# Search Results

Results for "René Descartes"

The laws of motion developed by Sir Isaac Newton explain the connection between a physical object and the forces that act upon it. By understanding this information, we can construct the foundation for modern physics.

Newton’s laws of motion are three laws that explain how objects move in response to applied forces. They were first published in 1687 and have since become fundamental principles in physics.  And considered laws Isaac Newton, an English mathematician and physicist, is credited with being the first person to formulate. The relationship between the forces acting on the body and the motion of the body.

These relations are the basis of classical mechanics and are described here.

## Newton’s First Law States that :

If a body is resting or moving in a straight line at a constant speed, it will continue to do so unless a force acts upon it.

If a force acts upon it, it will change its speed or stop moving in a straight line altogether. In fact, In classical Newtonian mechanics, there is no significant difference between rest and linear motion. Stationary and constant-velocity motion in a straight line can be considered the state of motion seen by another observer in which one observer is moving.

One moves at the same speed as the particle and the other moves at a constant velocity relative to the particle.  In other words, rest and uniform motion in a straight line are regarded as the same state of motion.

The concept behind this postulate is referred to as the Law of inertia.

Galileo Galilei was the one who initially conceptualised the Law of Inertia of Horizontal Motion on Earth.

René Descartes was the one who went on to generalise the concept. To the untrained eye, the principle of inertia may not appear as intuitively obvious as the starting point and basic assumption of classical mechanics. An object that is not pushed tends to rest, according to Aristotelian mechanics and also according to everyday experience.

Galileo’s experiments with balls rolling down inclined planes provided the basis for his derivation of the Law of inertia.

For Galileo, the principle of inertia was essential to the completion of his primary scientific endeavour, which required him to explain how it was possible for us to be unaware of the motion of the Earth, despite the fact that it was rotating on its axis and moving around the Sun.

You can use the concept of inertia to find the answer given that we are moving along with the Earth and that our inclination is to keep moving in the same direction; Earth appears to be still to us even though we are moving. Therefore, the principle of inertia, which is not a statement of the obvious, was at one time the primary focus of debate in the scientific community.

Newton was able to accurately calculate small deviations due to the non-uniform movement of the Earth’s surface in a straight line.  Newton’s discovery that the motion of the Earth’s surface is not a constant motion in a straight line made this outcome conceivable.

The widespread observation that unforced bodies have a tendency to return to their resting positions is attributed to the fact that, according to the Newtonian formulation, to the fact that these bodies have forces acting on them that are unbalanced, such as friction and air resistance. This is a common observation.

## Example of Newton’s First Law of Motion in Everyday Life

If you jump out of a moving car or bus,  the ground exerts an effect on your feet, and your feet become immobile. You are going to fall because the top half of your body did not stop moving, and you will fall in the same direction you were going in before. – If there is no external force acting on a stationary object, then the object will not move.

– A moving object will continue to move even in the absence of any external forces…

## Newton’s second Law – laws of motion: F = ma

Newton’s Second Law:

It is a quantitative description of the change in motion of a body due to a force. The rate of change with time of the direction and magnitude of an object’s momentum is equal to the force exerted on the object. The angular momentum of an object equals its mass multiplied by its velocity.

Momentum, like velocity, is a vector quantity that has both magnitudes. And direction. A force acting on the body can change the magnitude or direction of the impact or both. One of the most important laws is Newton’s Second Law, one of the laws of motion in all physics. An object of constant mass m can be written as F = ma.

Where both force (F) and speed (a) are vector quantities.

An object with a net force will accelerate according to the Second Law. It is assumed that there is no net force acting on the body either because there is either no force or the opposite force balances all forces. The body will then be in equilibrium without acceleration. Instead, we can conclude that an object with inertia has no net force.

## Example of Newton’s Second Law of Motion in Everyday Life

As we know of the laws of motion, According to Newton’s Second Law of Motion, acceleration, or the process of picking up speed, takes place whenever a force is applied to a mass (object). Riding a bicycle is a great demonstration of how this Law of motion works in practice. The mass is represented by your bicycle. The force is provided by your leg muscles as they push down on the pedals of your bicycle.

## Newton’s third law: F = G(m1m2)/R2

The most famous laws of Newton are the laws of motion (Third Law, action and reaction)

Newton’s Third Law states that when two objects interact, equal and opposite forces act on each other. The third Law is also called the Law of action and reaction.

This Law is important in the analysis of static equilibrium problems where all forces are in equilibrium, but it also applies to objects in uniform or accelerated motion.

The power it describes is real, not just a calculating tool.

For example, a book placed on a table exerts a downward force equal to the table’s weight.

According to the third Law, the tables give the cards equal and opposite forces.

This force causes the table to deform slightly under the weight of the book, pressing the book like a spring.

An object with a net force will accelerate according to the second Law of the laws of motion. An object can be in equilibrium without acceleration if there is no force acting on it, either because there is no force at all or because opposing forces exactly balance all forces.

Conversely, we can conclude that an object found to have no acceleration has no net force.

## Example of Newton’s Third Law of Motion in Everyday Life

It asserts, “There is an equal and opposite reaction to every action.”

The force that the first object exerts on the second when two objects interact is referred to as action. The reaction force is the force that the second body exerts on the first. Therefore, the action and its equal and opposite reactions are of equal magnitude.

Examples based on Newton’s third Law, one of the laws of motion.

– When a bullet is fired from a gun, the gun imparts a force that propels the bullet forward. In reverse, the bullet exerts an equal amount of force on the rifle.

An open book on a table: On the table, the weight of the books is exerting a downward force (action). While the reaction affects the books in an upward direction,

-When you jump, the force of your legs striking the ground causes the ground to respond by applying a force equal and opposite to the first, which launches you into the air.

– During swimming, the swimmer advances. As the swimmer pushes against the water, the water pushes back on the swimmer.

## Influence of Newton’s laws

Effect of Newton’s Law

• Newton’s laws first appeared in his masterpiece Principia Mathematica (1687).
• And are also known as “Principles”. In 1543, Nicolaus Copernicus proposed that the Sun could be the centre of the universe instead of the Earth. Meanwhile, Galileo, Johann Kepler, and Descartes replaced the Aristotelian worldview inherited from ancient Greece and laid the foundation for a new science explaining the workings of the heliocentric universe.
• In the Principia, Newton created a new science. He was able to develop his three laws. Explain that a planet’s orbit is an ellipse, not a circle, but as a result, it explains much more.
• The sequence of events from Copernicus to Newton is called a scientific revolution.

And R divided by the square of the distance: F = G(m1m2)/R2.

Isaac Newton proposed this Law in 1687 and used it to explain the observed movements of the planets and the moon.

• It was formulated mathematically by Johannes Kepler in the early 1600s.
• All three of Newton’s laws apply to objects regardless of their size or whether or not they are made of different materials.
• This fact makes them useful when modelling objects of various sizes and compositions because they can be applied uniformly across all objects.

## There are some exceptions:

– Newton’s laws do not apply in some situations, such as when an object is moving close to the speed of light.

– In addition, they do not apply when dampening forces oppose the motion, such as friction or air resistance. For this reason, these laws should be interpreted with care and applied carefully when modelling the motion of objects.

– Many people believe that Newton’s First Law does not apply in some cases for beginners.

This is because many things that happen in daily life occur without being pushed, such as objects falling due to gravity.

– In addition, many people believe that this Law does not apply because objects at rest can also be pushed by other forces, such as wind or water currents.

– In general, many people believe this Law does not apply because there are many forces at work other than gravity.

– Others believe that Newton’s Second Law does not apply in some cases to advanced students. This is because many students do not know their mass or how to measure their acceleration due to gravity.

– In addition, many students do not know how to calculate force, which makes it difficult to understand Newton’s Second Law.

This makes it difficult for many students to apply Newton’s second Law in everyday life.

– Some believe that Newton’s Third Law does not apply in some cases to everyone.

This is because many people believe that this Law does not apply when considering human interaction or moral responsibility.

In addition, some people believe that it does not apply when considering projectiles and explosions because they occur in different directions.

Some people do not agree with Isaac Newton’s laws of motion and gravity because they are controversial and open to interpretation.

For example, some disagree with his laws because they do not apply in all situations and can be difficult to interpret accurately. Others disagree with his laws because they do not agree with his interpretation of gravity and motion.

Ultimately, Isaac Newton’s laws of motion are universally accepted because they are useful for modelling the motion of objects under the influence of applied forces.

However, there are some exceptions because these laws can be difficult to interpret accurately and difficult for beginners to understand.

Therefore, it is important to understand what these laws mean before applying them since they can also be difficult for advanced students to understand.

If you check the last details we provided, you will find that you have the necessary basic information about Newton’s laws of motion. Keep on visiting Learning Mole to learn a lot more about everything out there.

### Ancient Rome Civilization

Rome was a small town on central Italy’s Tiber River. in the eighth century B.C., Rome became  an empire. Ancient Rome was a powerful and important civilization that ruled much of Europe for nearly 1000 years. The basis for much of Western culture comes from Ancient Rome.

One of the features of Roman domination is the use of the Romance languages (Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Romanian). These languages are derived from Latin. Rome was a republic for 450 years. Then, it became an empire under the rule of first emperor, Augustus.

Rome was founded by two brothers, Remus and Romulus, nursed by a she-wolf.  Remus was killed. Romulus became ruler and named the city after himself, Rome. The Ancient Romans worshipped a lot of different gods and goddesses. Each god and goddess had its specialty.

Ancient Rome had a unique architecture. Ancient Rome is underground. Ancient Romans had weird eating habits. They used to eat dormice and other weird foods like flamingo. They used to eat dormice and other weird foods like flamingo.

Ancient Romans were unique in art. Ancient Rome used to be covered in graffiti, just like today. Their graffiti was scratched into stone and not painted on with colour. The Romans believed in gods and goddesses who ruled over different areas of life.

