can you tell the difference? Well, my friend, it is quite simple. Although sometimes the difference seems hard to tell, even impossible to some extent, we will try, together.

Throughout history, people agreed with you and found it quite hard to tell the difference, especially since some to most sciences were originally considered pseudoscience. Take chemistry, for instance, it was traced back to the origins of the pseudoscience of alchemy.

Such a history of confusion further complicates our search. Some sciences have traces of origins back in the pre-scientific era. The time before science even became a thing. Take astrology and acupuncture for instance. People even used pseudoscience to justify their ideas or oppose ideas they did not accept which weakened its credibility over time.

For example, people used to believe humans evolved throughout time and they called it the evolution theory. Others came out with a response to this theory with the creationism theory. Nevertheless, pseudoscience persevered through time and survived to our present day.

A pseudoscience may not meet the proper scientific standards that sciences hold, but it still exists. Maybe because some people just love pseudoscience and refuse to give in to the logical explanations of science which are valid as they may argue that sciences were originally some form of pseudoscience.

Take astrology, for instance, notice how we did not include it in our science article? That is because it is a pseudoscience and we are concentrating on scientific aspects, but there is no harm in clearing up the confusion between a science and a pseudoscience.

Astrology is quite popular, it survived and still does. Despite the majority of scientists rejecting it, people just love it!

A philosopher named Karl Popper came up with a technique that could be used to tell the difference. A philosopher is someone who studied concepts and came up with similar or related concepts that contributed to the field they studied overall. Mr Popper used the falsification criterion. Big word, huh!

However, we will be mentioning our own summarised points that could help you pinpoint a pseudoscience walking by!

1.     A topic might be a pseudoscientific one in the case that it is presented as consistent with the norms of scientific research, but it fails to demonstrate or meet these norms.

2.     Vague, even exaggerated or maybe untestable claims.

3.     Scientific claims that are vague are not precise, and they may even lack specific measurements.

4.     A claim with little to no explanation.

5.     Cannot use generally accepted definitions that may allow others to test out the reliability of what is being stated.

6.     Failing to find an explanation that requires no effort.

7.     Use of vague or general language.

8.     Lack of boundaries or conditions because most if not all of the well-supported scientific theories have limitations under which the predicted phenomena or theory do and do not apply.

9.     Lack of effective controls in experimentation.

10.  Error with the understanding of the basic principles of physics and engineering.

11.  Over-reliance on confirmation.

12.  Assertions that do not allow the logical possibility of being false by observation or physical experiment.

There are even more to distinguish and realize pseudoscience with, but we will call it a day for pseudoscience and carry on with our scientific journey. After all of the previous, it does seem that pseudoscience is similar to a person impersonating science and hiding under a cloak when in fact they are a pseudoscience, not an actual science!

Now that we know how to distinguish between science and pseudoscience, let us learn some more about what makes science special. In other words, what are the features of science and how can they be distinguished?

## Features of Science

Science has many features which distinguish a specific field like science. What are the features of Science? There are many features to science, but only six characteristics to distinguish a discipline from science:

1.     Consistency

2.     Observability

3.     Natural

4.     Predictability

5.     Testability

6.     Tentativeness

Science has all six characteristics. Pseudoscience has five, four, or three characteristics. There are even more characteristics to mention of science and those are a bit random as follows:

·       Objectivity: Scientific knowledge is objective.

·       Verifiability: Science depends on sense data. That is the data gathered through our senses: eye, ear, nose, tongue, and touch.

·       Ethical Neutrality

·       Systematic Exploration

·       Reliability

·       Precision

·       Accuracy

·       Abstractness

We use all the previous features of science to create scientific methods that we can successfully apply to our everyday problem-solving skills by following the simple scientific steps as follows:

1.     Make an observation

3.     Propose a hypothesis

4.     Make predictions

5.     Test the predictions

6.     Iterate

Finally, since we learned briefly about most of the features of science and the scientific methodology, we can move on to the next physical science branch of natural science branches. That is Physics and the beauty of it.

## Physics

Physics is our favourite subject! We just love it so much. It is a branch of science if it is not obvious by now why we are including it in our article. Physics is all about memorizing a few basic rules that different scientists have come to realize across time.

The most famous of those is probably Einstein or maybe Newton, but Newton is more about apples if you know what I mean. So, in this version of the story, our main character is physics and Einstein is the helper hiding in the shadows.

Physics is the structure of matter and how the fundamental constituents of the universe interact. In other words, it studies objects ranging from the very small to the entire universe.

Physics is the natural science that studies matter. Be it in the air or space. It studies matter and also the fundamental constituents that came to form it. It also studies the motion and behaviour of matter through space and time. Not only that, but it also deals with related entities of energy and force.

Physics is very important to us. Its main goal is to understand the universe around us and how it works or behaves. Physics may be challenging to some people… Ok, physics IS challenging to most people, but we can argue that it is often misunderstood.

It may be challenging for most of those people who do not prefer maths. Especially, because physics involves lots of maths. So, we will try to explore different ways to make physics and your life easier. Take Singapore for instance, most if not all of the college students cannot wait to finish their physics course.

That is because they find it quite challenging as it involves many complex mathematical problems and principles. Even if you do not prefer physics, it is still as fascinating as ever. This natural science has contributed greatly to our curiosity.

It also helped us manage and develop the technological advances we keep seeing every day. We are here to share with you a few simple tips and tricks that we hope will help you see the beauty of physics.

