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The Arab Republic of Egypt: Modern History

Egypt started a new phase of its history from the Egyptian Revolution1953. The first president of Egypt is Muhammad Najib who became president in June 1953. During the rule of Najib Gamal Abdel Nasser became prime minister.

Gamal Abdel Nasser became president in 1956. There were various incidents during his rule. Egypt passed by challenging and difficult times. There were major occurrences like the nationalization of the Suez Canal Company in 1956. Nasser ruled Egypt until his death in 1970.

The next Egyptian President was Sadat. The most dominant occurrence during his rule was the War of 1973 he launched with Israel. There was a kind of economic construction. Sadat’s regime had some political features as well.

Then Mubarak became the president of Egypt after the assassination of Sadat. During his regime, Egypt’s economy suffered. The government continued to rely heavily on foreign economic aid. The end of his regime was a period of unrest until the January 25 Revolution.

Egypt passed a transition period after Mubarak waiting for an elected government. On June 24 Mohamed Morsi was declared the winner of the presidential election. Egypt underwent hard times during its regime.

Egypt has moved to a new challenging phase which is The June 30 Revolution. There was a deterioration in the public services. People demanded Morsy to resign. There were large protests in the streets. Finally,  the head of the Egyptian Armed Forces, Gen. Abdel Fattah al-Sisi declared that the military was ready to intervene to prevent chaos in the country.

Sisi had repeatedly denied having any ambition to stand in the presidential election. Some people saw the country’s best hope for economic and political stability. So he announced that he would resign from the military to run for president.

In May 2014, Former army chief Abdul Fattah al-Sisi won the presidential election.  Infrastructure projects, investment in Egypt’s economy, and financial reform provided optimism for economic recovery.

Pyramids History- Egypt
Pyramids- Egypt

The Arab Republic of Egypt (1953-1970)

The Presidency of Gamal Abdel Nasser

Muhammad Naguib, was an older officer who served as the figurehead for the Free Officers and had been president since June 1953. Then, Gamal Abdel Nasser was the president of Egypt from 1956 to his death in 1970. During his presidency, Nasser was responsible for much progress in Egypt.

Nasser gave women the right to vote and built the Aswan High Dam. This change made Egypt a more socialist and modern country. In 1958 Syria and Egypt formed the United Arab Republic. Nasser is seen as one of the most important political figures in modern Arab history and politics.

Under his leadership, Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal and a lot of other industries. This caused an international conflict. At the time, the canal was owned by France and Britain. Britain, France, and Israel tried to take it back by force. Egypt won.

The second international conflict is known as the Six-Day War. In June 1967 war broke out between Israel and Egypt. Israel wiped out almost all of Egypt’s air force and took over the Sinai Peninsula. He wanted to resign after the defeat but people wanted him to continue.

During Nasser’s presidency, Egyptian citizens managed to have housing, education, employment, healthcare, and nourishment, as well as other forms of social welfare.

 Egypt was capable of not only offering free education and healthcare to its own citizens but also to the citizens of other Arab and African countries. Nasser remained in office until his death in Cairo on September 28, 1970.

The Presidency of Anwar El-Sadat

Anwar el-Sadat was the president of Egypt from 1970 until 1981. Sadat made Egypt respected for its military strength and political power in the Middle East. On 6 October 1973, Sadat started the October War together with Syria against Israel.

The Egyptian army was very successful at the start of the war, and their advance across the Suez Canal into the Sinai Peninsula surprised Israel and the rest of the world. This success made Sadat a hero in Egypt, and for a time throughout the Arab World.

In 1977 Sadat made a historic visit to the country. He made a speech in front of the Knesset about what he thought was the best way to bring about peace with them.  In 1978, after the Camp David Accords, he signed a peace treaty with Israel. Sadat and Begin shared the Nobel peace prize in 1978.

Many Islamists were very angry about the peace treaty. They made plans to take over the Egyptian government.  In February 1981, the Egyptian government heard of this plan and arrested many people thought to be part of the plot.

Sadat missed a group of Islamists in the military who were led by Lieutenant Khalid Islambouli. This group assassinated Sadat on 6 October during the victory parade celebrating the crossing into the Sinai Peninsula.

The Presidency of Hosni Mubarak

Hosni Mubarak became the president of Egypt in 1981. Mubarak’s presidency lasted almost thirty years, making him Egypt’s longest-serving ruler since Muhammad Ali Pasha.

He became known for supporting peace in the Middle East. As president, Mubarak worked to improve Egypt’s relations with other Arab countries. He also upheld the peace treaty that Egypt and Israel had agreed to in 1979. Mubarak cracked down on terrorism as well.

In 2005 for the first time, Egypt held an election in which other candidates were allowed to run for president. Mubarak won the 2005 election, but some people claimed it was unfair.

In January 2011 thousands of Egyptians gathered in the streets. They protested unemployment, high prices, and the lack of democracy. They demanded that Mubarak leave office. Mubarak stepped down after 18 days of demonstrations during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011.

 On 11 February 2011, former Vice President Omar Suleiman announced that Mubarak and he had resigned as president and vice president respectively and transferred authority to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces.

Mubarak and his sons were accused of allegations of corruption and abuse of power. On 2 June 2012, an Egyptian court sentenced Mubarak to life imprisonment. On 13 January 2013, Egypt’s Court of Cassation ordered a retrial.

On retrial, Mubarak and his sons were accused of corruption and given prison sentences. Mubarak was imprisoned in a military hospital and his sons were freed on 12 October 2015 by a Cairo court. He was proven unguilty on 2 March 2017 by the Court of Cassation and released on 24 March 2017. Mubarak died on February 25, 2020, in Cairo.

The Presidency of Mohammed Morsi

Mohammed Morsi was elected president of Egypt in 2012. . He was the country’s first democratically elected president. Morsi was officially recognized as the winner of the election on June 24.

As president, Morsi issued a temporary constitutional declaration in November 2012 that his authority as president would not be subject to any form of judicial oversight until a permanent constitution came into effect to avoid the expected dissolution of the second constituent assembly by the opposing judges.

These issues along with complaints of the pursuit of journalists and attacks on nonviolent demonstrators led to the 2012 protests. As part of a compromise, Morsi canceled the decrees except for the part that prevents the courts from dissolving the Constituent Assembly.

Because of the deterioration in the public services,  calls for Morsi’s resignation increased in mid-2013. On June 30 huge protests against his rule began around the country. Morsi offered to negotiate with the opposition but refused to resign.

On July 3 the Egyptian military unseated Morsi. It suspended the constitution and created a new interim administration to be led by the head of the Supreme Constitutional Court, Adly Mansour.

Morsi was placed under arrest, along with several other Muslim Brotherhood leaders. Morsi faced separate trials for a variety of offenses. He was sentenced to death. The court ordered a retrial. Morsi remained in prison while the new trial was underway. On June 17, 2019, he collapsed while in court, in Cairo, and was pronounced dead shortly after.

The Presidency of Abdel Fattah El Sisi

Sisi- Egypt President BBC News
Sisi- Egypt President BBC News

Abdel Fattah Saeed Hussein Khalil el-Sisi is the current president of Egypt since 2014. He was elected to a second term in March 2018. Egypt has witnessed many changes since his presidency.

Infrastructure projects, investment in Egypt’s economy, and financial reform provided hope for economic recovery. One of his biggest projects is the expansion of the Suez Canal. It would double the capacity of the existing canal. The new canal is expected to increase the Suez Canal’s revenues.

President Sisi also introduced the Suez Canal Area Development Project. This project would involve the development of five new seaports in the three provinces surrounding the canal. It also would include seven new tunnels between Sinai and the Egyptian homeland, building a new Ismailia city, huge fish farms, and a technology valley within Ismailia.

President Sisi also started the National Roads Project, which includes building a road network of more than 4,400 kilometers and uses 104 acres of land. He promised many developments and reconstruction campaigns for Egypt to reduce the unemployment rate and increase the poor’s income.

An ambitious plan to build a new city near Cairo to serve as the country’s new capital was announced during the Egypt Economic Development Conference. It is located in the east of Cairo approximately midway between Cairo and Suez. It hasn’t been named yet.  It would also help relieve population pressures from the greater Cairo area.

Another positive project is the national goal of eliminating all unsafe slums in two years. The first stage of the project was started on 30 May 2016 containing 11,000 housing units built. The main goal is the construction of 850,000 housing units.

Egypt History Movie List

Since Egypt’s history is one of the most ancient histories worldwide, a lot of movies were produced to represent such a unique history. There are many movies that revolve around Ancient Egypt and other phases whether social or political.

Here is a list of some movies:

·        The Ten Commandments

·        The Prince of Egypt

·        David Macaulay – Pyramid

·        National Geographic: Into the Great Pyramid

·        Cléopâtre (1899)

·        The Mummy Returns

·        The Mummy (2017)

Egypt History Book List

Many writers whether Egyptians or foreigners wrote about the history of Egypt and how marvelous it is. There are various books on different levels that provide information about political and social life in Egypt during different regimes. Here is a list of some of the most famous books:

·        Seeker of Knowledge

·        History Pockets

·        Mysterious of Ancient Egypt Revealed

·        The Persistence of Orientalism

·        We’re Sailing Down the Nile

·        Time Wrap Trio

·        Egypt: The Cultures (Lands, People, Cultures)

·        1,000 Facts About Ancient Egypt

The history of Egypt has various aspects and passed through various changes from 1952 to the present time. Egypt underwent changes in all aspects f life from Nasser to Sisi. Egypt passed by ups and downs like 1967 and 2011 than 2013, including one of the keystones in Egypt’s history, the 2011 Egyptian Revolution, but it remains one of the most ancient civilizations all over the world.

Hundreds of Various Features of Egyptian History

Egyptian History or Egypt History is rich and full of interesting facts and developments. Egypt passed by various aspects of social and political life. It includes different periods with different rulers. Each stage has its own features and characteristics.

The Ptolemaic period is one of the stages in Egyptian history from 332 BC to 30 BC. One of the major signs of this period is Alexander the Great. Then, Egypt moved to the Romano Byzantine Period from 30BC to AD639. It was one of the leading civilizations in the world.