### What Was Life In Ancient Rome?

As for every culture all over the world, There is a considerable difference between poor and rich people. In Rome, There was also a difference not only between poor and rich, but also among Rome being a kingdom, republic and empire.

Under the Roman Kingdom, daily life was focused on farming, fishing, worship, and family. Lower class people, called Plebeians, could not marry the nobles, called Patricians. A whole family would live together in one home; married daughters went to live with their husband’s family.

Women had no rights and kids did not go to school. Some kids were educated at home and all kids had many chores to do. The family was ruled by the oldest male in the family, called paterfamilias. He was responsible for all the actions of the family. He could exile members of the family, beat them or sell them into slavery.

A woman’s role was to teach her daughters how to behave, and to bear and raise children. They worked very hard. They trained children to obey elders. Children never talked back to an elder Roman or to their family. Older people were treated with honour and were respected for their wisdom.

People worshipped thousands of gods. They used to hold religious festivals at night after they are done with farming. They could buy and sell the goods they made and grew in a marketplace.

Under the Roman Republic, family was still important. Education got a significant importance too. Some kids went to school, Others were taught at home because education was not free. Women had a few freedom. They could shop, and visit the temples, and even stop to hear the great orators in the Forum.

The poor worked very hard still they had time to go to the bath and temples. Visiting temples were an important part in their day. By the end of the Roman republic, system went down. There was no police force. Streets became dangerous, but Romans became very sociable.

Under the Roman Empire, there were security forces in the streets. People come move around freely. Women had more freedom. They could run a business. They could even get a job. Poor could get married to the rich. Merchants managed to build villas in the countryside.

All Romans including men, women, kids, elders and slaves could attend events like races and gladitaor shows. Under the Empire, at first, it was a crime if you did not worship the Roman gods each day. Later on, it became a crime if you did.

### Ancient Roman Literature

Ancient Roman literature began sometime around 240 B.C. Latin was the main language used for writing during Ancient Rome. The earliest Roman literary works were historical epics retelling Rome’s early military history, while the later works were poetry, comedies, histories, and tragedies.

The rule of Augustus and the early part of the Roman Empire is considered as the golden age of Roman Literature. They wrote on papyrus scrolls or on parchment. They wrote with a metal pin that they dipped in ink.

Poetry is the most famous type of Roman literature. The Golden Age of Roman poetry was from c. 70 BCE to 14 CE. Some of the famous writers are Virgil, Horace, Catullus, Propertius, Tibullus, and Ovid. Virgil provided his audience with a more romanticized picture of Rome. His writings reflected his love of the rural life.

Horace was one of the famous writers in the Golden Age of Roman poetry. His poems reflected a joy for life and a love of nature. Gaius Valerius Catullus was one of the greatest authors. His poetry mixed both passion and knowledge with an awareness of life’s shortness.

Here’s a list of the most famous poetic works:

• Eclogues, written around 37 BCE, by Virgil
• Georgics, written around 29 BCE,  by Virgil
• Aeneid, an epic by Virgil
• Satires by Horace
• Epodes by Horace
• Odes by Horace
• Amores, published in 22 BCE, by Ovid

Speeches and Rhetoric were considered an important skill in Rome. Greek rhetoric appeared in republican Rome in the middle of the second century B.C. Marcus Tullius Cicero was one of the most famous Roman statesman. One of his writings was the De Inventione.

Cicero believed that the perfect orator should have the ability to speak wisely on any subject in a confident way. During his time, Rome had become a place where there is no space for the free expression of ideas. He was an idealist. Cicero was killed on December 7, 43 BC.

Historians were writers who recorded the history of Rome. Writing history is part of the Roman literature. Livy is one of the three great Roman historians. He began by composing and publishing in units of five books. Later on, he wrote 142 books. The books can be divided as follows:

• 1–5 From the foundation of the city until the sack of Rome by the Gauls (386 BC)
• 6–10 The Samnite wars
• 11–15 The conquest of Italy
• 16–20 The First Punic (Carthaginian) War
• 21–30 The Second Punic War (until 201 BC)
• 31–45 Events until the end of the war with Perseus (167 BC)
• 46–70 Events until the Social War (91 BC)
• 71–80 Civil wars until the death of Marius (86 BC)
• 81–90 Civil wars until the death of Sulla (78 BC)
• 91–103 Events until the triumph of Pompey in 62 BC
• 104–108 The last years of the Republic
• 109–116 The Civil War until the murder of Caesar (44 BC)
• 117–133 From the death of Caesar to the Battle of Actium
• 134–142 From 29 to 9 BC

Philosophy was considered part of the Roman literature. Stoicism was the most popular school of philosophy with the Romans. Stoicism stated that the universe is completely rational and controlled by orderly natural law. It was founded in Athens in about 300 bc by Zeno of Citium.

Stoicism can be divided highly into three periods: early (third century bc), middle (2nd and 1st centuries bc), and later (1st and 2nd centuries ad).  Seneca, Epictetus, and the emperor Marcus Aureliu were some of the most famous Roman historians.

Roman Records was considered part of the Roman literature. Roman were so organized so they kept a lot of written records. They had records for every citizen’s personal information. They kept records for age, gender and marital status. They also kept records for the governmental decrees and laws.

### Quick Facts about Roman Literature:

• The earliest works of Roman literature were dramatic stories about famous battles and victories.
• Drama and poetry that were so influential started to appear by the end of Rome
• The “Golden Age” of Roman literature is often said to have started with Cicero’s first speech, in 81 BCE, and ended in AD 17, with the death of Ovid.
• The “Silver Age” which followed  The Golden Age of Roman writing wasn’t quite as great. It lasted from AD 18 to 133.
• The Silver Age ended with the death of Marcus Aurelius, a Roman Emperor. His most famous work, The Meditations, was written in Greek.
• Julius Caesar, one of the Roman Emperor, managed to write a few historical works. Although, they were mostly about himself!
• Roman literature didn’t end with the Romans! People continued to write in Latin until the 18th Century.
•  Famous philosophers and scientists like Francis Bacon, Isaac Newton and René Descartes all wrote in Latin.

Here’s a list of the most famous works of the Roman literature:

• The anthology of Catullus
• Ovid’s Metamorphoses: The Metamorphoses is a massive collection of nearly 12,000 verses in 15 books telling 250 myths that claim to tell the history of world from creation to Julius Caesar’s death.
• Horace’s Odes
• Virgil’s Aeneid: Its 12 books took 11 years to complete.
• Seneca’s Thyestes: It is considered his masterpiece, and like most of his plays it is bloody and melodramatic – Thyestes eats his own children.

### 5 Different Outstanding Types of Art

The Romans were professional engineers and builders. It was mentioned that They were probably the first to use concrete and cement as building materials. They wanted their art and architecture to be as applicable and functional as possible.

The Romans improved a lot of new methods for buildings and construction of all types including Roman roads, Roman arches, and aqueducts. They made the baked brick common in buildings. Romans improved architecture to express the empire’s power and wealth to the rest of the world.

Affected by Greek art, Roman artists frequently concentrated on gods and goddesses, in addition to philosophers, politicians, and other well-known individuals. Artists used different ways to show their work, including sculptures, paintings, pottery, reliefs, and architecture.

Roman architecture is popular for a number of reasons, including, arches, domes, aqueducts, amphitheatres, thermaes, temples, apartment blocks and houses.

The arch is one of the most important additions that the Romans added to the architecture. An arch is a hole in a building that is curved on top. They are tall structures, generally going back to imperial times, and are among the most amazing and remarkable archaeological landmarks in Rome.

The curved parts can be round or pointed next to each other. The Arch of Constantine is an example which is one of the most well-known arches in Rome. The keystone refers to the stone at the very top of the arch. Its role is to keep the rest of the arch stones from collapsing.

The most remarkable structure of arches is as follows: the fixed arch, the two-hinged arch, and the three-hinged arch. The fixed arch is frequently used in supported concrete bridges and tunnel buildings, where the spans are short. While The two-hinged arch is commonly used to bridge long spans.

The three-hinged arch is accordingly described to be statically determinate. The three-hinged arch is hinged at its base and the mid-span as well. It is frequently used for huge building roofs.

### Three Basic Categories of Arches

There are three major categories of arches as follows: circular, pointed, and parabolic. Arches with a circular form are also called rounded arches. Ancient Roman builders depended heavily on the rounded arch to spread to large, open areas. Pointed arches were frequently used by builders of Gothic-style architecture.

This innovation made it possible for higher and more closely spaced openings. the parabolic arch produces the most thrust at the base but can span the largest areas. It is frequently used in bridge patterns, where long extensions are needed.

Let’s have a look at the list of the most famous arches in Rome

Domes are a characteristic of architecture that usually resembles the upper half of a sphere on top of a building. It helps to identify an important building. They used it to give speeches under it; as the voice sounds louder. There are various types of domes. Let’s check the table of the different kinds of domes:

Here’s a table with some of the city’s most famo

Let’s check the table with some of the city’s most famous domes:

Aqueducts are large systems for carrying water from one place to another. It is a channel made by people that carries water from one place to another. It was used to carry fresh water to cities or to farms for irrigation. The water would run on top of the aqueduct, and if it got to the city it would run into a castellum, or holding tank.

When Romans built cities, They would search for fresh sources of water and then build aqueducts that would take the water to the city. They also learned to build their aqueducts to be very tall, so it would be harder for the water to get dirty as it travelled to the city.

The water may be delivered underground through a tunnel or pipe, at ground level through a canal, or over the ground on a bridge. Engineers used gravity to maintain the water moving. As soon as the water arrived at a city, it ran into the main tank called a castellum.