These tips and tricks are considered ridiculously easy by most people. However, some may find it to be a little challenging. So, we are not claiming they would miraculously change your view of physics, but we sure hope so.

Let us start from the core, how should we study physics? It is very simple! Just begin with the basics and use a different set of skills to study and comprehend those basics. The first skill in consideration is memorization. Your memory is your best weapon against your journey of fighting your fear of physics.

1-     Memory and Physics

Students believe that physics is all about memorization. That may be one of the reasons that lead students to find physics a challenging subject. Since they end up memorizing the most complex physics problems and equations, they eventually render physics challenging and all about memory.

Well, it is not. There is some truth stated. You do need to memorize the basic notions and from there you can carry out all the other physics problems there are to solve. Those basic notions and theories are your first step.

The first step of understanding the different underlying physics principles and the connection between each concept. Since physics as a subject is based on several central theories. Through those several theories, everything else is developed.

In other words, every physics problem you will solve in a physics exam or assessment is based on the core principles and concepts. The best way through this is to master and study those central concepts. The best way to do that is by creating a simple mind map.

It will not only help out with the memorizing process but also will help you form a connection between the relationships of each concept. Let us give you a few examples of the basic notions we keep telling you to memorize using a mind map;

·       Force = Mass x Acceleration

·       Current Velocity = Initial Velocity + (Acceleration x Time)

·       Momentum = Mass x Velocity

·       Work = Displacement x Force

It is all about learning the basics and knowing how to apply them. That is the trick! It is one of the simplest ways to tackle those complex physics problems. It will eventually improve your grade, just wait and keep trying!

2-     Basics and Origins

The next step is to know the origins of where those basic notions came about. After memorizing the basic notions, the next is to understand the why and how behind them. This will help you understand the origins of each basic equation better and how it is derived.

It will even give you a clear understanding of the relations between equations. With proper practice and adequate time, you will eventually be able to solve each problem from there on and beyond. Learning their origins will help out in the process of knowing how they are derived.

3-     Be Observant

You know those ‘keen on details’ people? When studying physics, try to be one of those. Be observant and considerate of details. Most if not all of the physics problems out there are based on a real-world situation. Physics problems specify how things work in such situations.

That makes our lives a whole lot easier. Not to mention, the situation itself. That can only mean that some forces will be deliberately left out of consideration. That is because those forces that are left out can change the answer to the problem.

So, the teacher may leave out those forces from consideration and they will probably do so. That is for the sake of testing out your understanding of the concept situation. This will lead you to realize the fact that you should memorize the small details that will ensure your success in choosing the most accurate answer to the physical problem that is inspired by a real-life situation.

4-     Maths Skills

As we previously kept stressing, physics does involve some maths. That may be basic or complex. Either way, you should probably start working on those mathematical skills of yours, my friend. The best way to do so is by studying maths alongside your study of physics.

This is one of the easy ways to manage the formulas and problems in the subject, either in maths or physics. However, doing this can sometimes be easier said than done. You will find that pretty evident as you advance in your studying of the subject.

The best approach to such a situation is by joining a study group or hiring a tutor. As you will eventually need someone to guide you on how and what to study. We can suggest some maths topics that we consider to be closely related to physics;

·       Algebra for basic equations

·       Trigonometry (force diagrams and angled systems)

·       Geometry (volume, area, et al.)

In many ways, mathematics is the language of physics. So, make sure you check out our maths guide on Learning Mole which will gracefully guide you through the process of learning maths with ease. Asking for help once stuck is the right thing to do and there is no problem with it.

5-     Simplify

The bigger the problem is, the more you feel stuck and it is a fight or flight kind of situation. It does not have to be, my friend. If it seems too challenging and quite impossible to tackle, we suggest taking it one step at a time. Simplify the process. Have patience.

Break it down into steps. Yes, the same way we are doing it with physics! Simplify and repeat as much as you can, keep simplifying. That may even require you to keep taking another look, one after the other, at that physics problem and keep analyzing it. Even if you use different approaches each time.

With time and perseverance, the physics problem will show itself as easier than it appeared to be. Try your best to keep calm. Link the problem to a familiar situation by simplifying it in your mind. Maybe layout the physics problem on a piece of paper and break it down into different sections.

Take each section and try to tackle them one by one. By the time you get to the final section, you would have solved the challenging physics problem step by step. Sometimes solving the problem does not even require calculations.

Identify the information that is found in the problem to help solve it faster. Make sure you write down the most relevant equations and constants. Assign each piece of relevant information that is found in the physics problem to the appropriate variable.

6-     Draw

Remember when we said to mind map? Well, let us clarify; it is another simple way to improve your physics grade. It could even be an original idea that will eventually help you remember what goes where and how everything relates.

Maybe use practice questions to help learn how to draw different forms of comparisons. It will help make physics concepts much easier to understand. You can get even more creative and use flashcards to help you learn the new concepts easily. These flashcards will even come in handy in your final exam revision.

7- Double-check

You should always remember to practice. As they say; “practice makes perfect!” So, keep practising till you reach the level you are satisfied with solving physics problems. Time yourself. It helps to know how long you usually take in solving one problem after the other.

Doing so will help you manage yourself during exams. As you should leave in between minutes to double-check your answers. That is because normally a physics problem may and would most certainly involve a few mathematical calculations.

So, in case you made an error in your calculations, your final answer will most luckily turn out wrong. That is why re-doing and double-checking make all the difference. You may also use a bit of common sense to relate the problem to a real-life scenario.