The Ottoman Period which started in 1517 to 1914 is another phase in the history of Egypt. It is known for Mohamed Ali’s reign and the major achievement of Suez Canal. Moving to Protectorate-Monarchy from 1914 to 1952, King Faruq deposed in July Revolution, 1952.

What are the Major Characteristics of the Ptolemaic Period (332–30BC)?

The Ptolemaic Period began when Alexander the Great defeated the Persians in Egypt in 332 BCE. After Alexander’s death, Ptolemy took Egypt. It was founded in 305 BC by Ptolemy I Soter, a companion of Alexander the Great, and lasted until the death of Cleopatra VII in 30 BC.

The Ptolemies initially ruled from Memphis but soon moved the royal court to Alexandria, which Alexander the Great had founded on the northwest coast of Egypt. Egypt was the wealthiest, however, and for much of the next 300 years the most powerful politically and culturally, and it was the last to fall directly under Roman dominion.

The country’s traditional practices and religious forms remained strong. The Ptolemaic rulers supported Egyptian religious groups.. During the first three reigns of the Ptolemaic dynasty, temple building projects of Dynasty 30 were continued by the new kings and official classes, closely following Egyptian styles.

Beginning in the mid second century BC, dynastic strife and a series of foreign wars weakened the kingdom, and it became increasingly reliant on the Roman Republic. Under Cleopatra VII, Egypt became involved in a Roman civil war, which finally led to its conquest by Rome as the last independent state.

Romano Byzantine Period (30BC–AD639)

The Roman Empire ruled a large part of Europe and northern Africa for hundreds of years. When the Roman Empire split into two separate empires, the Eastern Roman Empire became known as the Byzantine Empire.

The emperor Augustus (as Octavian was known from 27 BCE) subjected  Cleopatra’s kingdom to his rule. Roman senators were not allowed to enter Egypt without the emperor’s permission. Egypt achieved its greatest prosperity under the shadow of Roman peace.

Egypt was now part of the Mediterranean world more than ever before. Products from Egypt (papyrus, grain) were sold across the whole Roman Empire. Products of other parts of the Empire were imported into Egypt.

The Romans and the Persians fought many battles over Egypt and other provinces. Eventually, the Persians were defeated. After this, another enemy appeared: the Arabs. The Byzantines were economically damaged by the battles with the Persians. They could not withstand the Arabs. Palestine, Syria and Egypt were lost between 635 and 645.

Egyptian History near pyramids and ankh in desert
Bedouin on camel near pyramids and ankh in desert

Arab Empire (639–1517)

The Muslim conquest of Egypt by the army of Amr ibn al-As, took place between AD 639. Egypt was governed as part of a series of Arab Caliphates. The various Caliphs, including the Umayyad and the Fatimid dynasties, kept hold of the country for almost 900 years.

The conquerors avoided using an established city such as Alexandria as their capital; instead, they founded a new city Al-Fusṭāṭ. A mosque was built in Al-Fusṭāṭ bearing the name of ʿAmr ibn al-ʿĀṣ. itself an important port and remained so until the 14th century.

Egypt was ruled by governors appointed by the caliphs throughout the Umayyad caliphate and well into the Abbasid. It’s main interest was to supply the central government with Egyptian taxes and grain. Egypt also became a base for Arab-Muslim expansion by both land and sea.

In the 9th century the Fatimid Caliphate, originating in modern Tunisia, wrested control of Egypt from the Abbasids and established a new capital called Al-Qahirah from which modern Cairo takes its name. In 1171 AD the Fatimids gave way to the Ayyubid Caliphate, founded by the famous general of the Crusades, Salah Ad-Din.

Through all of these changes in government Egypt remained an important part of the Muslim world. Egypt and the capital, Cairo, were of great geographic and political importance. Salah Ad-Din strengthened the fortifications of Cairo by building a citadel.

After the death of al-Ṣālih Ayyūb, a group of rebellious Mamluks assassinated his son and successor Tūrān-Shah and elevated al-Ṣālih’s wife Shajar al-Durr to the throne in 1250. She was later assassinated along with her husband Aybakin 1257.

The Mamluk leader, Quṭuz came to power after the death of Aybak and Shajar al-Durr. The Mongol leader sent an ambassador to Egypt to deliver terms taking control over Egypt. He ordered the Mongol ambassador put to death. Then, he won The Battle of ʿAyn Jālūt.

Soon after the Mamluk victory over the Mongols at ʿAyn Jālūt in 1260, Baybars I seized power by assassinating Quṭuz. He was the true founder of the Mamluk state. He ruled until 1277.

Then  Egypt was under the control of the long reign of al-Malik al-Nāṣir (reigned 1293–1341). During this time,  Egypt maintained economic prosperity and peaceful relations with foreign powers both Muslim and Christian.

After the death of Nāṣir in 1341, the state began to decline politically and economically. The best efforts of sultan as Qāʾit Bāy (reigned 1468–96) failed to make Egypt strong enough to defend its provinces against the campaigns of the Ottoman Empire.

The Ottomans defeated the Mamluks in 1516–17. Sultan Selim marched against Egypt in 1517, defeated the Mamluks, and installed Khayr Bey as Ottoman governor. Then, İbrahim Paşa was sent to Egypt by the sultan Süleyman I.

Moving to the French occupation, Napoleon started at Alexandria, then advanced to Cairo. Later, the Ottoman sultan, Selim III (1789–1807), declared war on France. Then,  Napoleon resolved to return to France, and he succeeded in slipping away, past the British fleet, on August 22, 1977.

Kléber followed Napoleon in Egypt. He was assassinated by a Syrian Muslim, Sulaymānna al-Ḥalabī, on June 14, 1800. In 1801, the British invasion started. In March 1803 the British troops were evacuated in accordance with the Treaty of Amiens.

 In July 1805, Sultan Selim III confirmed Muḥammad ʿAlī in office and the revolt ended. During his reign, Egypt again became an area of strategic significance. Muḥammad ʿAlī thus became effectively the sole landholder in Egypt.

The reign of ʿAbbās I started from 1848 to 1854. He turned to their British rivals, whose help was needed against the Ottomans. His death was  mysterious and violent.

Then Saʿīd reigned according to the Egyptian History from 1854 to 1963.

He succeeded on ʿAbbās. He reached an agreement with his French friend Ferdinand de Lesseps to cut off a canal across the passages of Suez. This agreement resulted in a conflict between him and the Sultan and the  British, whose overland railway route was threatened by the project.

Ismāʿīl, the son of Ibrāhīm Pasha, succeeded on the death of Saʿīd. He ruled from 1863 to 1879. In November 1869 the Suez Canal was opened to shipping. Ismāʿīl was given the special title of khedive.

 In 1875 the Mixed Courts were established for Egyptians and foreigners. Ithad both foreign and Egyptian judges, who administered codes based on French law. Political tension increased in the last years of Ismāʿīl’s reign.

In1678 Egyptian revenue and expenditure were placed under the supervision of a British and a French controller. In June 1879, Sultan Abdülhamid II (reigned 1876–1909), instigated by France and Britain, deposed him in favour of his son, Muḥammad Tawfīq.

By 1881 a national group and an army group had allied to form what was called the National Party. A joint English and French note sent in January 1882 with the intention of strengthening the khedive against his opponents had the opposite effect.

The British government sent to the Suez Canal. The ʿUrābists were soundly defeated at Tall al-Kabīr (September 13, 1882), and Cairo was occupied the next day.

The Period of British Domination (1882–1952)

The British had secured the sole domination of Egypt. Tawfīq’s prestige was further weakened by the intervention of the British government. Two main problems confronted the occupying power: first, the acquisition of some degree of international acceptance for its special but vague position in Egypt, second, a definition of its relationship to the khedivial government.

Abbās II became the Khedive after The death of Tawfīq, his father. Abbas II was only 17 years old. He opposed the occupation and the British were against him too. He was trying to appoint his own nominee as a prime minister but the British managed to fail his trials.

A National Party has been founded and firstly led by Moustafa Kamil. He opposed the British occupation the same as the Khedive. Moustafa Kamil tried to improve the patriotism of the Egyptians. Finally the Khdeive agreed with Cromer.

In November 1914 Britain declared war on the Ottoman Empire and in December proclaimed a protectorate over Egypt, deposed ʿAbbās, and appointed his uncle, Ḥusayn Kāmil, with the title of sultan. Ḥusayn Kāmil died in October 1917 and was succeeded by his ambitious brother, Aḥmad Fuʾād.

On November 13, 1918, three Egyptian politicians headed by Saad Zaghloul demanded independence for Egypt and announced his intention of leading a delegation (Arabic wafd) to state his case in England. The British government refused and arrested Zaghloul.

Finally Zaghloul was released and led his delegation to the Paris Peace Conference (1919–20). They refused to accept his demand for independence for Egypt.  Finally, The declaration of independence (February 28, 1922) ended the protectorate. On March 15 the sultan became King Fuʾād I (reigned 1922–36) of Egypt.

The Kingdom of Egypt (1922–52)

The Kingdom of Egypt was the legal form of the Egyptian state from 1922 until The Egyptian Revolution of 1952. Between 1936 and 1952, the United Kingdom continued to maintain its military presence, and its political advisers, at a reduced level.

During the reign of King Fuad, the monarchy struggled with the Wafd Party  and with the British themselves, who were insisting to maintain their control over the Suez Canal. Other political forces appeared in this period included the Communist Party (1925), and the Muslim Brotherhood (1928), which eventually became a powerful political and religious force.

King Farouk came to the throne after the death of King Fuad in 1936. He was only 16 years old. In 1936, the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty  required the United Kingdom to withdraw all troops from Egypt proper (excluding Sudan), except in the Suez Canal Zone (agreed to be evacuated by 1949), but permitted the return of British military personnel in the event of war.

In 1940 the British obliged King Farouk to dismiss his prime minister Ali Mahir and appoint a more cooperative one. King Farouk had to accept Al Nahhas. In 1944 King Farouk replaced Al Nahhas with Ahmed Maher, but he was assassinated in February 1945.

At the end of World War II, Egypt was in a thoroughly unstable condition. Demonstrations in Cairo became increasingly frequent and violent. All the opponents demanded to carry out the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty. Egypt referred the dispute to the United Nations (UN) in July 1947 but failed to win its case.