Smaller pipes carry the water to the secondary castella. Then, the water moved through lead pipes to baths and public fountains. It needed 500 years to build Rome’s massive system. They constructed 11 aqueducts from 312 BCE to 226 CE.

Aqueducts were constructed in other countries like India, South Africa, Oman, Persia, Sir Lanka and North America. There are Modern aqueducts. They are considered a central part of many countries’ water distribution infrastructure. The United States’ aqueducts are some of the world’s biggest.

The Catskill Aqueduct delivers water to New York City over a span of 120 miles. There is also the Colorado River Aqueduct, which provides the Los Angeles area with water from the Colorado River for almost 250 miles. As well, California Aqueduct, which flows from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta to Lake Perris, is 1,129.0 km.

The Central Arizona Project is located in the U.S.A. It is considered the biggest and most expensive aqueduct in the United States. It extends 336 miles from its source near Parker, Arizona to the metropolitan areas of Phoenix and Tucson.

The Oamaru Borough Race is an aqueduct which is located in New Zealand. It was made in the late 19th century. It carries water from the Waitaki River at Kurow to the coastal town of Oamaru. It extends for around 50 km. In Spain, the Tagus-Segura Water Transfer system of aqueducts started working in 1979. It extends for 286 kilometres from north to south.

There are different designs for the aqueducts. One of these designs is open channels. They are like small holes cut into the earth. The main element in the design of all open channels is their gradient. They have higher gradients.

A higher gradient allows a smaller channel to deliver the same amount of water as larger ones do with a low gradient. Yet, it increases the possibility of destructing the structure of the aqueduct by the water.

Artificial rills are another design for aqueducts. They are small canals or aqueducts of stone, brick, concrete, or other lining material. The Falaj irrigation system in today’s  Abu Dhabi Emirate makes use of rills as part of its irrigation water system.

Tunnels are another aqueduct design. In this design, tunnels are constructed underground. This design is common in North Africa and Central Asia have vertical wells at regular intervals is called a qanat. An example of this design is the Qanat Firaun in Syria. It extends over 100 kilometres.

Pipes are one of the aqueduct’s designs. Pipelines are highly used in modern aqueducts. They are useful for carrying water over long distances. They can also be used to transfer treated water.

Here’s a list of water aqueducts:

• Pont Du Gard : Vers-Pont-Du-Gard, Gard, France
• Aqueduct of Segovia: Spain, Segovia, Castile and León
• Les Ferreres Aqueduct: Tarragona, Catalonia, Spain
• Aqua Claudia: Rome, Lazio, Italy
• Valens Aqueduct:  Istanbul, Marmara, Turkey
• Aqueduct of Peña Cortada: Spain, Chelva, Valencia,
• Aqueduct of Los Milagros: Mérida, Extremadura, Spain
• Aqueduct of Caesarea Maritima: Israel, Caesarea, Haifa,
• Aqueduct of Diocletian: Split, Dalmatia, Croatia
• Aqueduct of the Gier: France, Lyon, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
• Aqueduct of Zaghouan: Tunisia, Tunis, Tunis Governorate
• Aqueduct of Luynes: France, Luynes, Centre-Val de Loire
• Ponte d’Aël: Aymavilles, Aosta Valley, Italy
• Metz Aqueduct: Metz, Granz Est, France
• Eugenius Aqueduct: Turkey, Trabzon, Black Sea Region
• Aqua Alexandrina: Rome, Lazio, Italy
• Lesbos Aqueduct: Greece, Lesbos, North Aegean Region
• Caños de Carmona: Seville, Andalusia, Spain
• Aqueduct of Aspendos : Turkey, Serik, Mediterranean Region
• Aquincum Aqueduct: Budapest, Central Hungary, Hungary

The Colosseum is a giant amphitheatre located in Rome, the capital of Italy.  It is shaped as an oval or round building with rising levels of seats arranged across a central open area. It is widely believed that Colosseum was the biggest and grandest amphitheatre in the entire Roman Empire.

It’s sometimes famous as the Flavian Amphitheatre because it was constructed during the reign of the Roman emperor Vespasian. The Flavian dynasty, or family, controlled the Roman Empire between 69 AD and 96 AD. The construction of the Colosseum began in 72 AD and was completed eight years later in 80 AD.

The Colosseum is built of stones and concrete. It had four major floors with eighty arches each. It is measured as 620 feet long, 512 feet wide, and 158 feet tall. It consumed more than 1.1 million tons of stone, concrete, and bricks to finish the Colosseum. About 50,000 to 80.000 people could be seated inside.

The best seat in the house was related to the emperor who sat in the Emperor’s Box. Their seating location gave the best view of the arena. Special seating locations were also given to senators. The nobles sat down closer to the major arena while the public sat at the upper tiers.

Below the Colosseum, tunnels were found called the hypogeum. These tunnels allowed for animals, actors, and gladiators to unexpectedly come out in the middle of the arena. They would make use of trap doors to add in special effects such as scenery.

In Ancient Rome, these buildings were used to please the population. Gladiator combats, executions and athletics were organized there. It contained battles between hand-to-hand combat between gladiators and men and animals. Many people were sent to death in the Colosseum, possibly 400,000 and a lot of animals died in the great Roman amphitheatre.

The Colosseum is also still a powerful symbol of Imperial Rome, despite being ruined by earthquakes and stone robbers. The southern side of the Colosseum was damaged during a large earthquake in 847.

Here’s a list of the 20 most famous amphitheatres in Rome:

1. Colosseum  –  Rome, Lazio, Italy

• The biggest and most popular of all Roman Amphitheatres
• The Colosseum was the most visited place around the world, In 2018
• The capacity is 80,000+

2. Nîmes Amphitheater  –  Nîmes, Occitanie, France

• The Capacity is 24,000+
• The amphitheatre is used as a bullfighting arena through the summer months, in today’s France,

3. El Djem Amphitheatre: Tunisia, El Djem, Mahdia,

• The Capacity is  35,000+
• It is the tallest and most impressive structure in the whole city.
•  Construction was completed in 238 CE

4. Arles Amphitheatre: Arles, Provence, France

• The Capacity is 20,000+
• During the middle ages, the arena was reused as a defensive fortress.
•  UNESCO World Heritage Site

5. Verona Amphitheatre  –  Verona, Veneto, Italy

• The Capacity is 30,000+
• The Verona Amphitheatre is one of the best-rescued ones in all of Italy.
• Today it is one of the most remarkable sites in Verona and it is still in use for concerts and performances

6. Pula Amphitheatre: Pula, Istria, Croatia

• The Capacity is 23,000+
• Pula Amphitheatre is one of the most remarkable Roman sites in all of Croatia.

7. Pompeii Amphitheatre: Pompeii, Campania, Italy

• The Capacity is 20,000+
• Pompeii’s Amphitheatre is the most ancient Roman Amphitheatre that still exists today.

8. Uthina Amphitheatre: Tunisia, Mohammedia, Ben Arous Governorate

• The Capacity is 16,000+
• Uthina Amphitheater’s seats are just around 60% intact

9. Leptis Magna Amphitheatre  –  Libya, Khoms, Murqub

• The Capacity is 16,000+
• The construction was accomplished around 56 CE.

10. Avenches Amphitheatre: Switzerland, Avenches, Vaud

• The capacity is16,000+
• Avenches Amphitheatre was accomplished in the year 165 CE
• Visitors can enter the centre of the arena and stand directly where gladiatorial battles used to happen.

11. Tarragona Amphitheatre  –  Tarragona, Catalonia, Spain

• The Capacity is 15,000+
• UNESCO World Heritage
• Around 50% of the seating rows are still rescued, as well as a good part of the archways on the south façade.

12. Mérida Amphitheater  –  Mérida, Extremadura, Spain

• UNESCO World Heritage

13. Italica Amphitheatre  –  Santiponce, Andalusia, Spain

• The Capacity is 25,000+
• It was also used lately as a filming location for Game of Thrones in 2017

14. Trier Amphitheatre  –  Trier, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

• The Capacity is 20,000+
•  UNESCO World Heritage

15. Alexandria Amphitheatre  –  Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt

• The Capacity is 600+
• The construction was completed in the 4th century CE

16. Lecce Amphitheatre  –  Lecce, Apulia, Italy

• The Capacity is 25,000+
• The seats and façade of the arena are built of yellow-white sandstone

17. Cagliari Amphitheatre  –  Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy

• The Capacity is 10,000+
• Most of the seating was cut to match the slope of the hill, and there was also a big entry façade on the southern side.

18. Flavian Amphitheatre of Pozzuoli: Italy, Pozzuoli, Campania,

• The Capacity is 50,000+
• It is the third-largest Amphitheatre constructed in the Roman Empire.

19. Capua Amphitheater: Italy, Santa Maria Capua Vetere, Campania,

• The Capacity is 60,000+
• It is the second-largest amphitheatre that is still rescued from antiquity.

20. Aquincum  Amphitheatre: Hungary, Budapest, Central Hungary,

• The Capacity is unknown
• It was an important military training facility

Thermaes are many-sided rooms designed for a public bath where people went to bathe and meet each other. The public bath was like a community centre where people exercised, relaxed, and met with other people.

Romans would visit the public baths on daily basis, on feast days, and even on holy days. The major goal of the baths was a way for the Romans to clean themselves. people would generally do different physical activities. They would cover themselves with oil which they would then remove along with any dirt and sweat using a tool called a strigi.

It cost a little fee, to enter the public bath. The poor could pay to go. Sometimes a politician or emperor would pay for the public to go. The baths were divided depending on gender within the building. Each gender contained three pools: a hot one, a warm one and a cool one.

The three pools were given the names: the caldarium, the tepidarium and the frigidarium. There was frequently a steam bath. They frequently included an outdoor gymnasium where men would entertain in different ball games and activities. The changing room was popular as the apodyterium.

Here’s a list of the rooms:

Palaestra: This is where people could go and work out such as weightlifting before taking a shower.