That would help you avoid falling into trivial errors. For example, trying to measure the momentum of a forward-moving object or distance will most luckily not turn out negative. So, make sure you always double-check your answers.

8-     Help

If you find yourself lost and struggling with your studies, then it is probably a bad decision to do it alone. Get help. You should know that asking for help does not make you weak. It shows you are a smart person who appreciates others’ roles in their lives.

So, asking for help should be on your mind as an option. Not the only option. You should try to do it first on your own and see how it works out for you. However, it does not work out and you keep trying to the point that you find yourself stuck and struggling.

That is probably the time to consider asking for help. In other words, there are many types of help available for you to choose from. For example, resources. Yes, resources are one type of help you should seek as guidance in your learning journey.

Once you find yourself stuck, try and use resources that are available to you that will give you a better understanding of the physics material you need help studying. Many resources may cost you money, but there are many more that are free to use. As you could try the following:

·       Setting up physics study groups

·       Hiring private physics tutors

·       Physics websites and libraries

·       Enrol for physics tuition services

People mostly choose to hire a private tutor nowadays. Still, choosing the type of help you need is absolutely up to you. You are free to choose what type of help you need and when you need it. However, remember to try it out by yourself first hand.

9-     Attention!

You should not consider paying for that physics teacher unless you pay attention in class as your teachers explain the subject and concepts. Regardless of the teaching methods teachers may use in class, you should remember to pay attention and stay concentrated.

As many people find physics to be boring. They tend to wander off and miss the important part and many other critically potential concept explanations. Maybe the following tips will help you out in staying focused in class:

·       Read ahead of the teacher; do so to get a general idea of what the teacher is talking about

·       Take notes in class; do so while the teacher is explaining the concepts

·       Ask questions; while doing so, try and keep them as specific as you possibly could

·       Try asking the teacher if they can let you record the lesson; as you can always listen to them later, and ask for further clarification after listening to the recording later.

10- Review Notes

Students tend to always review their textbooks when revising for exams. However, to make things easier for yourself, you can review the class notes before the next lesson regularly. You can eventually make it a habit. By doing this, you will help yourself recall the information taught during class easier.

Sometimes when you take a longer time in reviewing your notes, it eventually becomes more challenging to remember the bits and pieces of information that you need to remember. So, we recommend you review your notes regularly.

Especially before going to bed and before the next upcoming lesson. As this will spark up your memory. If you have a private tutor teaching you physics, make sure you go over the sections that you do not understand clearly. So that they could explain it more easily to you.

11- Time for Revision

If your marks are still not improving after all our tips and tricks, then it might be because you are not allowing enough time for revision. Try out some practice exams that will help you determine your weak points and allow you space for improvement.

Along with the practice exams, make sure you revise everything you are being taught. As revision is another form of practice. Most students cram on the last few nights before the exam or even hours. Do not do that. It is not physically or mentally healthy for you to put that kind of pressure on yourself.

Doing so, you will probably miss out on something important. Proper revision starts when you keep revising after and before each class. The best kind of revision out there is to revise, again, regularly. That will most probably improve your physics grade.

12- Keep it Fun

Maybe you are still not satisfied with your performance because you have lost the motivation and concentration to keep on learning. Remember; there is no right way to do this! You try and experiment with different study techniques to find out which works best for you.

Physics is no different. It is a subject that helps us explore and understand the world better. So, the more curious you are, the better. This lack of motivation may be due to the pressure of exams or physics is just not your thing.

That eventually drains you and sucks out all the fun you have in you. The light of your soul will suffer as a result. Sometimes all we need is a change of perspective. Consider your favourite subject for instance. Observe how well you perform in it.

You will realize that you find many ways to make and keep it fun! This keeps it interesting to learn and the fun just keeps coming. Evaluate your approach in that subject and take notes of your learning techniques. Now, try and implement them in learning physics.

Try to simplify and keep it all games when learning physics. Over time, you will find it more fun than you first thought it to be.

13- A Private Tutor

If after all the previous tips and tricks, you still find physics challenging and find yourself stuck, then it is probably time you consider asking for a private tutor. Hiring a private tutor does not have to be your last resort.

However, as we keep on saying, you should try every way there is before asking for help. In the end, you might just need a few extra hours in learning physics. It may be all you need to improve that physics grade.

Still, you should choose your tutor wisely. How can I choose them wisely? It is easy, just look at their track record and teaching methods. Especially the teaching methods. As you choose a tutor who works with the teaching method that works best for you.

Not anyone can teach everyone. So, be careful when choosing your tutor.

14- Finally

The above tips and tricks can be applied not only to physics but to any subject. So, there is no easy, certain way to improve your physics grade or any grade for that matter. Still, with proper time management skills and hard work, everything will eventually light up.

Learning Mole will always try to be here when you need a friend or just a helping hand. So, do not hesitate to contact us.

## Chemistry

Another branch of physical science is Chemistry. Chemistry studies substances. That substance may be elements or compounds. Chemistry revolves around atoms and their composition. In other words, it studies the structure of the substance.

Not only the structure and its composition but also the interaction that takes place among some substances may often lead to chemical reactions. Chemistry is the study of such substances and their properties.

In other words, it is the study of the behaviour of matter. Just as we previously mentioned, it is a branch of the physical sciences that is considered a branch of the natural sciences. It covers all there is to know about the elements that make up matter to the compounds composed of atoms, molecules, and ions.