Egypt witnessed political instability after its unexpected defeat in the first Arab-Israeli war (1948–49) which was launched because of the declaration of the State of Israel in May 1948. At mid-century Egypt was ready for revolution by the Free Officers on July 23, 1952. Since then , Egypt has started a new era.

History of Egypt is full of ups and downs, challenges and changes. Egypt moved from Ptolemic to Roman-Byzantine. Egypt spent 72 years under the British Occupation. There were prefects, Khedives and kings titled for the rulers. Finally, In 1952, Egypt was declared as The Arab Republic of Egypt.

How did we treat illness before we knew what germs were? How did we discover bacteria which cause disease? The history of medicine is a super interesting topic and we are going to learn all about it!

What time periods of the history of medicine are we learning about?

  • Prehistoric medicine
  • 2000BC – Egyptian Medicine
  • 1500 – 300BC – Greek Medicine
  • 400BC – Hippocrates
  • 400BC – 500AD – Roman Medicine
  • 1347-1348 – Black Death
  • 16th Century Medicine
  • 17th Century Medicine
  • 18th Century Medicine
  • 19th Century Medicine
  • 20th Century Medicine

Prehistoric medicine

What is pre-history?

Prehistory is a time before written records, we learn about pre-history by studying things which aren’t written. These things may include cave paintings, human remains, or stone tools left behind by prehistoric people. Prehistoric medicine was largely based on the belief in evil spirits but prehistoric people did have some practical tools which they used to treat the sick and injured.

What is Trepanation?

Trepanation was used by prehistoric humans to relieve a headache by cutting a hole in the skulls with a sharp rock, ouch! Prehistoric humans believed this practice would release evil spirits from the body but it probably did more harm than good. Miraculously some people survived this grusome proceedure, we know as skeletons left behind have holes which are partially healed from trapanning. HIghly trained surgeons today only open the skull if there is too much pressure in the skull, they still call this practice trepanation.

history of medicine LearningMole
You can see the trepannation hole in the engraving of this skull

Could Prehistoric people treat broken bones?

Archeologists discovered that prehistoric people could treat fractures and broken bones by looking at their skeletons. Prehistoric people healed bones in the same we do know, by placing them in a splint to keep the bone imobile while it healed. Lots of prehistoric skeletons have fully healed breaks showing the success they had at healing fractures.

2000BC – Egyptian Medicine

The Egyptians developed papyrus, an early form of paper, and kept physical records which historians can study. The Egyptian methods of treating the body developed from their ideas around irrigation which came from their use of the Rive Nile. They believed the body was made up of channels like the errigation channels coming from the Nile. They believed that these channels in the body becoming blocked was the cause of illness.

Egyptians used a lot of herbal remedies to treat the body, one of their remedies was to eat honey for a sore throat. This is a cure still used today as honey does have antibacterial properties and can soothe a sore throat.

1500 – 300BC – Greek Medicine

The Greeks based their medicine on religion, praying to the god of health Asclepius for health or even visiting a temple to Asclepius called an Asclepion.

What is a Greek Asclepion?

When the Greeks got sick they would often be sent to an Asklepion to get better. Asklepions were usually out in the countryside and were made up of several buildings where people would do several things to make them feel better. 

While at the Asklepion people would take baths with sacred oils and salts. They would also work out as it was though exercise would help heal your body. They would also buy things to give to the god Asclepius as an offering. If you had a sore foot you might give Asclepius a wooden foot to ask him to heal you. 

history of medicine LearningMole
Statue of Asclepius

One of the stranger things the Greeks did at the Asklepion was sleeping under the stars while physicians let snakes lick your wounds in an area called the Abaton. The Greeks thought that Asclepius would heal you through the snakes. Asclepius is often portrayed as carrying a staff wrapped in snakes, this symbol is also seen as hospitals today.

People who visited the Asclepion did get better usually but this was likely due to the relaxation, execise, and bathing they had when there. In the picture below you can see the ruins of an Abaton at a Greek Asclepion.

history of medicine LearningMole
Ruins of an Abaton

400BC – Hippocrates

Hippocrates is known as the father of medicine for his contributions to medical thought and the profession of being a doctor. So what did Hippocrates bring to medicine?

The Four Humours

The Four Humours was a theory on how illness came to the body which theorised that the body was made up of four substances, blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. This theory meant that to be healthy the body had to be completely balanced. This encouraged people to have things in moderation and to ensure a balanced diet even if it was incorrect. The Four Humours theory was adopted and was popular for over 2000 years.

The Hippocratic Oath

Hippocrates did a lot of work around how doctors should act and how they should treat their patients. He wrote an oath which he believed all doctors should swear to promise to act in a way that was best for their patients. Doctors today swear a similar oath which is still called the Hippocratic Oath.

400BC – 500AD – Roman Medicine

Public Health

The Roman empire was known for their architectural accomplishments and their public health standards, which were very high. The health of Roman people improved as they had clean streets and clean water. The Romans has aqueducts, sewers, drains and public baths which would keep the people and the streets clean. Some Roman cities even had people in charge of ensuring the quality of the water provided to the people. A lot less disease spread through Roman cities as they were so clean.

history of medicine - roman baths
Picture of a Roman Bath


Galen is one of the most influential figures in all of medical history for several reasons including his further development of four humours theory, his anatomical work, and his treatment of patients.

Galen’s Anatomy

Galen believed in learning about anatomy through dissection and he made many key discoveries which were believed until the 16th Century even though he made many mistakes.

Correctly, Galen discovered that the brain controlled the body, not the heart which was previously believed. However, he also believed that humans had two jaw bones as he had only studied the jawbones of animals which do have two jawbones. Humans only have one. However, doctors had so much faith in Galen that no one questioned his findings for over 1000 years.

Galen’s Treatment of Patients

Galen developed a system of treatment for his patients which focused on the observation of the patient and getting to know the problem fully. It involved Observation, when Galen would watch for and discuss the symptoms of his patient. Diagnosis, where he would offer an idea of what was wrong with the patient, such as a unbalance of the humours. Prognosis, which is when he would tell the patient how their road to recovery would be like and how long he thought they would be ill. And Treatment, where he would prescribe a cure for their ailment.

The importance of placing patients under observation is still understood by doctors who use it to diagnose patients today.

1347-1348 – Black Death

The Black Death was a plague in two forms, bubonic and pnumonic which reduced the population of Europe by half. This time in history led to the creation of many weird cures such as putting frogs under your arms or smelling toilets.

The closest to being right about how illness was caused people got during the Black Death was a belief that ‘bad air’ caused disease. People carried herbs and flowers around to prevent breathing in the plague ‘Miasma’ – a term meaning bad air.

16th Century Medicine

1540’s – Andreas Vesalius

Andreas Vesalius changed the established thought about anatomy through his extensive work in dissections. He created detailed diagrams and found out what of Galen’s work was accurate and where he made mistakes. Andreas Vesalius created the most complete anatomical study of the human body in history. His anatomy sketches are remembered for their dramatic poses and the scenery around them.

1570 – Ambroise Pare

Pare is best known for creating ligatures which were used to sew up wounds meaning they could be sewn up after surgery. His work prevented patients getting infections in their wounds or having to have wounds cauterised which was very sore.

While working as a military doctor he developed an ointment to treat gunshot wounds which helped them heal quicker. It was a mixture of egg whites, turpentine, and rose oil. Before Pare’s work gunshot wounds were treated with very hot oil which was very paintful. Pare’s ointment sped up healing and prevented infections saving lives.

17th Century Medicine

1620’s – William Harvey

William Harvey was the man who discovered that blood pumped around the body and was always in the body. He discovered that blood was pumped away from the heart by arteries and into the heart by veins. His experiments on the veins helped us understand how blood works to keep us alive.

history of medicine LearningMole
Veins & Arteries

Want to learn more about the circulatory system? Check out this video!

18th Century Medicine

1796 – Edward Jenner – Vaccines

history of medicine LearningMole

Edward Jenner is best-known for curing Smallpox, but how did he find the cure?

Jenner noticed that maids that milked cows ended up getting cow pox instead of small pox. He theorised that you could only get one form of the pox and so if people were given cow pox it would be a good way to prevent them getting the much deadlier small pox.

He created the world’s first vaccine to small pox by exposing people to the virus cow pox which was a lot less damaging and less deadly. This was done through a proccess called variolation where scabs from cow pox victims were put into a cut to spread the disease to healthy people. People who got cow pox never got small pox and this saved many lives.

What are infectious disease? Find out more below!

19th Century Medicine

1854 – Crimean War

The Crimean War had an impact on medicine as two historic nurses did amazing work during the time. Both Florence Nightingale and Mary Seacole worked hard to help people during the Crimean War.

Florence Nightingale

In 1854 Florence left Britain and went to Turkey to help soldiers fighting in the Crimean War. She brought38 volunteers who were all well trained nurses who could help. When she arrived in Turkey she noticed that a lot of people were only getting worse inside the hospitals. She observed that this was caused by the poor hygiene and conditions in the hospital. There were even rats running around spreading disease. She cleaned up the hospitals, encouraged the nurses to wash their hands, and improved ventilation. These measures helped all the patients staying in the hospitals and the nurses and doctors working there.

During her time as a nurse in the Crimea War Florence Nightingale would check on her patients during the night and as they arrived. Newly wounded or ill soldiers started to call her the ‘Lady with the Lamp’ as they would see her small lamp light coming through the dark as she came to check on them. Florence checked on soldiers as they arrived to make sure that they had everything they needed to be comfortable, to make sure their clothes were cleaned, and that their injuries were all treated well.

Mary Seacole

Mary Seacole was a nurse from Jamaica and had learned how to take care of people from her mother. Mary Seacole offered her services to Florence Nightingale as a nurse but was turned down but did that stop her? Of course not.

Mary Seacole paid her own way to Crimea and set up a hotel for British soldiers where they could recieve medical treatment, hot food, and equipment. Mary Seacole even went a step further than other nurses in her mission to help wounded soldiers. She rode on horseback across the battlefield to bring aid to soldiers who needed it and she helped soldiers on both sides of the conflict. A true hero.