Apodyterium: This is the place where visitors could change their costumes before using the main bathhouse facilities.

Caldarium: This room was generally the hottest.

Tepidarium: This room was generally warm and had a pool full of heated water. The tepidarium is where visitors would go to apply oil and scrape it off using a strigil.

Frigidarium: This was the room with the cold temperatures. The frigidarium generally marked a bathing pool full of cold, fresh water where visitors could bath in and refresh themselves to get clean.

You could also find other facilities according to how and where the baths were constructed like toilets, libraries, gardens and even massage rooms for therapy!

Rich people sometimes built their own private baths inside their homes. These could be rather expensive because they had to pay the government for the water that they used. Yet, they sometimes went to the public baths to entertain and meet people.

They used the aqueducts to provide the public baths with fresh water. The Romans made an underfloor heating system called a hypocaust to heat the water making use of fire.

Let’s check the list of Roman Public baths:

1. Baths of Caracalla – Rome, Italy

• It was called after the Roman Emperor Caracalla (188-217 A.D.), the man who was responsible when the baths were accomplished.
• The second-largest bathing complex ever built in the Roman Empire.
• It was almost 40 metres high
• The baths had a quantity of 8 million litres

2. Baths of Diocletian – Rome, Italy

• They were constructed in the reign of Emperor Diocletian
• It had a limit of almost 3,000 bathers
• Today, part of the bathing complex was changed into a church called the Santa Maria Degli Angeli, Dei Martiri.

3. Roman Baths – Bath, England

• It was constructed in the first few decades of the Roman reign in Britain.
• It’s one of the most famous tourist attractions in the region
• It gets over 1 million visitors every year.

4. Trier Imperial Baths: Trier, Germany

• They have a limit of approximately 75,000 and 100,000
• They were some of the biggest baths constructed outside of Rome.
• only a part of the complex survives today.

5. Thermes de Cluny: Paris, France

• Thermes de Cluny are other thermal baths situated in today’s Paris.
• The leftovers of today are around 1/3 of the original bathing complex.
• part of this complex was combined with a modern-day attraction named the “Musée national du Moyen Age.

6. Baths of Antoninus: Tunis, Tunisia

• They were the biggest Roman Bathhouse constructed on the African continent.
• It was constructed in the modern-day capital of Tunisia.
• The baths were constructed in the reign of Antoninus Pius
• The remains of the baths are a portion of the Archaeological site of Carthage, a part that was announced as a UNESCO World Heritage site at the beginning of the year 1979.

7. Roman Thermae of Maximinus:  Braga, Portugal

• It was constructed in Braga in northwest Portugal.
• The original version of the complex was built in the second half of the 1st century B.C. It was totally renovated in the 3rd century A.D. and a theatre was attached nearby as well.
• It was constructed on top of a hill in the city

8. Baths of Ancyra: Ankara, Turkey

• The Baths of Ancyra were placed in the modern-day city of Ankara, the capital of Turkey.
• This great bathing complex was constructed at the beginning of the  3rd century A.D, during the reign of Emperor Caracalla.

9. Op de Thermen: Maastricht, Netherlands

• “Op de Thermen” means  “On top of the Thermae” when translated into English.
• It was found out between 1963 and 1965
• The complex is around 40 metres

10. Roman Thermae: Varna, Bulgaria

• It was constructed at the end of the 2nd century.
• It was damaged in the late 3rd century
• It was the 4th-largest Roman bath ever constructed in Europe

11. Baths of Trajan: Rome Italy

• It was created in the beginning of the 2nd century.
• It included a gym and two libraries, one in Latin and one in Greek.

12. Roman Berytus: Beirut, Lebanon

• It was found out in the late 1960s
• It is now a famous attraction in the city.
• Baths were damaged due to an earthquake that occurred in the year 551 A.D.

13. Taurine Baths: Civitavecchia, Italy

• Baths were given the name after a town called “Aquae Tauri.”
• The complex was working from 86 B.C. until the 6th century

The remains of this complex are a major tourist attraction in southwest Germany.

The bathing complex was explored again in the late 18th century.

15. Hammam Essalihine – El Hamma, Algeria

It still works as a swimming pool today.

Hamman Essalihine means “The Bath of the Righteous” when translated into English.

Roman temples were one of the main characteristics of Roman culture. They were used with the purpose of worshipping gods in the Roman religion. They are considered evidence of the astonishing architectural achievements of the ancient Romans. The word temple in Latin represents a holy place.

Romans worshipped many gods and goddesses. They wanted holy places for every god to worship that’s why they constructed a lot of temples. Romans were impressed by the Etruscans and Greek architecture. Temples were commonly adorned with high-quality marble sculptures or reliefs.

Temples had a small number of windows and were very dark. There were two major types. The first type is Classical – such as those in Rome, with a big white entrance and many columns. The second one is Romano-British – a mix of Roman and Celtic moods, with a corridor across a central shrine room.

It is made up of the major room called a cella. It contained an image of the god they worshipped. It could also include holy objects like An altar, a statue, a pool of water, a fire or a tree.

Let’s check the list of Roman temples:

1. Temple of Augustus and Livia

It was devoted to Augustus and his wife Livia

2.  Temple of Zeus at Aizanoi

The Temple of Zeus is the best-rescued Roman temple in all of Anatolia

3. Dougga Capitol

It is placed in, Dougga northern Tunisia

It was devoted to the three most important Roman gods: Jupiter, Juno and Minerva.

4. Garni Temple

It was devoted to Helios, the Roman god of the sun

It was created by the Armenian King Trdates I in the 1st century AD.

It was completely damaged by an earthquake In 1679.

It was renovated in the 1970s.

5. Temple of Augustus in Pula

It was devoted to the first Roman emperor, Augustus.

Later, the temple was changed into a church

It was extremely destroyed during the World War II

6. Sbeitla Forum Temples

It is placed in the mid-west of Tunisia

The three Roman temples are placed on one side of a wide almost square forum

7. Maison Carree

It was created in 16 BC

It is one of the best-rescued Roman temples in the world.

it was transformed into a church in the 4th century

8. Palmyra

It is one of Syria’s most famous tourist attraction

It contains the large Temple of Bel, the monumental arch and the colonnade that once was made up of 1,500 Corinthian columns.

9. Pantheon

It was made in 126 AD as a temple for all the Roman gods.

It was changed into a Roman Church in the 7th century.

It is made up of a big circular entrance with three ranks of large granite Corinthian columns.

10. Baalbek

It includes three temples: Jupiter, Bacchus and Venus

The best-rescued temple at the place is the Temple of Bacchus constructed in 150 AD.

The ancient Roman temple was devoted to Bacchus, The Roman god of wine.

11. Temples of the Forum Boarium

It was constructed in the second century BC

It was made up of two temples, the Temple of Hercules Victor and the Temple of Portunus

12. Venus Genetrix

It was made in Djemila, Algeria

This unrecovered ruin still has its initial walls and columns completely

Roman housing was split into two kinds. The common Roman citizens exist in apartment complexes under the name of  ‘Insulae’ while the wealthy and influential Romans lived in big and comfortable complexes given the name ‘Domus’. A lot of wealthy Romans also got comfortable apartments in the countryside, called ‘Villa’.

Insulae are apartment blocks where common people reside. They were generally five to seven floors high. It kept from 30 to 50 people. They were of low quality, but they have got fresh water and sanitation. The individual apartments are usually made up of two small rooms.

They were made in timber, mud brick, and later primitive concrete. A typical insula was made across a courtyard with a block on the three sides of the courtyard and a wall on the fourth side to protect the residents from intruders. They used the courtyard was used for cooking, washing and socializing.

A typical insulae contained six or seven flats. Individual apartments are commonly made up of two small rooms. The bottom floor of the insulae generally had shops and stores that opened out to the streets. The upper floors were used as housing apartments. The bigger apartments were also close to the bottom with the smallest at the top.

The top floor apartments were not supported with water or heating. These buildings were generally damaged by fire. A lot of insulae were not built very well. Historians were certain that at the time of the Great Roman Fire, 42000 or more insulae were found in the city of Rome alone.

Domus are bigger and more prosperous housing complexes where rich and influential Romans lived  A typical Domus contained a door near the street that opened into an entrance hall that headed to a courtyard called ‘Atrium. Other rooms such as bedrooms, and kitchen might be found to the sides of the atrium.

The atrium was the most essential part of the house. It was where guests were welcomed. It often had only a little furniture to give the impact of a large space. Beyond the atrium, we could find the office. There was often a backyard.

The atrium either had no roof or a hole in the roof to work as a skylight. It also had an opening to let rainwater fall through it and get collected in a tank in the centre of the atrium floor. Romans adorned their rooms with coloured plaster walls and mosaics.

Let’s check some of the rooms in a typical Roman house:

Vestibulum

Atrium:  An open room where guests were welcomed.

Tablinum: The office dedicated to the man of the house.

Triclinium: The dining room. This was often the most amazing and adorned room of the house in order to impress guests that were dining over.

Cubiculum: The bedroom.

Culina: The kitchen.

A Roman villa was a Roman country house constructed for the upper classes. They had numerous rooms including servants’ quarters, exercise rooms, courtyards, baths, pools, storage rooms, and gardens. Villas were larger than Domus as the countryside allowed more space for building houses.

There were two types of villas. The villa Urbana was a country place within easy reach of Rome. The villa Rustica was a farmhouse land, like the succeeding English country house. It was inhabited by servants who took care of the land.

## Sculptures

Roman sculpture played a vital part in Roman daily life. A lot of artists designed sculptures, which were put down all throughout the country. There was even a popular school dedicated to sculpture. Many sculptures acknowledged their art in the Aphrodisias Sculpting School.