Over the years, Chemistry was broken down into five subcategories. These are Organic, Analytical, Physical, Inorganic, and Biochemistry. That is because Chemistry is a branch of science that deals with the study of the composition and the physical and chemical properties of various forms of matter.

## Earth Science

The Earth has a science of its own. Yup! You heard it! Earth science is a physical science and it exists! It studies the Earth’s structure, properties, processes, and evolution. It is quite a vast knowledge.

It is all about the structure, stratigraphy, and chemical composition of the Earth’s crust. The main purpose of Earth sciences is to understand the features and evolution of Earth and to use this knowledge for our benefit when possible.

Such knowledge helps society cope with its environment in many different ways. As it helps us determine the location of the resources that sustain our existence and help advance our quality of life.

Earth science or as some may know it as; geoscience is the field that includes all fields of natural science that are related to the planet Earth. It deals with the physical, chemical, and biological complex constitutions and synergistic linkages.

Those linkages are that of the Earth’s four spheres; namely, biosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and geosphere. You can learn more about them in our educational adventure with Learning Mole.

The four categories of study of Earth Science are geology, meteorology, oceanography, environmental science, and astronomy. It can even include multiple sub-categories, such as; geophysics, geobiology, geochemistry, hydrogeology, limnology, and mineral physics.

It includes even more and more categories of studies that deal with different aspects of Earth science, but we will mention only one. It is one of our interests at the moment. That is geology.

Geology is the primary Earth science. It is the study of the origin, history, and structure of Earth. It also includes the study of the processes that make the Earth the shape it is. We call a person studying geology a geologist.

Just for the record, we already covered most of what there is to know about astronomy. So, in other words, we covered two of the Earth sciences’ branches. Let us move on to the social science branch of psychology.

## Social Science

The next branch of science that we will be considering is social science. Social science is simply any branch of academic study or science that deals with human behaviour in its social and cultural aspects.

Big words, right? Let us use a more simple approach. Social science is a branch of science that studies and observes the actions and behaviour of humans in groups and their cultures. So, social science is the branch of science devoted to the study of societies and the relationships among individuals within those societies.

In other words, it is the science of society. Social science was a term that was used to refer to the field of sociology. The most important branches of social science are Anthropology, Economics, Politics, Psychology, Sociology, History, Law, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Geography.

Simply put, the branches of social science are important because they create better institutions and systems that affect people’s lives directly every day. Thus, social sciences help people understand how to interact with the social world.

It teaches them how to influence policy, develop networks, increase government accountability, and promote democracy. Social science is the second branch of science in our story. Next, we will briefly discuss one of the social science branches.

## Psychology

That is psychology. Let us begin this section with a question: is Psychology a pseudoscience or an actual science to be included in this article? Psychology is all about mentalities. We as humans behave according to what is expected of us in society.

However, it is the understanding of such behaviour which determines the psychological factor. If we put such findings into simple words, it would sound like: Psychology is one form of science.

And as we agreed throughout this adventure, we will try and explore as much as possible the few scientific branches we chose to discuss. So, for this branch of science, why do we consider psychology a science?

The answer is quite simple, my friend. It is a branch of science because it adopts a scientific approach to explaining human behaviours. So, no, it is not pseudoscience. That is because pseudoscience refers to beliefs or activities that are assumed as scientific, however; they do not meet all the features of science.

As pseudoscience tends to not meet one or more features of science. But what is psychology? The American Psychological Association believes that psychology is the study of the mind and human behaviour.

Psychology includes the study of your conscious mind and the unconscious as well. A person studying psychology will try to specialize in the study of the mind. We call those who specialize in the study of psychology a psychologist.

A psychologist can communicate to the patient who is suffering from a behavioural change in the process to relieve the symptoms of such behavioural change. Such processes may include medications, explanations, and coping techniques to help manage the behavioural change of the patient to their best benefit.

Psychology is all about the mind, how it functions, and how it affects our behaviours as humans. The study of psychology includes the study of feelings and thoughts. So, psychologists want to understand and explain thoughts, emotions, feelings, and behaviour.

As psychologists assess, diagnose, and treat mental, emotional, and behavioural disorders. They help people deal with problems that range from short-term personal issues to severe, chronic conditions.

There are different fields for a psychologist to work in and carry on with their study of the mind. The following are some of those:

·       Art Therapist

·       Aviation Psychologist

·       Career or Vocational Counsellor

·       Clinical Psychologist

·       Consumer Psychologist

·       Counsellor

·       Engineering Psychologist

·       Experimental Psychologist

So, in other words, a psychologist is a professional practitioner or researcher in the field of psychology and is called a psychologist. We can even call a psychologist a scientist! Some of them can be classified as social, behavioural, or cognitive scientists.

As some of them try to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behaviour. Some of the others explore the physiological and biological processes that are not explicitly observed because they tend to be underlying cognitive functions and behaviours.

A psychologist is involved in many fields of research. Such as follows; perception, cognition, attention, emotion, intelligence, subjective experiences, motivation, brain functioning, and personality.

Psychologists are interested in relationships, psychological resilience, family and its resilience, and other fields of study within the social psychology branch of study. Psychologists just LOVE to study the unconscious mind.

They apply scientific methods to assess and explain relations between different psychological concepts. Some even rely on symbolic interpretation. Through the study of psychology, we were able to create lots and lots of scientific methods.

Scientific methods are used in the process of scientific testing. The top five important aspects of such a scientific method are: empirical, replicable, provisional, objective, and systematic. We know what you might be wondering about by now, what is the use of the psychological knowledge we keep talking about?