1861 – Germ Theory by Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur was working on a way to keep wine fresh and during his experiments he proved that germs in the air were the cause of illness. This was a big step in preventing and curing illness as germ theory would eventually take over from Four Humours Theory which had been around for over 2000 years.

1867 – Aseptic Surgery – Joseph Lister

Joseph Lister visited a friend who worked in the sewers and compared the smell of the sewer to that of the room where he performed surgery. Ew! Sewers at the time were cleaned with acid used to kill off germs. Lister believed he could use carbolic acid to clean his surgery room and surgical tools meaning that there was less chance of infection as the germs would be gone. He used a carbolic acid spray to cover his surgery room in a mist of acid to kill germs. This was the first time tools and rooms for surgery were cleaned to make them aseptic before performing surgery. A huge moment in the history of medicine.

1881 – Anthrax Bacteria discovered by Robert Koch

Robert Koch discovered the Anthrax bacteria and was able to view bacteria through a microscope for the first time. His work eventually discovered the bacteria resposible for many illnesses such as Typhus, Tuberculosis, Cholera, Tetanus, Pneumonia, Meningitis, Plague, and Dysentery. This was the first time in the history of medicine we were able to tell which bacteria caused which illness. This is how we develop vaccines today by identifying and using bacteria that causes illness.

20th Century Medicine

1911- NHS started

The National Health Service (NHS) was started in Britain during this year, this was the first time any Western nation had ever offered free healthcare to its entire population, the entire healthcare service was not fully nationalised until 1948 but this was the start of British healthcare being free for its citizens.

history of medicine LearningMole

1928 – Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin’s uses

Penicillin is an important drug which fights infections but how did we find out that it kills bacteria? Alexander Fleming was the scientist who found out but not on purpose. Fleming had placed a petri dish with bacteria growing on it near a window. The petri dish was contaminated with penicillin and he noticed that the bacteria where the penicillin had tounched died. He wrote many papers about the uses for penicillin. Two Scientists called Florey and Chain were able to create a drug from penicillin between 1937 and 1945 with soldiers in World War 2 having it as an essential in their medical pack. The creation of penicillin as an anti-infection drug has saved millions of lives.

1953 – DNA structure discovered Conclusion

DNA makes us who we are and forms every characteristic and trait we have from our eye colour to our height. DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic acid, and its shape is called a double helix. We didn’t know this until the DNA was xrayed. This important discovery in the history of medicine was made by Dr. Rosalind Franklin. Her discovery unlocked secrets to how all living things are formed.

history of medicine LearningMole
DNA helix


The history of medicine is a long tale of trial and error, discovery and death, and is packed full of individuals who made a huge impact through their research and sometimes helped with a happy accident or two. What do we still have to learn about the human body? As Vesalius proved when showing the mistakes of Galen, we can always learn more!

History is the science that is concerned with studying the chronological record of events that affected a nation, as it is based on a critical examination of various sources of information and provides an explanation of the reasons for these events. History of military affairs, economics, law, literature, science, arts, philosophy, religion, and other human fields are among the areas that the study of history usually covers.

This science can be defined as the study of the human past through written documents left by humans, where history is the firm foundation on which historians stand. In addition to studying the changes that affected the social or political status of the human race and there are many definitions made by historians, where the historical world John J. Anderson defined history as a narrative of events that occurred among humans in the past, including the emergence and collapse of Nations and civilizations.

History is the attempt to control the data in order to study the chronological record of events based on a critical study of the various sources with an attempt to find explanations for their causes, in which historical information is collected from various articles that contain the history of the peoples, countries and cultures to which they are related.

It is also defined as a narrative of the various events that occurred among humans, from the rise and fall of nations, and all the changes that affected the political and social status of humankind. In addition to some other important information such as economics, and military affairs, philosophy, law, religion, and many human fields.

It includes all things that have ever happened and were easily monitored, and through it the past can be studied, and only part of it revealed in an objective way, and it is not only related to events but also to the interpretations and ideas that people then carried about them.

In addition to being related to the values ​​of the era that occurred in it, and therefore the major problem for some historians when studying history is the perception and interpretation of events in many ways by different people and groups.

The Importance of History

There is no doubt that history has special significance in dating the history of the universe, the Earth, and humankind.

  • Clear and accurate perception of the world

In addition to visualizing the ancient events that man went through antiquity. Therefore the studies presented by the science of history are a way to avoid mistakes that man made in the past that led to destruction, such as wars and various conflicts.

  • Lessons for the future

This can be achieved through knowing the progress of ancient human civilizations and studying the factors of their rise, prosperity and progress over other civilizations, and the reasons that led to their demise, destruction and weakness over time.

It is one of the most prominent sciences that connect man to his past, as it is an extension of human origins, and the best example of that is Islamic history. It is only a means of linking the individual to their ancient origins and ancestors. A great means from which one can derive their strength and self-confidence.

  • Preservation of the ancient heritage of nations

It is a means and a science based on preserving those legacies of special concepts, proverbs, sayings and rulings. For example, when studying the life of a nation or people, we refer to its historical books, where we find everything related to it in terms of customs, traditions and matters that distinguish it from other nations.

  • Analysis of ancient historical documents

It is a tool to reach sound and correct results in order to help scientists and researchers to access ancient historical discoveries and inventions and benefit from them in the study of current cases and events.

Moreover, history is a means of studying the effects of ancient civilizations, such as inscriptions and historical writings and trying to decipher their mysteries and incantations to identify those nations in a scientifically reliable manner.

A person can benefit from the science of history in several aspects, and among these benefits are the following:

  1. Helps to understand people and societies and how to deal with different things in life.
  2. Helps to understand and assimilate the current composition of the society in which humankind lives.
  3. Contributes to understanding the ethics of societies.
  4. Allows people’s stories to be studied in the past with a view to benefiting from them.
  5. Provides the identity of the individual, as it includes historical data of how families, groups, institutions, and states were formed, and it also provides information on genealogy.
  6. Promotes good citizenship by studying loyalty through historical stories.

Why Study History

The study of history aims to learn the human sciences, as it focuses in its content on the historical perspective, so historians and scholars emphasize understanding the past on its own terms by understanding and absorbing any historical phenomenon, such as an event, idea, law, or Creed.

With the need to study and understand the context, and it is worth noting that history is part of a network of interrelated institutions, values, and beliefs that determine culture in an era, and it is the most disciplined science to understand change.

It is noteworthy that historians and historians seek to explain Historical causation, enabling an understanding of the causes and how of change within human societies and cultures, where the study of history enhances basic understanding.

There is also the aim of evaluating contemporary institutions, understanding policies, and different cultures, in addition to providing a logical view of human nature and human civilization, in addition to giving an objective view; To understand ancient moral problems and to provide insights into wisdom and virtue.

Branches of History

  1. Archaeology: the study of physical remains left by humans.
  2. Historiography: a systematic study of the development of the science of history.
  3. Art history: interest in man-made objects within visual forms for aesthetic purposes.
  4. Big History: History over a wide period of time, sometimes beginning with the Big Bang.
  5. Annals: historical books that record facts and events in precise chronological order according to years.
  6. Culture history: the study of a particular culture in the past.
  7. Diplomacy history: a study of international relations in the past.
  8. Economy history: the study of economics in the past.
  9. Science of the future: the science of the possible, the possible and the preferred of the future, as well as things with few possibilities but with great effects that can accompany their occurrence.
  10. Ideas history: a study of ideas in text cultures that evolve through time.
  11. Navigation history: the history of shipping and what is related to it.
  12. Military history: a study of wars and battles in history.
  13. Naval history: the study of naval history, a branch of military history.
  14. Calligraphy: the study of ancient manuscripts.
  15. Political history: the study of political history in the past.
  16. Psychological history: the study of psychological motives in historical events.
  17. Historical outline of science: a study of the structures and developments of science.
  18. Social history: the study that deals with the history of the development and formation of social formations in the society of the state, the geographical area covered by the study, and the people or the nation.
  19. World History: The history of man from the beginning of his appearance as Homo sapiens to the present time.
  20. Natural History: the study of the evolution of the universe, the Earth, and biology.

Earliest Historical Records

In the ancient world, annals and prescriptions appeared in civilizations such as ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. The first known recorded history is the history book of Herodotus, the founder of Greek historiography in the 5th century BCE. Later Roman politician Cato the Elder wrote Roman historiography in the 2nd century BCE. Simultaneously with Cato, the two Chinese historians put together Chinese historiography by collecting the Shiji Book (Records of the Grand Historian).

During the Middle Ages, historiographical works included the archives of Europe at the time. During the Enlightenment in the 18th century, history got developed by several famous figures, such as Voltaire, David Hume, Edward Gibbon, and several others who laid the foundations of historiography in its new form.

In the early contemporary period, certain terms were used, as the term historiography meant «writing history», and the one working with historiography was called «historian». In this sense, some official historians have been given the title of «royal historian», like in Sweden (starting 1618), England (starting 1660), and Scotland (starting 1681), in which the position still exists today.

Recently, historiography has come to be defined as the study of the state of history, i.e. the history of historical writings. When you study historiography, you are not studying the events of the past directly, but you are studying the changing interpretations of those events through the perspective and perception of each individual historian.

Most Prominent Historians in History

1.     Herodotus

He is a Greek historian. His name consists of the word (Hera), a known idol of the Greeks, and the word (Dot), meaning gift, so the meaning became Hera’s gift. He was born between 480 and 490 BCE in a town called Halicarnassus and died around the year 484 BCE.

He grew up passionate about reading, learning and research, especially poetry, literature and epics, as is the case with his family and the Persians had invaded Greece during that era, so Herodotus experienced these events and lived them, so we find in him the spirit of revolution.

What distinguished this historian is that he was given a title that was never known to anyone, which is the title of «Father of History», as he is the greatest Greek historian and the first man to follow the prose-literary-artistic approach in Europe. Some considered him to be the first to set up the historian’s task.

Being a Greek, the first thing he started in his history was the conflict between Greece and the East, especially the famous great wars between his countrymen and the Persians. He was a broad-minded traveller; he visited Egypt, Libya, which was known as North Africa, as well as Mesopotamia, known today as Iraq, and reached the northern Black Sea, which is today’s Ukraine.