A typical sculpture could have described any part of the subject, from the head to the entire body. Roman artists often made sculptures using marble, stone, and clay. They also used concrete invented by the ancient Romans.

The wealthy Romans adorned their big homes with sculptures. Other popular topics for sculptures included gods and goddesses, popular athletes, philosophers, and successful generals. Sculptures describing only the head that were popular as busts.

## Paintings

Romans were fond of paintings. The walls of the homes of rich Romans were often adorned with paintings. They preferred decorating rooms with paintings because they made rooms seem bigger. Most of these paintings have been ruined over time.

Their paintings often portrayed scenes from everyday life and sometimes maintained special occasions. Some painted scenes pictured important Roman battles and other historical events.

## Pottery

Roman pottery was also used to express works of art. pottery was done in big quantities. They mostly produced pottery for useful reasons. They were famous across the whole ancient Roman Empire and even farther.

Pottery also depicted important people and scenes of Roman life. Some artists made mosaics by working with small pieces of glass or stone to make a bigger image. It was split into fine and coarse ware. The coarse was used continually for everyday activities while the fine worked as serving vessels.

## Relief

Relief is another commonly used form of art. They were used to document significant events that occurred throughout Roman history. This is when a scene was effectively cut into the stone, usually as part of a building or as a standing alone work. Trajan’s Column in Rome, Italy, is one of the most remarkable examples of relief art.

Romans desired their art to be as effective and valuable as possible. They elaborated many new techniques for buildings of all types like Roman roads, Roman arches, and aqueducts. Roman architecture is famous for different reasons, including, arches, amphitheatres, domes, aqueducts, thermaes, temples, apartment blocks and houses.

### Farming in Ancient Rome

Ancient Romans lived on a lot of very fertile lands. They lived close to the countryside. Farming in ancient Rome was one of the most important and most recognized jobs. Wealthy Romans had large farms with many employees, while poor farmers had smaller farms and worked the fields themselves.

Farms were categorized into 3 types. Iugera was the standard unit used for land measurement. The first category of farm sizes includes small farms which ranged 18 to 108 Iugera.

The second category is the medium farm sizes which ranged from 800 to 500 Iugera. The third category was the large estates which were also referred to as Latifundia measured to be more than 500 iugera.

Over 90% of the ancient Romans lived in the countryside, and the most common job there was to be a farmer. Farmers were very hard workers, and they would get up before daylight, and work until it was dark. They worked hard to get the fields ready, to plant food, pick food, and other posts on the farm.

There were almost three major foods on almost every Roman’s table, bread, oil and wine. The most common crop harvest by ancient Roman farmers was wheat, which can be made into bread and other grain-based foods. Grapes were other things that were farmed in the Roman society.

The wheat was plowed with a tool that is called an ard plow, which is a very heavy stick that is pulled along the fields by an ox. Later on a coulter was used with the other farming tools. It was a tool that is used to mix soil.

Romans also used a tool called a Punic Cart. It was used in rolling over the grain to press it down and make the harvesting easier. The Romans used an early heating system, called a hypocaust to help speed up the drying process for the grain.

The ancient Roman farmers skimmed milk out of cows. They also employed mules and oxens to carry out heavy tasks on their farmlands. They got cheese from sheep and leather from goats.

The ancient Roman farmers faced a lot of problems which include unstable weather conditions, war incidents on farmlands which often resulted in the destruction of farm products, a decrease in soil fertility, and loss of lives. They also faced problems from slaves who often revolt against the orders of their masters.

Leather and hides of goats were used for other materials. Farmers practiced beekeeping for sugar production and certain percentage of Roman farmers reared snails for special meals.

The ancient Roman farmers practiced 4 types of farm management systems. The first one was that farming was done by farm owners and their family members. The second type was that farming was done by tenants and farm owners. They share the farm outputs. The third type was that farming was done by slaves owned by noblemen and were supervised by slave managers.

### Roman Clothes

The style of Roman clothing was influenced by the Ancient Greeks and developed over time to integrated styles and costumes from across the Roman Empire. Romans used different types of fabrics and materials for manufacturing clothes. Wool was the most commonly used fabric. It is strong, sturdy and comfortable. It’s also good against the cold. Women often spun their household’s wool, except in rich families where a slave would be in charge of this task.

Sometimes clothes were made from rare materials such as linen from Egypt, cotton from India, and silk from China. Silk was a very expensive material to purchase so it was reserved for rich Romans. Cotton was often used to make wealthy Romans’ tunics. Leather from pigs or sheep was most commonly used to make shoes in Roman times.

The very early Romans wore a garment called a toga. It was an important item. The colors of togas had meaning. A toga could be edged with purple for high rank. Emperors were the only Romans who could wear entirely purple togas. In Rome, clothing reflected status and practical needs as well. A red-lined Toga often showed shame and disgrace, often worn when exiled or before an execution.

Romans started wearing tunics instead of the toga.  A tunic, called a chilton, looks like a long t-shirt just above the knees. It could be either sleeveless or short-sleeved. A cloak was also worn by Roman men over their tunic.

Summer tunics were made of linen while winter tunics were made of wool.  During the colder months, they also wore something that looked like trousers. The Romans invented socks, which they wore during colder times. Roman men wore ‘toga pulla’ when mourning the death of a dear one. It was completely black in colour.

Roman men wore rings on every finger and even arm bracelets. Hairstyles changed with the times. At times long hair with beards and mustaches was in style. At other times being clean-shaven with short hair was in style.  Sometimes men even curled and braided their hair.

Roman women wore long tunics which covered their bodies entirely. It was the primary garment worn by peasants and unmarried women. On top of the tunic, some Roman women wore a long piece of woven linen called a “stola”. It was a long pleated dress held on by belts, that went all the way down to their ankles.

The stola was either short or long-sleeved, depending on the season. Only married women wore a stola, unmarried women simply wore a tunic.

In winter, Roman women wore a shawl made of wool to keep them warm called a “palla”.

Women’s clothing was often much more colorful than men’s.  Women belonging to wealthy families also wore garments made from silk and other expensive imported fabrics. Rich Roman women paid close attention to their jewelry, hair, and makeup; many had slaves in charge of helping them get ready.

The ancient Roman women loved decorated necklaces, pins, earrings, bracelets, and rings. Women often colored their hair, usually golden-red. They used hair extension to make their hair thicker or longer. They also liked pearls.

Roman clothes for kids were very simple. Boys wore a tunic down to their knees and a cloak if it was cold. In Roman times, children wore a “bulla”, a special locket around their neck, which was given to them at a young age. Girls would wear the amulet until they were married, and boys until they turned sixteen.

On a boy’s sixteenth or seventeenth birthday, the boy became a citizen. They celebrate the day. The boy dressed in a white tunic, which his father adjusted. The day ended with a dinner party, given by the father, in honor of the new Roman citizen.

Roman slaves wore very modest clothing. Their clothing depended upon the task they performed. Domestic slaves were given basic clothing like loincloth and cloak to wear. However, educated and skilled slaves were provided with better clothing.

Romans mostly wore footwear made of leather. Roman men and women would usually wear the same type of footwear. There were two types of footwear worn by Romans. The first one was the Calceus. It was open-toed sandals.

The second type was the Soleae. It was a full shoe with a closed toe. The color and style also depicted the social standing of a person. Senators or patricians wore red-colored shoes.

The calcei was an outdoor shoe made from soft leather that covered the toes and was worn by most Romans. They were made by fixing strips of leather to a tough leather or cork base.

Rich Romans would sometimes have a slave that carried their sandals so they could change into them when entering a building. Indoors, the Romans could also wear slippers as well.

Roman soldiers wore the caliga – which was a type of military boot that looked a bit like sandals. They had hobnails and were incredibly hard-wearing. This was necessary for the long marches that soldiers would have to do every day.

### Ancient Rome Government

Ancient Rome experienced three different types of government. The first one was the Kingdom. The second type was the Republic. Finally, The last type was the Empire.

When Rome began, it was a kingdom. Early Rome was ruled by a series of kings for about 200 years. However, the history of the Roman Kingdom began with the city’s founding, traditionally dated to 753 BC, and ended with the overthrow of the kings and the establishment of the Republic in about 509 BC.

As Rome grew and started to expand, they needed a reason that their king should be in charge of other villages. They invented the myth of Romulus and Remus. Romans believed it. Some kings were good while others were bad.

The last king of Rome was an especially bad king. Tarquin the Proud was a tyrant and the people hated him. It is not clear in the history of Rome how the ancient Romans got rid of Tarquin. Then, Romans became free and started a new type of government.

King Romulus created the Senate. According to legend, There were six more kings: Numa Pompilius, Tullo Ostilio, Anco Marzio, Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius, and Tarquinius Superbus. After Romulus death, the Roman Senate was not able to elect a new king. Kings had absolute power.

Finally, the Curiate Assembly was allowed to vote in a new king of Rome. They chose Numa Pompilius. Numa, unlike Romulus, was against war and thought the best course for Rome was peace, Numa is honoured for bringing religion into the average Roman everyday life.

### Kings Elections

Whenever a king died, Rome entered a period of interregnum. the Senate, was responsible for finding a new king. The Senate would assemble and appoint one of its own members—the interrex—to serve for a period of five days for one single reason which was to nominate the next king of Rome.

After the five-day period, the interrex would choose another Senator for another five-day term. This process would continue until a new king was elected. Once the interrex found a suitable nominee to the kingship, the Senate review the nominee. If the nominee passed, he will be elected as the king.

There were two other acts that still had to take place before having the full regal authority and power. First, it was necessary to obtain the divine will of the gods respecting his appointment. Following traditional ways, a forecaster had to announce that he is given the approval by gods.

The second act was granting the king dominance over the kingdom. The Assembly’s previous vote only determined who was to be king but didn’t provide him with the necessary power. Accordingly, the king himself proposed to the Assembly a law granting him dominance, and the Assembly by voting in favour of the law would grant it.