Well, you see, psychological knowledge is often used by psychologists. They apply it to their assessments and process of treatment of mental health problems. Psychological knowledge is also used in understanding and solving problems in several aspects of human activity.

We should not also fail to mention that psychology benefits society in more ways than others. As you will probably find most if not all of the psychologists are involved in a form of a therapeutic role, practising in clinical, counselling, or school settings.

Psychologists even carry out scientific research on many topics that are related to different mental processes and human behaviour. Those may be found working in some kind of academic setting. That may be in universities, medical schools, or hospitals.

Some psychologists work in organizational settings. Others may be involved in the study of human development, ageing, sports, health, forensics, and media. So, indeed, psychology benefits society in more ways than others. However, what does the word psychology mean?

The word psychology carries many meanings. It is originally derived from the Greek word that means psyche, for spirit or soul. The word is divided up into two parts. The –ology part of the word is derived from the logia which means study or research. That makes psychology the study of the psyche, spirit, or soul.

The origin of the word can be traced back to the word psychology which was first used by the Croatian Latinist humanist, Marko Marulić. He used the word in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae. The name of the book translates to “Psychology, on the Nature of the Human Soul.”

The word can also be traced in English. As it was used by Steven Blankaart in The Physical Dictionary. The dictionary refers to “Anatomy, which treats the Body, and Psychology, which treats the Soul.” According to William James, the word psychology refers to “the science of mental life, both of its phenomena and their conditions.”

On the other hand, John B. Watson believed the word implies “the prediction and control of behaviour.” Since he defined psychology as the term that refers to scientific experimentation. Throughout history and time, psychology was defined in many different ways and interpreted in many different forms.

So, eventually, it came to have many different aspects and branches of its own. There are many branches of psychology that we cannot possibly cover all in our scientific adventure. However, we can briefly mention one of those many branches and leave the rest for another adventure.

That branch is folk psychology. It refers to the understanding of ordinary people with consideration of their mental states and behaviours of people. Quite easy, right? This section of the study cannot be complete unless we trace the history of psychology. So, let us begin!

The history of psychology goes way back in time. There is no one country in particular where it originated in. Rather it has traces throughout history. Some in Egypt, Greece, China, India, and even Persia. All of those somehow contributed to the study of psychology.

In Ancient Egypt, the Ebers Papyrus mentioned depression and thought disorders in its records. Historians noted that Greek philosophers, including Thales, Plato, and Aristotle, addressed the mind and its workings.

The Greek physician, Hippocrates, came up with a theory that mental disorders had physical rather than supernatural causes. Whereas, Plato suggested that the brain is where mental processes take place.

On the other hand, Aristotle suggested that it was the heart. In China, psychological understanding had its seeds planted in the philosophical works of Laozi and Confucius. Later on, it continued to grow and form from the doctrines of Buddhism.

Psychology is used to frame the universe in terms of a division between physical reality and mental reality. Sounds like Dr Strange! It even divided the interaction between the physical and the mental. The Chinese philosophy emphasized purifying the mind.

To increase virtue and power. The Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Internal Medicine identifies the brain as the nexus of wisdom and sensation. The ancient text included theories of personality that were based on yin–yang balance.

It even analyzed mental disorders in terms of physiological and social disequilibria. In the meantime, the Chinese teachings that were focused on the brain advanced during the Qing Dynasty.

Wang Qingren made many contributions to the field; as he emphasized the importance of the brain as the centre of the nervous system; linked mental disorders with brain diseases; investigated the reasons behind dreams and insomnia, and even advanced a theory that had to do with the brain function.

There is, even more, to tell in this field of study and its history, but sadly as we mentioned before, we cannot include all there is in this one adventure because there is so much more to tell. So, we will leave it as a story for another time and carry on with our science mission.

## Mathematics and Logic

Who came first? Mathematics or Logic? Well, the two are faces to the same coin. We call it Mathematical logic. It is the study of formal logic in terms of mathematics. Some of its most prominent branches include model theory, proof theory, set theory, and recursion theory.

Mathematical logic includes many different skills. Some are research skills. Research in mathematical logic addresses the mathematical properties of formal systems of logic such as their expressive or deductive power.

Logic and mathematics are two closely- related- disciplines. That is because logic is this very general theory of inference and reasoning while inference and reasoning play a very big role in mathematics.

As mathematicians, what we do is prove theorems and to do this we need to use logical principles and logical inferences. Logic is the study of how we critically think about propositions or statements that are either true or false.

This is the way we believe logic works. Logic plays a vital role in the world of mathematics. Mathematicians use logic all the time to prove theorems and other mathematical facts to be true or false.

Mathematical logic is used in the development of SAT and SMT (Satisfiability Modulo Theories) solvers. Such solvers are used to solve NP-complete problems, especially in engineering applications.

In addition to that, mathematical logic is used in formal verification, and automated reasoning for various problems. So, logic and mathematics are closely related. They complete one another. They cannot function solely without each other.

## Finale

We have reached the end of our journey. We hope you learned as much as you can about science, the etymology of the word, its history, and some branches of it. We know there is more to tell and science seems to be endless.

The branches we discussed are natural, social, and formal science. First was the Biology of natural science. Then, Astronomy is the physical branch of natural science. We branched out into the difference between science and pseudoscience.

From there on, we mentioned the features of science. Then, we moved on from astronomy to physics which is also another branch of the physical science branch of natural science.