2.     Tacitus

He is a Roman historian, born in 55 CE and died in 120 CE. He was a chief judge. We do not have comprehensive and conscious details about him. Perhaps the most important reasons for this are that we have not received anything from his writings except two books, namely the Annals and the Histories.

His career in law and politics was rich, as some researchers describe. He worked as a legionnaire and was appointed to multiple civilian positions. This Roman historian studied the era of the emperors, and this was well explained in his Annals. Some critics have argued that this book is the best of his books.

This historian told us the events of the fall of the last Roman ruler of the Julio-Cladic dynasty, Nero. He chronicled the case of the ninth emperor of Rome, Vespasian. His unique style in Latin literature distinguished his style of narrating history.

3.     Fibrous

Roman historian, also called Livius, was born in 59 BCE and died in 17 CE. He was born in Italy to the north of Padua. We have not received anything significant about his personal life.

Fibrous was a contemporary of the Roman Emperor Augustus, and they had a good friendship. This did not affect the historical independence that Levi enjoyed. He composed a book called History since the founding of the city, in which he compiled a solid history describing what happened since the first stone of the state of Rome was established in 9 BCE.

4.     Ibn Khaldun

A Muslim Arab sociologist, philosopher, and historian, born in 1332 CE and died in 1406 CE, of Andalusian origins, born in Tunisia. Ibn Khaldun excelled in various sciences, and his knowledge was not limited to history. He excelled in grammar, Logic and jurisprudence. Ibn Khaldun is considered the founder of sociology.

Among his books and the most prominent of what he wrote in the science of history is his book The Book of Lessons and the Diwan Start to End in the Days of Arabs, Non-Arabs, and Berbers. This book is divided into three parts: the first is an introduction that contains deep reflections on human civilization, the second is concerned with the history of nations and kingdoms, and the third is Ibn Khaldun’s biography.

The introduction of this book has been translated into various languages ​​of the world several times. Among his books are The Healing of the Liquid to Refine Issues and his memoirs Introducing Ibn Khaldun and his Travels East and West. Ibn Khaldun died in Egypt at the age of 78.

5.     David Hume

A Scottish historian, born in 1711 in Scotland and died in 1776 CE. His father worked in the field of law. His father passed away when David was three years old, so his uncle ensured him.

He studied physics and philosophy, and perhaps the biggest reason that made him become a historian is that he was rejected from the University of Glasgow. He applied to the University of Edinburgh and was accepted where he dedicated his time to study books, registries and documents available at the library of the University.

This twist qualified him to write his historical book concerned with the history of England in particular, but he took an unknown approach, which is the reverse narration style; that is, it takes you from the later events to the early ones.

6.     Stefan Zweig

Austrian historian and writer of Jewish origin, born in 1881 in Vienna and died in 1942 in Brazil. He worked on collecting manuscripts and translation, which helped in qualifying him as a historian.

It is worth mentioning that he was an ardent activist who sought, with all his determination and will, the spiritual unification of Europe. Literature and poetry occupied a large place in his life.

He authored a poetry collection called Silver Chains. He wrote several biographies of Joseph Fouché (1929), Mary Stuart (1935) and Marie Antoinette (Marie Antoinette: The Portrait of an Average Woman, 1932), among others. In addition to some historical studies of famous literary figures, such as novelist Charles Dickens.

Meet the Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddess

The Egyptians believed that the phenomena of nature were divine forces in and of themselves. These deified forces included elements, animal characteristics, or abstract forces. The Egyptians believed in a pantheon of Gods and Goddesses,

 Which were involved in all aspects of nature and human society? Their religious practices were efforts to sustain and placate these phenomena and turn them to human advantage. The system was very complex,

 Some deities were believed to exist in many manifestations and some had multiple mythological roles. Conversely, many natural forces, such as the sun, were associated with multiple deities.

The Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses were very different from the gods and goddesses in other ancient civilizations. Animal heads, green bodies, false beards: in the ancient world around the Mediterranean, most civilizations had gods and goddesses that looked like people, at least sort of like people.

This was not the same in Ancient Egypt; it was fairly easy to spot gods and goddesses in drawings, hieroglyphics, statues, paintings, and other works of art. They could be recognized by the objects they carried and how they looked. Some Gods and Goddesses carried an ankh (symbol of life) and some gods and goddesses carried the scepter of power.

And for that Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals that formed an integral part of Ancient Egyptian culture. Where it centered on the Egyptians’ interactions with many deities that were believed to be present in and leading, the world.

Rituals such as prayer and offerings were provided to the gods and goddesses to gain their favor. Formal religious practices were centered on the pharaohs, the rulers of Egypt, who were believed to possess divine powers by their positions.

Ancient Egyptians acted as intermediaries between their people and the Gods and Goddesses and were obligated to sustain the gods through rituals and offerings so that they could maintain Ma’at, the order of the cosmos, and repel Isfet, which was chaos.

The state dedicated enormous resources to religious rituals and the construction of temples. Where the individuals could interact with the Gods and Goddesses for their purposes, appealing for help through prayer or compelling the gods and goddesses to act through magic. These practices were distinct from but closely linked with, the formal rituals and institutions.

 Egyptian belief in the afterlife and the importance of funerary practices is evident in the great efforts made to ensure the survival of their souls after death – via the provision of tombs, grave goods, and offerings to preserve the bodies and spirits of the deceased.

The religion had its roots in Egypt’s prehistory and lasted for 3,500 years. The details of religious beliefs changed over time as the importance of particular gods and goddesses rose and others declined, and their intricate relationships shifted.

At various times, certain gods and goddesses became preeminent over the others, including the sun god Ra, the creator god, Amun, and the mother goddess, Isis. For a brief period, in the theology promulgated by the pharaoh Akhenaten, a single god, the Aten, replaced the traditional pantheon.

Ancient Egyptian religion and mythology left behind many writings and monuments, along with significant influences on ancient and modern cultures. And by the time the diverse pantheon ranged from gods and goddesses with vital roles in the universe to minor deities or “demons” with very limited or localized functions.

It could include gods and goddesses adopted from foreign cultures, deceased pharaohs believed to be divine, and occasionally, distinguished commoners such as Imhotep became deified. The gods and goddesses of Ancient Egypt were an integral part of the people’s everyday lives.

And we need to mention the goddess Qebhet, for example, who is a little-known deity who offered cool water to the souls of the dead as they awaited judgment in the afterlife, and another is Seshat who was the goddess of written words and specific measurements overshadowed by Thoth, who is the better-known god of writing and patron of scribes.

It is not surprising then that there were over 2,000 deities in the Egyptian pantheon. The more famous Gods and Goddesses became state deities while others were associated with a specific region in some cases.

The god Ra made the land. Ra was lonely, so he made a wife. He named her Nut. Ra made many gods and goddesses to keep him company. He put them all to work. His children were very busy running the world. Still, they took time out to have children, because children were glorious to have!

Soon, there were many gods and goddesses. Ra was the father or the grandfather or the great-grandfather of them all! All children are glorious, but to Ra, one child was especially important. That child was his grandson, Osiris. Osiris had a brother named Set. Ra thought Set was a good one, but his favorite by far was Osiris.

To show Osiris how much he was loved, Ra made Osiris the first Pharaoh of Egypt. Osiris married Isis, his one true love, and the king (Osiris) and queen (Isis) settled down quite happily with their son (prince) Horus.

Set was jealous. And he thoughtWhy should Osiris be named Pharaoh and not him?” In a fit of anger, Set killed his brother Osiris and chopped him into little pieces. He threw the pieces into the Nile River. Set was sure he would get away with this murder. But soon rumors spread and everyone knew what he had done. Isis soon heard what Set had done.

Isis managed to gather the pieces of her beloved Osiris. She brought these pieces to her good friend Anubis, the jackal-headed god. Anubis was very clever. He managed to put the pieces of Osiris together again.

But he did not have the power to bring him back to life so that Osiris could retake his place beside his beloved, Isis, and rule Egypt again.

When the great Ra heard about it, he was furious. He gave Osiris a new job and an even better job. He made Osiris the god of the dead, which was the most important job of all. Osiris could rule over the land of the dead after he was dead himself.

He would have to be dead to enter the land of the dead. So, things worked out very well, or so Ra believed. When the young prince Horus heard what his uncle Set had done, although he was still only a boy, he tracked down his uncle Set and murdered him.

Isis was grateful to her friend Anubis, her son Horus, and her grandfather Ra. But nothing could bring Osiris back to life. He would dwell forever in the land of the dead, and she would live forever in the land of the living.

Isis knew that she would never see her beloved husband again. In honor of the god Osiris, the kings (pharaohs) of Egypt carry a crook and a flail and the signs of Osiris. The crook especially became the sign of rulers.

The crook looked a great deal like a snake and was made from wood. They used wood because wood was scarce. That made it even more special. From then on, once each year, Isis travels to the riverbank.

Remembering, dreaming, and crying. Tears fall from her eyes. Ancient Egyptian people thought that is why the Nile River rises each year, to bring life to everyone and everything along the Nile. When Isis cries, the Nile will rise! And that is a critical thing.

Ancient Egyptians’ Gods and Goddesses

The Ancient Egyptians were fascinating people. They were clever and creative. They worked very hard but saved time to enjoy family, friends, music, parties, swimming, fishing, hunting, sailing, and especially their children, all of which were critical to the Ancient Egyptians.

Let us know more about the life of Gods and Goddesses together. – Come meet the clever, creative ancient people who loved their life in the land of the Nile River!

Five thousand (5,000) years ago, the Ancient Egyptian made their home at the mouth of the Nile River, where the Nile runs into the Mediterranean Sea. It was a wonderful place to live. The soil was rich.

The food was plentiful. They were surrounded by desert, which helped to keep them safe from intruders, while the Nile kept their world green. The Ancient Egyptians believed in over 2,000 Gods and Goddesses. They were not afraid of their gods, not most of them anyway., from

They understood they could not always get everything they prayed for. But, from their funny attitudes toward their Gods and Goddesses, when their prayers were not answered, they might give the statue of Gods and Goddesses in the temple a little whack with a reed to let the gods know they were quite disappointed.

The Ancient Egyptians believed in curses and omens and magical powers, all of which were an important part of their daily life and religion. They bought spells in the marketplace to increase their luck, change their fate, and keep themselves safe.