The Roman Republic lasted for For 500 years in Ancient Rome. was run by large group of men. They called themselves members of the Senate. The Romans elected the consuls. The consuls are the two top senators. Then, the consuls chose the other senators from the capable patricians.

Senators were chosen for only one year. This system worked well. Senators applied the old laws on all citizen equally. They also added new laws. One of these laws was that you were innocent until proven guilty of any crime. Another law provided every citizen had the right to challenge their accusers in court.

They engraved the laws on tablets of metal and put them in the Forum in Rome to make sure that all the citizens knew the laws. These laws were called the Twelve Tables because there were twelve different sections. They were about crime and property and family matters like marriage and inheritance.

As time passed, Rome had problems that the Senate was unable to solve. One of the problems was that there was no money to pay the military, pave roads, and do the many jobs they did. They kept raising taxes, but the people didn’t have any more money to give.

As well, Rome suffered from corruption amongst elected officials. senators began to fight frequently, sometimes using violence. Crime was terrible. It wasn’t safe to walk the streets of Rome. Things were rapidly spinning out of control.

As Rome expanded, its military leaders began to have more power, due partially to having control of Rome’s army so far away from the decision-makers in the Senate. In 45 BC Julius Caesar took over the Roman Republic and made himself the supreme dictator.

Here is a list of some of the titles and their responsibilities:

The Roman Empire was born. This new leadership was a dictatorship. Julius Caesar’s adopted son, Augustus, became the new head of government. Augustus knew the people would never accept a king. He wanted to be more powerful than a consul. So, he called himself an emperor.

Although the Roman Empire kept the Senate and other positions in place, the Emperor had absolute control, and his word could not be denied, regardless of how his people felt or voted. Having full control of the army, it was nearly impossible for an Emperor to be overthrown.

There were good things about changing to an Empire. Women gained power. Crime was reduced. They established welfare programs to help the poor. They built huge entertainment centers and admission was free.

However, the Roman Empire, like the Roman Republic before it, failed. It was mainly of the same reasons. Graft and corruption were spread amongst elected officials. They imposed excessive taxes on the citizens.

There was little money in the treasury. There was no money to pay the military, roads in disrepair, and other problems the government did not or could not solve.

Finally,  the Roman leaders decided to split Rome into two empires: Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire. The Western Empire ruled out of the city of Rome. The Eastern Roman Empire was ruled out of Constantinople, today’s Istanbul in Turkey. The Eastern Roman Empire would become known as Byzantium or the Byzantine Empire.

The Roman Empire remained a powerful force for another 300 years before beginning to decline. Following the rule of Constantine, the Empire fell early in the fifth century. Many historians mark 476 as the year that the Empire ended and the Middle Ages began.

Here is a list of the Roman Emperors with the dates:

1st century CE

• Augustus (31 BCE–14 CE)
• Tiberius (14–37 CE)
• Caligula (37–41 CE)
• Claudius (41–54 CE)
• Nero (54–68 CE)
• Galba (68–69 CE)
• Otho (January–April 69 CE)
• Aulus Vitellius (July–December 69 CE)
• Vespasian (69–79 CE)
• Titus (79–81 CE)
• Domitian (81–96 CE)
• Nerva (96–98 CE)

2nd century CE

• Trajan (98–117 CE)
• Antoninus Pius (138–161 CE)
• Marcus Aurelius (161–180 CE)
• Lucius Verus (161–169 CE)
• Commodus (177–192 CE)
• Publius Helvius Pertinax (January–March 193 CE)
• Marcus Didius Severus Julianus (March–June 193 CE)
• Septimius Severus (193–211 CE)

3rd century CE

• Caracalla (198–217 CE)
• Publius Septimius Geta (209–211 CE)
• Macrinus (217–218 CE)
• Elagabalus (218–222 CE)
• Severus Alexander (222–235 CE)
• Maximinus (235–238 CE)
• Gordian I (March–April 238 CE)
• Gordian II (March–April 238 CE)
• Pupienus Maximus (April 22–July 29, 238 CE)
• Balbinus (April 22–July 29, 238 CE)
• Gordian III (238–244 CE)
• Philip (244–249 CE)
• Decius (249–251 CE)
• Hostilian (251 CE)
• Gallus (251–253 CE)
• Aemilian (253 CE)
• Valerian (253–260 CE)
• Gallienus (253–268 CE)
• Claudius II Gothicus (268–270 CE)
• Quintillus (270 CE)
• Aurelian (270–275 CE)
• Tacitus (275–276 CE)
• Florian (June–September 276 CE)
• Probus (276–282 CE)
• Carus (282–283 CE)
• Numerian (283–284 CE)
• Carinus (283–285 CE)
• Diocletian (east, 284–305 CE; divided the empire into east and west)
• Maximian (west, 286–305 CE)

4th century CE

• Constantius I (west, 305–306 CE)
• Galerius (east, 305–311 CE)
• Severus (west, 306–307 CE)
• Maxentius (west, 306–312 CE)
• Constantine I (306–337 CE; reunified the empire)
• Galerius Valerius Maximinus (310–313 CE)
• Licinius (308–324 CE)
• Constantine II (337–340 CE)
• Constantius II (337–361 CE)
• Constans I (337–350 CE)
• Gallus Caesar (351–354 CE)
• Julian (361–363 CE)
• Jovian (363–364 CE)
• Valentinian I (west, 364–375 CE)
• Valens (east, 364–378 CE)
• Gratian (west, 367–383 CE; co emperor with Valentinian I)
• Valentinian II (375–392 CE; crowned as child)
• Theodosius I (east, 379–392 CE; east and west, 392–395 CE)
• Arcadius (east, 383–395 CE, co emperor; 395–402 CE, sole emperor)
• Magnus Maximus (west, 383–388 CE)
• Honorius (west, 393–395 CE, co emperor; 395–423 CE, sole emperor)

5th century CE

• Theodosius II (east, 408–450 CE)
• Constantius III (west, 421 CE, co emperor)
• Valentinian III (west, 425–455 CE)
• Marcian (east, 450–457 CE)
• Petronius Maximus (west, March 17–May 31, 455 CE)
• Avitus (west, 455–456 CE)
• Majorian (west, 457–461 CE)
• Libius Severus (west, 461–465 CE)
• Anthemius (west, 467–472 CE)
• Olybrius (west, April–November 472 CE)
• Glycerius (west, 473–474 CE)
• Julius Nepos (west, 474–475 CE)
• Romulus Augustulus (west, 475–476 CE)
• Leo I (east, 457–474 CE)
• Leo II (east, 474 CE)
• Zeno (east, 474–491 CE)

### Roman Gods And Goddesses

The Romans believed in lots of gods. The Roman gods are actually inspired by the Greek gods. Most of the gods and goddesses worshipped by the Romans were Greek gods and goddesses with different names. The Olympians are a group of 12 gods who ruled after the overthrow of the Titans. All the Olympians are related in some way.

Early Roman mythology says that Rome was founded by two twin Gods – Romulus and Remus. Romulus and Remus were raised by a she-wolf. They wanted to form a new city. They fought over where the new city should be formed. Finally, Romulus killed  Remus. This is how the city of Rome was founded in 753 BC.

Many Ancient Romans had shrines in their homes to worship Gods. Ancient Romans all believed that the Gods were divine. They believed that if you maintained a good relationship with the Gods, they would be kind to you.

Here is a list of the Roman gods and goddesses:

• Apollo: the god of the sun, music, archery, poetry, and the truth. He was a son of Jupiter. Apollo and Diana were twins. He fell in love with Cassandra.
• Aurora: The goddess of dawn
• Bacchus: the god of wine and civilization, law and calm. He escaped from the pirates and met his true love.
• Bellona: The goddess of war
• Caelus: The primal god of the sky and theology, iconography, and literature
• Ceres: The goddess of the harvest, and Juno’s other sister. Discover what the ancients thought was the reason for the seasons. was the equivalent of the Greek goddess Demeter. It’s from the name Ceres that we get the name for cereal.
• Cupid: The son of Venus, the goddess of love. Son of Venus; carried a bow and arrow and shot people to make them fall in love. It was not until Cupid fell in love that he found true happiness.
• Cybele: The goddess of the Earth, nature, mountains, and wild animals
• Diana: the goddess of hunting and animals. She was also the twin sister of Apollo. She was taken from the Greek goddess Artemis. Her symbols included the moon, the snake, and the bow and arrow.
• Faunus: The god of the forest, fields, and plains
• Fortuna: The goddess of luck
• Janus: The god of beginnings, gates, transitions, time, duality, doorways, passages, and endings
• Juno: The goddess of marriage, and the protector of women. She was also Jupiter’s wife. She watched over all the women of Rome. She was the equivalent of the Greek goddess Hera. She was considered the protector of Rome.
• Mars: The god of war.  He was Jupiter’s son. He was the most fearsome god, except for Jupiter. Nobody liked Mars, much, not even his own brothers and sisters. He was tall and handsome and cruel and vain. The only person who liked Mars at all was Venus
• Mercury: The god of shopkeepers, merchants, travellers, transporters of goods, thieves, and tricksters. Messenger of the gods. He was another son of Jupiter. That job allowed him to have the inside scoop on just about everything. There was a warmth about Mercury. The other gods trusted him
• Minerva: The goddess of wisdom, medicine, commerce, handicrafts, poetry, the arts, and war. She is known as Athena in Greek mythology. She was born from the forehead of her father, Jupiter. She outsmarted her famous uncle, the powerful Neptune. She comes from the Greek goddess Athena.
• Neptune:  The god of the sea and earthquakes. He was the brother of the king of the gods, Jupiter. was very powerful. He was also quite moody. People were terrified of Neptune, especially the people who made their home along the coast. He came from the Greek god Poseidon. He also was the patron of horses. Neptune’s weapon was a great trident.
• Nyx:  The primordial goddess of the night
• Pluto: The god of the underworld. God of death and the riches under the Earth. He was the brother of Jupiter.
• Proserpina: The goddess of fertility, wine, and agriculture
• Pompona: The goddess of fruitful abundance
• Saturn: The god of generation, dissolution, plenty, wealth, periodic renewal, liberation, and time. He was another brother of Jupiter.
• Spes: The goddess of hope
• Terra: The goddess of the Earth
• Venus: The goddess of love and beauty. She did not set out to start the Trojan War, but that’s what happened all the same. She was the equivalent of the Greek goddess Aphrodite.
• Veritas: The goddess of truth
• Vesta: The goddess of the hearth, the home, and domestic life. The ever-burning flame in her temple represents the “hearth of Rome”. She was Juno’s sister. She watched over their homes and children.
• Vulcan: The god of fire and blacksmiths. He was the son of Jupiter and Juno, and the husband of Venus. He made the first woman out of clay. He named her Pandora. He comes from the Greek god Hephaestus. The word volcano comes from the name Vulcan.