After that, came chemistry and Earth science. Then, we moved on to social science, leaving the rest of the natural science branches. We briefly talked about psychology and we jumped onto the formal science, leaving out the social science.

The formal science branch we discussed was mathematics and logic and that was the end of the few branches we chose to discuss in this adventure. The branches we discussed are the tip of the iceberg.

However, together, on Learning Mole, we will try to cover all there is to know. So, keep on visiting Learning Mole. There is always more to learn from us. The information is endless and so are our adventures. Be ready to embark on the next adventure, my friend.

Let us suggest some adventures for you to check out: Education seems interesting with the different curriculums we collected just for you, learning all there is to know about colours seems like a good idea, and our favourite of all time is space and its Greek wonders!

Make sure you check them all out and hop right onto this exclusive first-class space adventure, while you are at it, and remember, the world is full of wonders, my friends. If in case you are a history fan, then you should probably give our Egyptian Gods ago.

If not and you are more of a Celtic fan, then fear not we’ve got you, so make sure you check out our Celtic adventure as well.

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The microwave is adored for its efficiency and simplicity. But when the microwave was created is something you might need to be aware of despite it being a necessary kitchen tool. The truth is that it was developed by accident more than 70 years ago when Percy Spencer, a Raytheon engineer, found his lunch had melted while testing a military-grade magnetron.

## History of the microwave oven

According to the company history of Raytheon, Spencer realized that the chocolate bar in his pocket had melted when he was testing a magnetron. Spencer experimented with different items, including popcorn seeds, and discovered that they all popped. He placed an egg close to the magnetron and watched as it began to vibrate before blowing up. Spencer understood that the meal had come into contact with low-density microwave energy. Then he constructed a metal box and supplied it with microwave radiation. Because microwaves cannot flow through metal, the power entered the box but could not exit. Spencer found microwaves could cook food faster than conventional ovens that utilized heat. In 1945, he submitted a patent application.

In 1947, the first microwave oven used for commercial purposes was tested in a Boston restaurant. Raytheon unveiled the Radarange 1161 later that year. According to Gallawa, it was 5.5 feet (1.7 metres) tall, weighed 750 lbs. (340 kg), and cost \$5,000. The magnetron was water-cooled; hence it needed to be connected to a water supply. It took some time for people to overcome their initial resistance, but as technology advanced, microwave oven use became increasingly common, especially in the food business. For example, restaurants might microwave-cooked recipes on demand and store them in the refrigerator to save waste. Other restaurants and food-related companies used microwaves to roast coffee beans, roast peanuts, defrost and cook meat, and even peel oysters.

Microwave heating has also been used in other sectors. According to Gallawa, microwave ovens also dry welding rods, wood, ceramics, paper, leather, tobacco, fabrics, pencils, and flowers.

## Operation

According to the World Health Organization, microwave ovens use radio waves tuned to a specific frequency of 2,450 megahertz and have a power range of 500 to 1,100 watts. The microwaves are directed at the food as it is placed in a microwave oven. The water molecules absorb the microwaves in the meal, and the resulting vibrations cause heat to be produced, which cooks the food. It is not advisable to use metal containers or utensils in a microwave oven since microwaves can pass through the plastic, glass, and ceramic but not metal.

A magnetron creates microwaves. Two permanent magnets on either side of a vacuum tube make up a magnetron. According to Tech-Faq, the passage of electrons creates magnetic and electric fields, emitting microwave radiation. Microwaves are focused on the oven chamber to heat and cook the food.

## Future of microwave oven

Today, many microwave ovens have sensors that turn off when the food is fully cooked. Samsung has created a microwave oven with multiple cooking options. The oven can cook and bake in addition to defrosting meats and warming leftovers. Additionally, it contains a fermentation cycle that may produce yoghurt and fresh dough.

Solid-state RF (radio frequency) energy is used in a microwave oven made by NXP Semiconductors to cook food. The microwave oven regulates the location, timing, and quantity of energy sent into the meal. According to NXP, the outcome has increased consistency, flavour, and nutrition. In addition, the solid-state gadget enables efficient and real-time feedback control of enormous volumes of energy.

Other businesses, like Wayv, manufacture mobile, solid-state RF microwave ovens powered by standard outlets, automobiles, or solar panels. This type, which resembles a thermos, can heat up to 17 fluid ounces (0.5 litres) for about 30 minutes on each charge.

Additionally, capabilities are being added to microwaves so they may connect to mobile devices, like the LG series of smart appliances. These appliances can be remotely turned on from any location using a smartphone or other device.

## Are microwave ovens safe?

An example of “electromagnetic” radiation microwaves. This implies that electromagnetic and electrical energy waves move together through space. Radio waves and X-rays are not the same as microwaves. Ionizing radiation, like X-rays, can change atoms and molecules and harm cells. Therefore, body damage from ionizing radiation is possible. However, microwaves’ non-ionizing radiation is not dangerous.

Cancer is not caused by microwave radiation, and there is no concrete evidence to link the two. Likewise, your food is not rendered radioactive by microwave radiation either. You are merely heating your food.

Microwaves only emit non-ionizing radiation while they are turned on and cooking. The food absorbs all the microwaves generated within your oven. The design of microwaves prevents electromagnetic radiation from escaping the oven. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does recommend checking your microwave to see if it has been tampered with or is faulty. Additionally, they advise not standing in front of or right up to your microwave while it is on.