They tried to solve their problems using all possible methods available to them. They believed science and magic were intertwined. Furthermore, they would chant a magical spell they bought in the marketplace and swallow medicine they bought from a different vendor to solve the same problem.

The strange thing was that what they were doing often solved their daily problems, even though it might have been just medicine, magic, or other things they were resorting to using. When the Ancient Greeks and then the Romans came to Egypt, they were amazed at how advanced the Egyptians were in the sciences, especially in astronomy, mathematics, and cures.

The Ancient Egyptians also believed in an afterlife. To the extent that a popular family outing was visiting the family tomb with armloads of grave goods they had made, things they might need in their afterlife to make their eternity comfortable and fun.

The Ancient Egyptians believed that after someone died, his sole spirit flew off to enjoy endless, perfect days along the magical Nile River. At night, the sole spirit returned to its tomb, because even mummies require a good night’s sleep.

The Ancient Egyptians were fascinating people; the Ancient Egyptians were not in love with death. They were in love with life! They loved poetry and tall tales and stories. Not only that, but they shivered at curses and danced at festivals. They loved their kids.

They loved their families. Furthermore, they loved their life along their beloved Nile River, crocodiles, and all. Now, let us know more information about the Gods and Goddesses of the ancient Egyptians. We think you’ll like them.

Meet the Egyptian Gods and Goddesses!


Gods and Goddesses-Re

Re, also spelled Ra or Pra, in Ancient Egyptian religion, God of the sun and creator god. Originally, most solar gods had falcon form and were assimilated to Horus.

Ra’s most commonly attributed power is that of life or creation, including the creation of Earth, Heaven, the Underworld, and all the gods in each of the three worlds. The Egyptians believed that Ra created the seasons, plants, animals, and even humankind.

Ra is the sun god of Ancient Egypt. He is one of the oldest deities in the Egyptian pantheon and was later merged with others such as Horus, becoming Ra-Horakhty (the morning sun), Amun (as noonday sun), and Atum (the evening sun) associated with primal life-giving energy.

The god of the sun, Ra was the first pharaoh of the world, back in the days, Ra’s golden sun ship would sail across the sky, and each night it would travel through the underground world of the Duat, sailing the river of darkness, and fighting off monsters.

  Sunrise, when Ra emerged victorious again and caused a new day to begin. After many centuries, Ra became old and senile, and retreated into the heavens, giving up his throne to Osiris.

Ra was often described as the father of the gods. When Osiris was murdered by his brother Set, Ra made Osiris become the God of the Underworld. Thus, the pharaoh Osiris is the son of Ra, and after his death, his son, Horus, assumed power. According to another myth, Ra ruled on earth as Pharaoh until he became old and weary.

Ra tells Horus that his weakness is the result of him not fulfilling his destiny, which Horus believes is avenging his parents’ deaths. Later on, Ra is visited by his son, Set, questioning his favoritism for Osiris and denying him the throne and children.

The Eye of Ra is not usually associated with evil, but rather with power and violence. It was used in Ancient Egyptian culture as an amulet of protection for pharaohs, they thought it helped bring harmony


Gods and Goddesses - Osiris

Osiris is derived from the Egyptian word meaning wiser. Known as the god of fertility, agriculture, afterlife, death, resurrection, life, and vegetation in Ancient Egyptian religion.

The first son of Geb and Nut, Osiris was a wise and good pharaoh when he took over the world from Ra. Osiris taught the people everything about farming and created the first cities in Egypt.

Unfortunately, Osiris’s brother Set was jealous of him. Set tricked his brother into suggesting he should lie in a golden coffin, then sealed the coffin and cut it into pieces. Set scattered the pieces all over Egypt, and Osiris’s wife, Isis, spent years searching for them.

Eventually, Isis put her husband back together; binding him in cloth to make the first mummy, but Osiris only came partially back to life. After that, he was the god of the underworld, setting judgment over the souls of the dead. He appears as a king with blue skin and white robes.



Osiris’s wife was the goddess of magic and a clever and ambitious woman. She tricked Ra into retiring by poisoning him with a magic snake, then encouraging the old sun god to reveal his secret name, so Isis could cure him.

Once Isis knew Ra’s secret name, she could force him to do just about anything. She encouraged him to retreat into the sky, opening the throne for Osiris. Isis was the patron of magicians and loved her husband very much.

She encouraged their son Horus to take vengeance on the evil Set, who had killed Osiris. Isis is often pictured as a beautiful woman with multicolored wings.



Set is also known as Seth and Sutekh. He was the Egyptian god of war, chaos, and storms, brother of Osiris, and Horus the Elder, uncle to Horus the younger, and brother-husband to Nephthys, Isis.

His other consort was the goddess Tawaret, a hippo-headed deity who presided over fertility and childbirth. The goddess of the desert, storms, and evil. The two were the same thing. He was one mean god. His color was red, the color of sterile soil and the desert.

He was the strongest of the gods, and very tricky. He became pharaoh of Egypt after killing his brother but was later overthrown by his nephew Horus. After that, Set fled into the desert, where he controlled all the evil harsh lands outside the Nile Valley.

Set wasn’t all bad, however. In the old days, he sailed on Ra’s boat and helped defend the sun god from the armies of the chaos serpent Apep. Set is usually pictured with red skin and with the head of an unknown animal demon – part dog, part anteater, all ugly.



Geb was the Egyptian god of the earth and a mythological member of Heliopolis. He could also be considered a father of snakes. It was believed in Ancient Egypt that Geb’s laughter created earthquakes and that he allowed crops to grow.

The god of the earth, Geb was one of the first Gods and Goddesses to appear from the sea of chaos at the beginning of time. He appears as a man-made of earth, with rivers, forests, and hills across his entire body. Nut was Geb’s wife, the goddess of the sky. Yes, we know she appeared as a woman with skin like a starry sky, dark blue and covered in constellations.

She is often pictured stretching over Geb, as the sky stretches over the earth. Although Geb and Nut loved each other very much, Ra had a prophecy that their children would try to overthrow him someday, so Ra did his best to keep them apart. Despite this, Nut managed to have five children.



Shu (Su) was the god of light and air, and as such, he personified the wind and the earth’s atmosphere. As the god of light, he represented the illumination of the primordial darkness and marked the separation between day and night and between the world of the living and the world of the dead.

Nut’s father, the God of the air, while you may know of Ra, the sun god, or Osiris, the god of death and rebirth, Let us know more about Shu! He was a powerful god of the air, a god-pharaoh, the Likewise, he’s the protector. He helped determine the fates of souls after death.

Not only that but he was given the job of keeping Nut and Geb apart. This is why the sky is so far above the earth. The god of the wind stays between them, keeping his daughter from visiting her love, the earth. He is usually not pictured because he is invisible like the wind.

Nephthys Goddess

Nephthys Goddess

As the sister of Isis and wife of Set, she is a protective goddess who symbolizes the death experience, just as Isis represented the birth experience.

Nephthys was known in some Ancient Egyptian temple theologies and cosmologies as the “Helpful Goddess” or the “Excellent Goddess”.Even known as the river goddess.

 Nephthys didn’t like her husband very much, because he killed Osiris. Nephthys helped Isis collect Osiris’s pieces and bind them together. She was a kind and gentle goddess, and mother of Anubis, the god of funeral rites.



The God of the sky is Horus, Egyptian Hor, Har, or Heru. In Ancient Egyptian religion, is a god in the form of a falcon whose right eye was the sun or morning star, representing power and quintessence, and whose left eye was the moon or evening star, representing healing.

 Horus possesses the conventional powers of the Egyptian Gods and Goddesses. He has superhuman strength, stamina, and resistance to harm and causes a conventional injury. He is called the Avenger. Horus was the son of Isis and Osiris.

When he grew to manhood, he challenged Set and eventually defeated him, becoming the new pharaoh of Egypt. Afterward, all mortal pharaohs considered themselves to be the descendants of Horus. Horus’s symbol was the falcon, and he was often pictured as a man with a falcon’s head, and it became a symbol of protection.



Bastet also called Bast, is an Ancient Egyptian goddess who was worshiped in the form of a lioness and later a cat. The daughter of Ra, the sun god, Bastet was an ancient deity whose ferocious nature was ameliorated.

Bastet is the Egyptian goddess of the home, domesticity, women’s secrets, cats, fertility, and childbirth. She was associated with women and children. Cats were extremely popular in Egypt because they could kill snakes, scorpions, and other nasty creatures. Bast, the goddess of cats, was just as popular.

 Bast was a protective goddess, and people would wear amulets with her likeness for good luck, especially during the bad luck Demon Days at the end of each year. In cat form, Bast is often pictured with a knife, fighting the chaos serpent Apep. She was Ra’s faithful cat.



Sebek, also spelled Sobek, Greek Suchos, in Ancient Egyptian religion, known as the crocodile god whose chief sanctuary was in the Fay yum province. It included a live sacred crocodile, in whom the god was believed to be incarnated.

You can find a column with a carving of the crocodile god Sebek at Ombos, Egypt. Sobek was not an evil god to the Egyptians, contrary to his nature in The Red Pyramid. He was associated with Pharaonic power, fertility, and military prowess.

He was revered in Egyptian culture and was prayed for to be protected from the crocodiles that filled the Nile. The god of crocodiles was both respected and feared. Crocodiles were strong creatures.

In Ancient Egypt, an entire city was named after them: Crocodilopolis and Sobek had a temple with a lake full of crocodiles. However, crocodiles were fearsome predators, and many Egyptians were killed each year if they got too near the river.

Sobek was pictured as a crocodile-headed man. His sweat was said to have created the rivers of the world. Yuck!

Serqet: Serket Egyptian Goddess


Selket also spelled Selqet, or Serqet, in Egyptian mythology, was a goddess of the dead. Her symbolic animal was the scorpion. She was one of the underworld deities charged with protecting the Canopic jar in which the intestines of the deceased were stored after embalming.

Serqet was often shown as a woman with a scorpion on her head, and occasionally as a scorpion with the head of a woman, though this was rare.

Serqet was sometimes shown wearing the headdress of Hathor (a solar disk and cow horns) but it is thought that this has more to do with her association with Isis.