Here is a list of the Roman gods vs Greek gods:

### Ancient Rome Geography

Rome is one of the most powerful civilizations whose empire ruled Europe for over 1,000 years. It spans from 27 BCE to the 5th century CE. There were many cities and countries that were important places for the Roman Empire’s Geography, like Constantinople, Athens and Milan.

Various main geographical features in the Italian peninsula provided opportunities for the Roman civilization to flourish. Rome began as a tiny village along the Tiber River. It was an excellent location, with seven hills offering a natural defensive barrier.

During the most powerful stages of Rome, it included Albania, Austria, Algeria, Belgium, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Egypt, England, France, Gibraltar, Greece, Hungary, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Luxembourg, Moldova, Morocco, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, Wales.

The Tiber River was a source of freshwater and rich soil needed to support the development of people, animals, and crops of Rome. However, there was still enough distance between Rome and the sea to avoid the attack. Romans could France within a couple of days on horseback.

Rome is located East of the river. It begins in the Apennine mountains and flows to the Tyrrhenian Sea. The river provided easy transportation. Rome’s imports and exports could easily flow in and out of the city. In ancient times, there were enemies everywhere. They started their city on the top of one hill. They walled around it.

Rome was protected by two mountain ranges, the Alps and the Apennines. The Alps provided a roadblock that forced invaders to move through narrow passages which allowed the Romans to prepare and attack. The Apennine Mountains divided the peninsula in half, providing protection against invasion from the east.

Since Rome was lost to the Mediterranean Sea, this helped them in conquering new lands. They managed to build a navy which assisted them in conquering neighboring territories. They finally took control of all of the shores of the Mediterranean.

Here is a map of the Roman Empire at its height:

### Ancient Roman Timeline

The Roman Empire was one of the greatest and most influential civilizations in world history. Ancient Rome existed for more than 1,200 years and, at one point, controlled much of the known world, including Europe, North Africa, and Western Asia. It was a kingdom for about 200 years, a Republic for about 500 years, and an Empire for about 500 years.

Ancient Rome was founded in 753 B.C.E. by the sons of Mars, the god of war. Here’s a timeline of events that covers 1200 years of growth and culture. It ranges from 753 B.C.E. to its final days during the 15th century C.E.

• 753 B.C.E.-The God of War named Mars gave birth to twin sons named Romulus and Remus. They founded the city. Romulus named the city Rome after he killed his brother Remus and he became ruler until his death in 715 B.C.E. For the next 240 years, ancient Rome was ruled by kings.
• 715 B.C.E: Numa Pompilius became the ruler. During his reign, there was the creation of the priestly offices and the Roman Senate.
• 673 B.C.E: Tullus Hostilius was the king. He built the senate-house named Curia Hostilia.
• 617 thru 578 B.C.E: During this period, ancient Rome was ruled by Lucius Tarquinius Priscus. He built the Circus Maximus, installed the first sewers systems, and instituted the first census.
• 534 thru 509 B.C.E: The last Roman king named Lucius Tarquinius Superbus during this period. He was essential in building the temple named Jupiter Optimus Maximus.
• 509 B.C.E: Rome becomes a republic. the king was overthrown. A new government system was installed that included a constitution, a complex republican government, and elected officials called Senators who were elected by the people. One year later, the office of Pontifex Maximus or High Priest was created.
• 496 B.C.E: ancient Rome was victorious against the Latin League after defeating the league at the Battle of Lake Regillus.
• 451 B.C.E: The Twelve Tables of Roman Laws were published by Decemviri.
• 447 B.C.E: The Assembly of the People was formed. Two quaestors were elected for the first time. Quaestors supervised the treasury, armies, financial affairs, and army officials.
• 445 B.C.E: Marriage between plebeians and patricians was allowed.
• 396 B.C.E: Ancient Rome defeated the Etruscans, and Roman soldiers received their first paycheck.
• 390 B.C.E: Ancient Rome was defeated by the Gauls at the Battle of Allia. The Gauls would go on to sack ancient Rome.
• 366 B.C.E: Lucius Sextius Sextinus was elected as the first non-patrician consul.
• 283 B.C.E: The ancient Romans defeated the Etruscans, and a Gallic Tribe named the Boii at the Battle of Lake Vadimo.
• 267 B.C.E: The number of quaestors were raised from four to six.
• 264 B.C.E: The First Punic War began with Carthage. The war ended in 241 B.C.E. with the defeat of Carthage. Corsica, Sardinia, and Carthage became the first ancient Roman provinces.
• 224 B.C.E: The ancient Roman army defeated Gallic at the Battle of Telamon, and one year later, they defeated the Gauls again.
• 218 B.C.E: Hannibal invades Italy. Hannibal leads the Carthage army in his famous crossing of the Alps to attack Rome.The Second Punic War began against Carthage.
• 216 B.C.E: Hannibal leaded Carthage over the Alps and invaded the city of Rome. The ancient Roman army was defeated at the Battle of Cannae.
• 202 B.C.E.: Scipip Africanus Major invaded Africa and defeated Hannibal at the Battle of Zama, ending the Second Punic War.
• 149 B.C.E: The Third Punic War started against Carthage.
• 146 B.C.E: The Third Punic War was ended when Scipio Aemilianus Africanus, also was known as Scipio Africanus the Younger destroyed the cities of Carthage and Corinth. After the destruction of ancient Greece, the ancient Romans began to adopt ancient Greek culture into their society.
• 133 B.C.E: Tiberius Gracchus approved agrarian reform and was killed.
• 107 B.C.E: Gaius Marius was elected consul. He instituted the Marian Reforms of the Military. These reforms established a standing army and drafting of non-property owners into the army.
• 73 B.C.E: Spartacus, who was a gladiator, led a rebellion of slaves. Spartacus would be killed in 71 B.C.E.
• 67 B.C.E: Pompey eliminated pirates from the Mediterranean Sea. He was also the first ancient Roman general to reach the Euphrates River securing new colonies along the way that increased the annual income of the Roman Empire.
• 59 B.C.E: The First Triumvirate was formed with the alliance of three generals named Julius Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey.
• 45 B.C.E: Julius Caesar became the first dictator of ancient Rome after he defeated Pompey. This signals the end of the Roman Republic.
• 44 B.C.E: Julius Caesar was assassinated by Marcus Brutus during the Ides of March. Civil war began in ancient Rome.
• 43 B.C.E: Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate.
• 31 B.C.E: Octavian defeated Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium. One year later, Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, and Egypt became a Roman colony.
• 27 B.C.E: The Roman Empire began when Octavian changed his name to Caesar Augustus was named the first Roman Emperor.
• 37 C.E: Caligula was named emperor, and in 41 C.E., Claudius became emperor and invaded Britain in 43 C.E.
• 54 C.E.-Nero became emperor, and in 64 C.E., he allowed the city of Rome to burn to the ground blaming the Christians.
• 80 C.E: The Romans finished building the Colosseum, which set 50,000 spectators.
• 117 C.E: Hadrian became emperor. In 122, C.E. Hadrian’s Wall was constructed in Northern England to keep the Barbarians out of the Roman Empire.
• 161 C.E: Marcus Aurelius was named emperor. He died in 180 C.E. marking the end of the Five Good Emperors.
• 284 C.E: Diocletian became emperor. In 293, C.E. Diocletian made Constantius I the co-emperor of the Western Roman Empire.
• 306 C.E: Constantine I was named emperor. He would convert to Christianity, and in 330 C.E., he made Constantinople the new capital of the Roman Empire.
• 380 C.E: Emperor Theodosius I made Christianity the single religion of the Roman Empire. In 395 C.E., he would officially split the Roman Empire into two halves.
• 410 C.E: Rome was invaded and destroyed by Alaric I, and in 447 C.E. Attila, the Hun crushes the Eastern Roman Empire.
• 475 C.E: Romulus Augustus was named emperor. One year later, the Western Roman Empire fell.
• 533 C.E: Justinian I was named emperor and trids to restore the empire in the west.
• 568 C.E: The Lombards invaded Italy.

### Ancient Roman Achievements

Romans were great at different aspects of life. They mastered architecture. They introduced new structures in different fields like amphitheaters, theatres, and stadiums.  Romans mastered engineering as well. This was clear through the construction of aqueducts and paved roads.