To ensure that radiation emissions don’t represent a danger to the general population, the FDA has established the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH). The total number of safely leaking microwaves over a microwave oven’s lifetime is capped by a regulatory requirement. This is far less than any amount that could endanger you.

Additionally, the impact of microwave energy decreases with distance from the radiation source. Additionally, all ovens come equipped with a standard interlock system that disables the microwave when the door is opened.

The FDA conducts quality control checks and radiation testing on microwave ovens in their facility.

Although radiation from microwave ovens doesn’t cause cancer, if you’re exposed to it, it can nevertheless result in severe burns. Similar to how it cooks food, microwave radiation can also heat bodily tissue. However, only massive doses of microwave radiation can result in severe burns.

Non-ionizing radiation includes radio waves, microwaves, and visible light. UV light is the only non-ionizing radiation that can cause cancer. In conclusion, microwaves are safe and do not harm human health, including cancer development.

You can change your microwave to a newer one if you’re concerned that it’s too old or leaking radiation. For example, it might be time to upgrade if you’ve owned your microwave oven for over ten years. It might be preferable to leave the room while the microwave cooks if you have an older microwave you wish to save. The only purpose of this is to protect you from any potential radiation leaks.

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## Who was the first person to Invent The Telephone?

Have you heard that there are more telephones than people in the world?

There are more than 6 billion mobile phones in use worldwide.

### Alexander Graham Bell,

• Who made the first practical telephone in 1876 is the person we have to thank for the existence of the telephone. It is difficult to conceive of a world in which there is no telephone service.
• Alexander was brought into the world in Edinburgh, Scotland, on 3 March 1847.

As a young boy, he possessed great music, poetry, and artistic talent.

• When he was less than 12 years old, he started coming up with ideas for new inventions.
• Additionally, when he was 12 years old, his mother began to experience hearing loss, which ultimately led to her becoming totally deaf.

Alexander was profoundly impacted, and as a result, he developed a strong interest in the scientific study of sound and voice.

• Alexander emigrated to Canada with his parents when he was 23 years old, and they purchased a farm in the province of Ontario shortly after their arrival.

There, he constructed a modest workshop to carry on with his investigations into sound.

Alexander moved to Boston, in the United States, in 1871 in order to teach deaf students, people who were unable to hear, how to communicate with others.

Helen Keller, born without the ability to see, hear, or speak, was one of his students.

• In 1873, He cut down on how much time he spent teaching to concentrate on researching sound.

When Alexander Graham Bell had a minor accident in his laboratory on 10 March 1876, he worked on his invention.

He spoke the first words ever to be transmitted through the telephone. He said, “Mr Watson, come here; I want to see you.”

This was when the first telephone was made. A device capable of transmitting the sound of a human voice over considerable distances was developed.

• Alexander Graham Bell is known as the man. Who brainchild was it to Invent The Telephone? His patent and demonstrations for a device that could “transmit vocal or other sounds telegraphically by making electrical waves” were successful.

The act of correctly identifying the actual inventor (or inventors) of a given invention can be

### A challenging endeavour.

Instead of giving credit to the first person who thought of the idea, it is customarily provided to the person who came up with the most useful or effective invention (s).

The development of the telephone has been discussed and thought about a lot since it was first thought of.

• Cases have been brought before the courts, books written, and articles published. Alexander Graham Bell is universally acknowledged as the inventor of the telephone.
• Even though his design was the first one to be patented, he was not the first to think of the idea of Invent The Telephone. However, he was the first person to patent the design.

### In 1849, Antonio Meucci,

An Italian immigrant started working on the design of a talking telegraph or telephone. His name was Alexander Graham Bell.

• A caveat, essentially an announcement of an invention, was submitted by him for his design of the talking telegraph in 1871.
• Meucci was unable to renew his caveat because of the difficulties he was facing.
• It was in the United States House of Representatives passed a resolution on 11 June 2002, honouring Meucci’s contributions and work, that his part in the Invent The Telephone was given the recognition it deserved.
• To make matters even more interesting, some historians suggest that Elisha Gray, a professor at Oberlin College, applied for a caveat of the telephone on the same day that Bell applied for his patent of the telephone.

However, these gentlemen did not actually visit the Patent Office; their lawyers did so on their behalf.

According to information provided by Travis Brown in the book Historical First Patents: The First United States Patent for Many Everyday Things (published by Scarecrow Press in 1994), Bell’s lawyer arrived at the patent office first. It was 14 February in the year 1876.

He was the fifth person to enter the competition that day, while Gray’s attorney was the 39th.

Because of this, the United States Patent and Trademark Office chose not to honour Gray’s caveat and instead granted Bell the first telephone patent, U.S. Patent Number 174,465.

But some people don’t agree with this story and say that some employees at the Patent Office and maybe even Bell himself did something wrong.

### Johann Philipp REIS (1834 – 1874)

Philip REIS

In 1860, Johann Philipp Reis demonstrated a device that, with the help of an electric current, makes it possible to transmit voices and sounds over a distance. This apparatus is made up of two parts that Philipp Reiss identifies in a document from 1863 the telephone (transmitter) and the reproduction device (receiver).

## Alexander Graham Bell’s family papers

• It can be found in the Library of Congress. The following things are in the collection: “Correspondence, scientific notebooks, journals, blueprints, articles, and photos show that Alexander Graham Bell came up with the idea for the phone.
• And helped start the first telephone company.
• They also show his family life, his interest in teaching the deaf, and his scientific research in aeronautics and other fields.
• The papers of Alexander Graham Bell are kept In Washington, D.C., at the Library of Congress, and anyone can look at them.
• There is content from the years 1862 to 1939, but most of the content is from the years 1865 to 1920.”