The goddess of scorpions was both good and bad. She could send scorpions after her enemies, and a single scorpion bite could kill you. On the other hand, you could pray to Sequent for protection from poison. She was pictured as a woman with a giant scorpion for a crown. She holds the ankh, the symbol of life, in one hand and a scepter, representing power, in the other.

Anubis: God of the dead and the process of embalming.


Anubis, also called Anpu, the Ancient Egyptian god of the dead, is represented by a jackal or the figure of a man with the head of a jackal. In the Early Dynastic Period and the Old Kingdom, he enjoyed a preeminent (though not exclusive) position as lord of the dead, but he was later overshadowed by Osiris.

Anubis is the god of funerals. He was one of the most important gods because he helped prepare the soul for the Afterlife and escorted the dead to the hall of judgment.

The Egyptians noticed jackals hanging around their graveyards, so they decided jackals must be Anubis’s sacred animals.

Priests even wore jackal masks when they made the pharaoh’s body into a mummy. Anubis helped Isis make Osiris into the first mummy. Anubis is usually pictured as a man with a jackal’s head, leading a departed spirit through the Duet.

Egyptian priests would wear a mask of Anubis during mummification ceremonies in general. Anubis, easily recognizable as an anthropomorphized jackal or dog, was the Egyptian god of the afterlife and mummification.

He helped judge souls after their death and guided lost souls into the afterlife. Therefore, Anubis was not evil but rather one of the most important Gods and Goddesses who kept evil out of Egypt. Anubis possesses superhuman strength; he is capable of lifting about 30 tons.

He also possesses superhuman speed. Anubis is capable of running and moving at speeds much greater than even the finest human athlete.



Bes, a minor god of Ancient Egypt, is represented as a dwarf with a large head, goggle eyes, protruding tongue, bowlegs, bushy tail, and usually a crown of feathers. The name Bes is now used to designate a group of deities of similar appearance with a wide variety of ancient names.

He is the god of dwarves, protector of households, mothers, and children. One of the ugliest and most popular gods in Ancient Egypt, Bes had the power to scare off evil spirits. He often appeared on amulets and in sculpture as a hairy little man with a lion-like mane and a pug nose.

 Egyptians believed that dwarves (and other people who were born different) were inherently magical. Bes was considered wonderful luck. He watched over the common man, children, women in childbirth, and any else who needed protection from evil.

And also, he was a widely worshiped deity in Ancient Egypt and was believed to be the deity of music, merriment, and childbirth. As such, Bes was thought to be a protector of children, and depictions of him were frequently seen in the bedrooms of Ancient Egyptian households.



Khonsuis the Ancient Egyptian god of the Moon. His name means “Traveler”, and this may relate to the perceived nightly travel of the Moon across the sky. Along with Thoth, he marked the passage of time.

Khonsu, the god of the moon, loved to gamble. He once lost five days of moonlight to the sky goddess Nut to give birth to her five children. Sometimes, Khonsu is depicted as a hawk-headed god, but more often he looks like a young man with a side-lock of hair, like an Egyptian youth. His favorite color is silver.

He was a god of the moon and time. His cult center was at Thebes, where he was part of a triad with Amun and Mut. He was one of the companions of Thoth (who was also associated with the moon and the measurement of time).



 Nekhbet is an early predynastic local goddess in Egyptian mythology, who was the patron of the city of Nekheb. Ultimately, she became the patron of Upper.

She is considered the goddess of vultures. One of the oldest goddesses of Egypt, Nekhbet was a patron of the pharaoh and is often pictured with her wings spread over the king. Her shrine was in Nekhbet, the city of the dead where she oversaw the oldest oracle in Egypt.

Like all vultures, she preyed on the dead and died. If you see Nekhbet hovering over you, start dancing! Let her know you’re still alive! Nekhbet, in Egyptian religion, was the vulture goddess who was the protector of Upper Egypt and especially its rulers.

She had several abilities. She can fly. Furthermore, she can cast magic that weakens the spirit of a person, so they slowly start to weaken and eventually die, although a powerful will, can shake off this effect. When hosting her, Percy Jackson was able to make a combat avatar, and she could shield him from Stene’s powers.



Babi, also known as Baba, in Ancient Egyptian religion, was the deification of the hamadryas baboon. It was one of the animals presented. Since Ancient Egypt. His name is usually translated as” bull of the baboons”, roughly Tawaret meaning “chief of the baboons”

Unlike the wise baboons of Thoth, Babi was the god of wild baboons, especially alpha males. He was aggressive and bloodthirsty and was given the job of eating the wicked dead in the underworld. He especially loved entrails. Yum! Babi is not a primate you want to fight.

The baboon is probably most well-known as a manifestation of the moon god, Thoth. In this role, Thoth took on the position of ‘God of the scribes’ (as we will mention), being associated with various subjects such as writing, science, judgment, knowledge, and the afterlife.

Since baboons were considered, to be the dead, Babi was viewed as a deity of the underworld. Since this judging of righteousness was an important part of the underworld, Babi was said to be the firstborn son of Osiris. He was the god of the dead in the same regions in which people believed in Babi.



In Ancient Egyptian religion, Taweret (also spelled Tart, Tuat, Tuart, Ta-were) is the protective Ancient Egyptian goddess of childbirth and fertility. Tawaret is the God of fertility. Taweret, after all, was a god of fertility, of life.

For a time, there were even several overlapping hippo deities in Ancient Egypt. It, Reset, and Hedjet all played essentially the same role as Taweret, and may even have been different aspects of the same deity.

Tawaret is the goddess of hippos. While the Egyptians feared male hippos, they saw the female hippo goddess Tawaret as a gentle protector. She looked after pregnant women, especially, and is often depicted with a swollen belly. Like Bes, she could scare off evil spirits.

The Ancient Egyptian goddess Taweret, ‘the Great One’, is depicted by scholars and in Ancient Egypt as being the protective goddess of mother and child during pregnancy and childbirth. As with many Ancient Egyptian deities, she goes by many names throughout.

Sekhmet: Goddess of war


Sekhmet, also spelled Sakhmet, in Egyptian religion was a goddess of war. She destroyed Sekhmet, the enemy of the sun god, Ra. Sekhmet was associated both with disease and with healing and medicine.

Battle prowess: Sekhmet had enormous strength and destructive power. As the Eye of Ra, she was responsible for protecting the Sun god and destroying all his enemies. Sekhmet means ‘the powerful one’! She is sometimes called the daughter of the sun god Ra. she is celebrated at the end of battles.

She was worshiped evenly with her husband, Ptah, and her son, Nefertem. Her main cult center was in Memphis. Many priests recited complicated prayers, used to avert the rage of Sekhmet. A well-known prayer was called “the last day of the year”, and it was chanted while wearing a piece of cloth around one’s head.



Thoth was the God of writing and knowledge. That could also appear as a baboon. It was believed that Thoth gave the Egyptians the gift of hieroglyphs. In Egyptian religion, he is a god of the moon, reckoning, learning, and writing. He was held to be the inventor of writing, the creator of languages, the scribe, interpreter, and adviser of the gods, and the representative of the Sun Ra.

Thoth was the judge of the dead, who had overseen three epic battles between Good and Evil. He was also an engineer, associated with science and knowledge, and, as the scribe of the gods, he was the creator of the language.

He was held to be the inventor of writing, the creator of languages, the scribe, interpreter, and adviser of the gods, and the representative of the sun god, Ra. his responsibility for writing was shared with the goddess Seshat. Nephthys or Nebet-Het Ancient Egyptian is Thoth’s sister; she was a goddess in Ancient Egyptian religion.



Heka is the god of magic and medicine in Ancient Egyptians, strength, and is also the personification of magic itself. He is probably the most important god in Egyptian mythology but is often overlooked because his presence was so pervasive as to make him almost invisible to the Egyptologists.

Heka, also spelled hike, in Ancient Egyptian religion, was the personification of one of the attributes of the creator god Re-Atum; the term is usually translated as “magic,” or “magical power,” though its exact meaning pertains to cult practice as well.

Heka occasionally appears as a falcon-headed man wearing a sun disc, or a man holding two entwined serpents. In the latter case, he is connected with the “caduceus” (a winged staff with two serpents wrapped around it) which is now a symbol associated with medicine.

Heka was regarded as a deity in its own right. Most regularly he is depicted as an upright male with an emblem, the hieroglyphic sign for strength, on his head.



Hathor was a solar deity, a feminine counterpart to sun gods such as Horus and Ra. She was a member of the divine entourage that accompanied Ra as he sailed. Hathor, in Ancient Egyptian religion, goddess of the sky, women, fertility, and love.

Hathor was closely connected with the sun god Re of Heliopolis, whose “eye” or daughter she was said to be. In her cult center at Dandarah in Upper Egypt, she was worshiped with Horus.

And the cow goddess may shed some light on more than one famous story in the Bible. For the Egyptians, the goddess Hathor was a cow goddess who represented all that they saw as good in the female identity.

She represented fertility and motherhood, of course, but also love, joy, music, dance, and all that was beautiful. Hathor was one of the most important Gods and Goddesses, and complex goddesses of Ancient Egypt.

A mother goddess who created and maintained all life on earth, Hathor was also worshiped as a goddess. She was one of the forty-two state gods and goddesses of Egypt, and one of the most popular and powerful.

She was a goddess of many things: love, beauty, music, dancing, fertility, and pleasure. Not only that, but she was the protector of women, though men also worshiped her. Not only that, but she had priests as well as priestesses in her temples. Esky, and as the symbolic mother of the pharaoh, or ruler.

For all Ancient people, the world was filled with mystery. Much of what they experienced in the world around them was unknowable and frightening. The Ancient Egyptian gods and goddesses represented aspects of the Egyptians’ natural and “supernatural” surroundings and helped them understand its many aspects.

This was all about the Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egyptians. We hope you enjoyed it. To practice even more on Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses and learn about other interesting subjects, keep visiting Learning Mole.

Egypt is a great country located in northeast Africa. Egypt is officially the Arab Republic of Egypt. It has a total area of 1,002,450 square km. The current population of Egypt in 2021 is 104,258,327. Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country.

The official currency of Egypt is called the Egyptian Pound. Arabic is the official language in Egypt. The Egyptian flag is a tricolour consisting of red, white, and black. The Egyptian flag’s bands are based on the Arab Liberation Flag of the Egyptian Revolution of 1952. In the centre of the middle band, there is an eagle, The eagle is a symbol of Egypt.