Here is a list of the most important achievements of ancient Romans:

• Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome, but survived for some uses after the end of the Roman Empire.
• Romans introduced the first shape of the newspaper, it was called Acta Diurna or ‘daily acts’. They often inscribed news of current affairs unto stones, papyri, or metal slabs, which were placed in public spaces.
• Romans developed the architectural arch to allow them to build bridges, large buildings, and better aqueducts.
• Romans introduced the hypocaust system. It was like a heating mechanism similar to modern-day central heating.
• Romans built aqueducts to bring fresh water in from neighbouring sources into their growing cities and towns.
• Romans developed accurate medical tools that influenced many modern-day surgical tools.
• Romans. Romans were the first ones to use concrete in a widespread manner.
• Romans used a combination of dirt and gravel with bricks made from hardened volcanic lava or granite, making the roads immensely strong no matter the weather
• Julius Caesar designated the very first bound book — a collection of papyrus — to form a codex.
•  Julius Caesar introduced a new form of calendar system which had 12 months, and used a cycle of three years of 365 days, followed by a year of 366 days (leap year).
•  architects introduced the idea of “insulae“, apartments occupied whole blocks, with roads flowing around them like water.
• Emperor Augustus established the cursus publicus, a system by which messages and notices could be transferred between provinces with the help of horses and vehicles such as the horse cart called rhedæ.
• Romans brought in the concept of building domes.
• They were also the first ones to build what is today known as the public toilet system.
• Romans constructed extra-ordinarily beautiful bridges, some of which have become main tourist attractions in modern-day Italy and Spain.
• Romans built temples with Greek influence. They were used for religious and sacred ceremonies.
• Romans built Cathedrals and Basilicas in a similar fashion as temples.
• Romans invented the Roman alphabets which form the very basis of the English language, which is used by more than half the global population at present.
• Romans also overused, if not invented, the use of hydraulics. Romans decided to generate mechanical power using water.
• The ancient Romans formulated many of the laws that most countries use even today. They produced the The Twelve Tables’, laws written on metal tables and were organised into twelve sections.
• Romans were excellent in sculpting. Their use of sculpture in public places was unique.
• Romans also practised pottery as a commercial skill not as an art form.
• Constantine, who was the first Roman emperor to embrace and practice Christianity, legalised the worship of the Roman gods.
• The Roman legal system included a criminal court system with lawyers and juries so people accused of crimes could defend themselves.
• Romans created a republic to prevent any one person from gaining too much power.
• Romans created a Senate, made up of 300 men, that made laws and selected two Consuls to command the army and run the day-to-day affairs of Rome.
• Romans believed in healthy living so they made sure that all Romans were able to get medical help.
• During Roman Empire, they developed welfare programs for the poor. They believed that all Romans have the right for food and shelter.
• Romans builts libraries to hold scrolls.
• Romans paid much attention to education, even the poor learned reading and writing.
• Romans introduced the propaganda campaigns. They issued coinage with the picture of the emperor on it.
•  Romans used satire in drama and literature.
• Romans created beautiful mosaics on floors and walls.
• Romans invented socks and improved footwear.
• Romans introduced many board and ball games including knuckleball and hoops.

### List of The Most Famous Movies About Ancient Rome:

• Imperial Rome, Parts 1 and 2
• ROME: Rise and fall of an empire
• Dear America, Season 2, Episode 1: Cleopatra VII, Daughter of the Nile
• Secrets of the Dead: Lost Ships of Rome
• Global Treasures: Pompeii, Italy
• Roman Feats Of Engineering
•  Four Sisters in Ancient Rome
• A glimpse of teenage life in ancient Rome
• Hands On History: A Day In The Life… Of A 10-Year-Old In Roman Britain
• Centurion (2010)
• Cleopatra (1963)
• Titus (1999)
• Asterix And Obelix: Mansion Of The Gods (2014)
• Satyricon (1969)
• Ben-Hur (1959)
• TIE: Barabbas (1962)
• TIE: Cabiria (1914)
• Spartacus (1960)
• Julius Caesar (1953)
• Life Of Brian (1979)
• The Fall Of The Roman Empire (1964)
• Rome (2005–2007)
• Centurion (2010)
• The Last Legion (2007)
• The Eagle (2011)
• Attila (1991 TV Movie)
• Warrior Queen (2003 TV Movie)
• Druids (2001)
• In the Name of the King: A Dungeon Siege Tale (2007)
• The Voyage Home (2004)
• Spartacus (2010–2013)
• Spartacus: Gods of the Arena (2011)
•  Caesar (2002)
• Carthage in Flames (1960)
• Romulus and the Sabines (1961)
• Giants of Rome (1964)
• Thunder of Battle (1964)

### Some Exciting Facts About The Roman Army

• Roman soldiers played a vital role in the military operations of the Roman Empire
• Roman soldiers were extremely organized and well trained. They could march for about 40 km a day.
• Roman soldiers were also involved in the building and engineering activities of the empire.
• Many soldiers chose to join the army because it provided a better income than farming and also an opportunity to elevate their social status.
•  Roman Soldiers wore simple tunics.
• The status of the soldier declined if he had lesser equipment. The third class possessed a shield, a sword, and a spear while the fourth had only the shield and the spear.
• Any poorer citizen was called a Capite Censi and was not enlisted in the army unless in the case of an emergency.
• No women were allowed to join the army under any conditions.
• This military composition was different because it incorporated three lines of 120 men called maniples as opposed to one large mass called the phalanx.
• Roman army had the strength of about 150,000 soldiers full-time and three-quarters of the remaining army was conscripted.
• Emperor Augustus had 28 legions of heavy infantry consisting of 5000 men each
• The soldiers in the legions were Roman citizens or those who lived in the Roman colonies.
• Emperor Augustus had 250 regiments of auxilia. Each regiment had 500 men which came to about 50% of the total army at roughly 125,000 men.
• Soldiers who had their own weapons and armor served in the heavy infantry and cavalry.
• The training was standardized and the compensation became more profitable in the form of citizenship, farming land, or a portion of the war loot.
• The criteria for the recruitment was the age of the soldier.
• Soldiers went through a period of probation where their physical and mental skills were assessed.
• After the probation, the recruit was then sent for training for four months to prepare as a Roman soldier.
• They made wooden dummies so the soldiers would become familiar with the use of weapons.
• The weapons used for training were intentionally heavier than the actual war equipment.
• They were trained to use their shields as weapons.
•  The most preferred weapon was the gladius which was a sword about half a meter in length. The sword was double-edged which made it perfect for thrusting into the enemy.
• Many frontline military units used a javelin called pilum
• Centurions wore helmets with large crests, which made them visible on the battlefield to soldiers.
• An oath was mandatory for all soldiers. It was called Sacramentum Militare.
• Roman army also paid a lot in training their horses; It was important that the horses remained calm in the atmosphere of battle.
• Roman soldiers could not marry during their time in service of the Empire but this changed slowly and some soldiers in higher ranks could marry.
• The Roman legionary was a soldier who was a Roman citizen younger than 45.
• Legionnaires served in the army for 20 years.
• Legionaries were also skilled engineers and craftsmen because they had to build roads, bridges and forts.
• The soldiers of the Roman army wore helmets and body protection.
• Hastati, the first line of soldiers, usually had breastplates, called a cuirass, and some wore lorica hamata, or chainmail.
• the second line of soldiers, could afford lorica hamata.
• The third line of soldiers, the Triarii, had a hasta, a two meter long spear.
• All legionaries had a large rectangular shield, the scutum, which had rounded corners.
• Larger weapons such as the ballista (large crossbow) and the Onager (catapult) were used in larger battles.
• Soldiers were expected to march about 36 km (24 miles) in five hours
• Soldiers signed up to fight for 20 years.

Roman gladiators were people who would fight in gladiator games as entertainment for large crowds of people in Rome. They would fight with each other or animals, sometimes to the death. They were armed with deadly weapons and in most cases fought till either one of them accepted defeat or was killed fighting.

Gladiators were usually slaves and criminals. They trained at special schools. They used many kinds of weapons. Some fought with swords, while others used knives or tridents. They fight in a large arena called an amphitheater. The winner received palm branches and sometimes also money. A champion might be allowed to retire. Sometimes he gained his freedom.

The first known gladiator show in Rome took place in 264 BCE. The early gladiator games were a part of war victory celebrations. Gladiator owners and sponsors of such games arranged extravagant gladiator fights in honour of dead citizens to gain favours from their powerful and rich descendants.

Gladiator games reached the peak of their popularity in the last days of the Roman Republic. The rise of Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire caused gladiator fights gradually ceased to take place.  The Christian emperor Constantine I outlawed them in 325 ce.

There were a few women who were gladiators, and they fought other women. Interestingly certain emperors like Caligula, Commodus, Titus, and Claudius also participated in such sports. However, the fights involving emperors were designed to stop minimal risk to them.

Sometimes, fights lasted for a long time. If the crowd got bored, the referee might call the fight a drawn. If the emperor was in attendance, he would ask the crowd to decide on whether or not to kill the loser, but people had their favourites. They wanted their gladiators alive, so they could fight again another day.

If a gladiator died in the arena, their trainer could charge the person who sponsored the event up to 100 times the cost of a gladiator who survived. If a gladiator was badly hurt or admitted defeat, the crowd watching in the arena could decide what happened to them.

### Conclusion

Rome passed by three different stages. The first one was Rome as a kingdom. The second phase was Rome as a republic. The third stage was Rome as an empire. The Romans believed in lots of gods. The Roman gods are actually inspired by the Greek gods.

Ancient Roman literature began sometime around 240 B.C. Drama and poetry that were so influential started to appear by the end of Rome. The style of Roman clothing was influenced by the Ancient Greeks and developed over time to integrated styles and costumes from across the Roman Empire.

The Romans were professional engineers and builders. They developed many new techniques for buildings and construction of all types including Roman roads, Roman arches, and aqueducts.

Romans wanted their art to be as practical and useful as possible. They developed many new techniques for buildings and construction of all types including Roman roads, Roman arches, and aqueducts. Roman architecture is well known for various reasons, including, arches, domes, aqueducts, amphitheaters, thermals, temples, apartment blocks, and houses.