## StoryMap:

At the 1876 Centennial Exhibition, The public was given their first look at the telephone for the very first time. People who went to the 1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia to celebrate the United States 100th birthday were amazed by the newest and best inventions that showed how far people had come.

• The show was held to celebrate the United States 100th birthday. The telephone, made by Alexander Graham Bell, was one of the things people could see at the exhibition.
• One thing that is talked about in Chronicling America is how the telephone came to be. Alexander Graham Bell was given a patent for the telephone he invented in 1876.
•  This made Elisha Gray angry, so they went to court. The “Invent the Telephone” topic is covered in a number of ways in the digital collection of old newspapers on Chronicling America. This guide shows how to get to those tools.

The Library of Congress has collaborated to create a digital archive called Chronicling America (ISSN 2475-2703).

This archive is a searchable collection of historic newspaper pages from 1789 to 1963. The U.S. Newspaper Directory is a searchable index of newspapers that have been published in the United States since 1690.

It is included on the website to assist researchers in determining what titles are available for a particular location and time period, as well as how to access those titles.

“How Professor Bell came up with the idea for the telephone.” 9 July 1899. Image 22 from the newspaper The San Francisco Call, published in San Francisco, California. Historic American newspapers are collected and housed at Chronicling America.

• The telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell, who was given a patent for it on 7 March 1876, thereby securing his ownership of the invention and the associated intellectual property.
• A few days later, he made history by making the first telephone call to his business partner, Thomas Watson. The invention of the telephone ushered in a new era of communication by making it possible to hold conversations between people physically located in different places.

Meucci joined other claimants as the inventor of the telephone, challenging the universal fame gained by Alexander Graham Bell.

These claimants include Johann Philipp Reis, Innocenzo Manzetti, Charles Bourseul in Europe, Amos Dolbear, Sylvanus D. Cushman, Daniel Drawbaugh, Edward Farrar, James McDonough, and Elisha Gray in the United States. Meucci joined these claimants in order to challenge the universal fame gained by Alexander Graham Bell.

It is generally agreed that Michael Idvorsky Pupin, an American citizen with Yugoslavian ancestry, first came up with this idea.

On 19 June, he was granted two patents in the United States for this method. The Bell Telephone Company ultimately purchased both patents.

The inductive loading of telephone lines was commonly referred to as “pauperization,” although it is unknown who first invented the technique.

If anyone thinks that Antonio Meucci discovered the inductive loading of long-distance telephone lines but didn’t invent the phone, who knows? Maybe we’ll have another chance to look into the matter.

– Antonio Meucci wrote in the Illustration on 26 August 1854, “After the marvellous telegraphs that can remotely copy the writing of such-and-such a person and even more or less complicated drawings, it seems impossible to get any more amazing.”

Let’s try to go a few steps further. For example, if speech itself couldn’t be sent by electricity, if you couldn’t say something in Vienna and have it heard in Paris, that would be a problem.

## – Here’s how it works:

– We know vibrations make sounds and that these vibrations are transferred to the ear by means of an intermediate medium. But the strength of these vibrations drops off quickly with distance, so even with megaphones, tubes, and acoustic trumpets, there are limits that can’t be passed.

– Imagine that someone speaks close to a moving plate that is flexible enough not to lose any of the deformations caused by the voice and that this plate sets up and breaks off communication with a battery. You can have a second plate do the vibrations at the same time from a distance.

– It is true that the intensity of the sounds will vary at the point of departure, where the plate vibrates because of the voice, and stay the same at the point of arrival, where it vibrates because of electricity.

-However, it has been shown that this does not change the sounds.

– First, the sounds would have the same pitch on the scale.

At this point in acoustic science, I can’t say if it will be the same for the sounds people make with their voices.

– He still needs to consider how these syllables are made enough. He has seen that some words are said with the teeth, others with the lips, etc., but that is all he has seen.

– No matter what, it is important to remember that the syllables can be reproduced by hearing only the vibrations of environments in between. If you can reproduce these vibrations exactly, you can reproduce the syllables.

– In any case, the current state of science makes it impossible to show that electrical transmission is impossible. On the other hand, all probabilities are a possibility.

– When the idea of using electromagnetics to send telegrams was first brought up, a well-known scientist called it a “sublime utopia.” However, today you can send a message directly from London to Vienna using a simple metal wire.

– They said it wasn’t possible, but it is.

It goes without saying that the ability to send speech through electricity would have a huge number of essential uses right away.

– No one would need a device to use this method of communication unless they are deaf and dumb. A battery, two plates that move, and a metal wire would be enough.

Alexander Graham Bell: the telephone

On 14 February 1876, Alexander Graham Bell took out a patent for his telephone at the United States Patent Office, two hours before Elisha Gray announced a similar device.

In a short film made in 1930, an actor played the part of Alexander Graham Bell.

1897: a phone call

Most telephones from the 1800s had a transmitter that had to be upright for it to work, and the receiver was usually in an attachment that hung on a hook when it wasn’t in use. Many people called AT&T’s desk sets the “candlestick” phones because they were tall.

By the year 1886, there were more than 150,000 people in the United States owned a telephone, and as a result, the world would never be the same.

Alexander Graham Bell died in Canada in 1922.

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