Egypt is divided into 29 areas, called Governorates. They are Cairo, Alexandria, Helwan, Giza, Aswan, Asyut, Behera, Beni Suef, Dakahlia, Damietta, Faiyum, Gharbia, Ismailia, Kafr El Sheikh, Luxor, Matruh, Minya, Monufia, New Valley, North Sinai, Port Said, Qalyubia, Qena, Red Sea, Sharqi,  Sohag, South Sinai, Suez, and 6th of October.

What’s the Capital of Egypt?

Cairo, pronounced Al-Qahirah, is the capital of Egypt. Cairo is one of the biggest cities in the continent of Africa. 

Egypt has many cities, but the most important cities for tourist attractions and the economy are Aswan, Luxor, Sharm El Sheikh, Dahab, Gouna, Hurghada, and Alexandria.

Egypt on the Map

Egypt is located in northeastern Africa. Egypt is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, Israel to the east, Libya to the west, and Sudan to the south. 

The Nile River

The Nile River was life for Ancient Egyptians. It was the main source of water. They depended on it in their regular activities. The Nile River flooded its banks from June to September every year, which makes the soil fertile perfectly. Farmers also irrigated the crops from the Nile. 

Ancient Egyptians believed that the floods happened because Isis was weeping for her husband Osiris. The Nile river is the longest in the world. It flows about 6650 km, and it is about 4,130 miles into the Mediterranean Sea. 

The Nile river flows through eleven countries, and only 22% of them flows through Egypt. Further South there are two branches of the Nile: The White Nile and the Blue Nile.

In ancient times, there were seven branches of the Nile, but today there are only two. The Nile Delta used to flood every year. If you look at Delta on the map, you will find it green and fertile. Today, the Nile River is a source of irrigation, in addition to its importance as a transportation and trade route.

Egyptian Civilization

Egypt is very famous for its ancient civilization and the monuments, such as: In Cairo, there are the Great Pyramids of Giza, the Great Sphinx, and the Egyptian Museum.

In the south, there are the Luxor Temple, the Karnak Temple, Abu Simbel, the Temple of Hatshepsut, the Valley of the Kings, the Temple of Edfu, and the High Dam of Aswan, and the Philae Temple. 

Egypt has a nice cool breeze that makes tourists from many places come to enjoy its weather. Tourism is one of the leading sources of income.

Egypt has many places to visit:

The Egyptian Museum

The oldest museum in the Middle East, it is a house of Pharaonic antiques in the world. It houses over 120,000 items. The Egyptian museum contains many valuable artefacts of Ancient Egyptian history. In 1909, an Italian construction company built the Egyptian museum. A French architect Marcel Dourgnon designed the museum. This museum is considered one of the largest museums in the world. 

In 1835, Mohammed Ali, the ruler of Egypt at that time, completely banned the export of ancient antiquities to protect the country’s heritage. The Egyptian museum is established in different places. First, at Boulaq in 1858. In 1878 the flooding of the Nile River caused damage to the building. In 1891, the collections were moved to a former royal palace, in the Giza district of Cairo. At last, the collection moved to a museum in Tahrir Square.

During the Egyptian revolution of 2011, two of the mummies were destroyed, about 50 objects were lost, and the museum was partly destroyed. About 25 of the objects have been found. Some objects were moved to the new Grand Egyptian Museum, while most of them are still in the main museum in Tahrir. The Egyptian museum reopened again in September 2013. 

Description of the Museum:

There are two main floors, the ground floor and the first floor. On the ground floor, there is a big collection of large works in stone, including statues, reliefs and architectural elements. The first floor is dedicated to smaller works, including papyri, coins, and textiles.

On the ground floor, Not only artifacts from Egypt but also the New Kingdom. They are from 1550 to 1069 BC. On the first floor, there are artifacts from the final two dynasties of Egypt.

Here are some examples of artifacts:
  • The Gold Mask of Tutankhamun.
  • Mummy mask of Psusennes I.
  • Statue of Menkaure.
  • Throne of Tutankhamun.

Valley of the Kings

The Valley of Kings is located in Luxor “the west bank of the Nile River”. The period of the valley of kings was nearly 500 years from the 16th to 11th century BC. It was used as a burial chamber for royal burials of kings, their families, and their properties.

The process of Mummification was important to preserve the body of the dead Pharaohs. So the ancient Egyptian worked hard to build tombs. Building tombs was a concept in ancient Egyptian minds. They believed in the afterlife so they prepared themselves for the next world after death. They put all their needs from food, drink, clothes, and jewellery. 

In an excavation expedition in 1922, Howards Carter discovered one of the most important tombs found in the Valley of the Kings, it is the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun and his treasures. The valley of kings became a world heritage Site.

Abu Simbel Temples

Abu Simbel is two massive rock-cut temples in the village of Abu Simbel located in upper Egypt, Aswan. The two temples were carved out of the mountainside during the 19th Dynasty reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II. They serve as a lasting monument to king Ramesses II. His wife Nefertiti and children didn’t take the same importance as their father, they were seen in smaller figures by his feet. 

Ramesses II during his reign embarked on an extensive building program throughout Egypt and Nubia, Nubia at that time was famous for its valuable source of gold and precious trade goods. 

There are two temples:

-The Great Temple, dedicated to Ramesses II himself, took about 22 years to build. The single entrance is surrounded by four statuses, all of them representing Ramesses II seated on a throne and wearing the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. The left status was damaged by an earthquake, and the head and the torso fell away. These fallen pieces were not restored to the statue but placed at the statue’s feet in the positions originally found. 

-The Small Temple, dedicated to the goddess Hathor, personified by Nefertari, Ramesses most beloved of his many wives.

The temples were salvaged from the rising waters of the Nile River, and the Egyptian government sponsored a project to save the site during the erected High Dam in Aswan.

The temples are carved out of a sandstone cliff on the west bank of the Nile. The Temples were rediscovered in 1813 by the Swiss researcher Johann Ludwig Burckhardt.

Karnak Temple

The Karnak Temple Complex is commonly known as Karnak. The building began during the reign of Senusret I around 2000 to 1700 BCE in the Middle Kingdom, and continued into the Ptolemaic Kingdom from 305 to 30 BCE. The Karnak is located in the modern village of El-Karnak, 2.5 kilometres north of Luxor.

Karnak was in reality a complex of temples. Karnak Temple was the most important temple in Thebe’s “modern Luxor”, in Upper Egypt. The cult of the great god Amon of Thebes was conducted in Karnak. 

The Great Sphinx Of Giza

Sphinx, is a limestone statue, the statue is a mythical creature with the body of a lion, and the head of a man. The Great Sphinx is 19.8 meters high and 73.2 meters long. It stands on the Giza Plateau.

The face of the Great Sphinx represents Pharaoh Khafre. The Great Sphinx had been carved during the reign of Khafre. Its nose is broken. It is considered the oldest and longest monumental sculpture in Egypt. It was built by Ancient Egyptians.

Giza Pyramids

Egypt’s pharaohs has a belief in the afterlife, so they built many tombs. Pyramids are considered tombs. Pharaohs put food, drink and all their properties in the tomb that they will need afterlife. 

Pharaoh Khufu built the first pyramid in 2550 B.C. known as the Pyramid of Khufu. The Great Pyramid of Giza is one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. It was the largest Pyramid at 147 meters above the plateau. Its estimated 2.3 million stone blocks each weigh an average of 2.5 to 15 tons.

Khufu’s son, Pharaoh Khafre, the third pharaoh of the 4th Dynasty built the second pyramid at Giza in 2520 B.C. known as the Pyramid of Khufu. While the Great Pyramid of Giza is the tallest one, the Pyramid of Khafre appears to be taller that’s because Khafre’s pyramid was built atop bedrock that is 33 feet higher than the foundation below Khufu’s pyramid.

Menkaure was the son of Khafre and the grandson of Khufu. Mankaure built the third pyramid known as the Pyramid of Menkaure in 2490 B.C. It is the smallest Pyramid.

Khan el-Khalili

Khan el-Khalili is a famous souq and bazaar in Cairo, Egypt. It is considered a centre of trade in the Mamluk era and named for one of its several historic caravanserais. If you go on a tour to Khan el- Khalili, you will find that khan el-Khalili is home to many Egyptian artisans and workshops involved in the production of traditional crafts and souvenirs. You also will enjoy the view of a busy and colourful open-air bazaar filled with amazing items like spices, perfumes, jewellery and souvenirs. You will enjoy walking through loud and crowded streets. 

You also will enjoy the view of a busy and colourful open-air bazaar filled with amazing items like spices, perfumes, jewellery and souvenirs. You will enjoy walking through loud and crowded streets. 

Khan el-Khalili was established in the 14th century when Emir Dajaharks Al-Khalili built a large market complex on the site of the Za’afran Tomb “the burial place of the Fatimid rulers of Egypt”.

In later years, other sultans added their caravanserai. At the end of the 15th century, Khan el-Khalili became a centre for trade, both local and foreign.

Khan el-Khalili has a variety of restaurants and cafes, after going shopping, you can take a break there.

Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut

The Temple of Hatshepsut is a mortuary temple built during the reign of Pharaoh Hatshepsut of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Located in Upper Egypt, at Deir al-Bahari, opposite the city of Luxor.

Hatshepsut was a queen and then became a pharaoh. She built the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut at Deir al-Bahari. No one till now knows the real designer of the temple of Hatshepsut, it possibly is Senenmut or Hapuseneb. It is made of sandstone, limestone and granite. The construction took place between Hatshepsut’s seventh and twentieth dynasties.

The Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut has three massive terraces rising above the desert floor, each of which has a colonnade at its end.

Mummiform statues of Hatshepsut as Osiris, the god of the dead, lean against its pillars.

Rituals and religious festivals are depicted on Hatshepsut temple walls that appear throughout the beautifully painted reliefs.

Luxor Temple

Luxor Temple is a large Ancient Egyptian temple complex located in upper Egypt, Luxor. It was constructed approximately 1400 BCE. The temple was dedicated to the Theban triad ”the great god Amon-Ra”, his wife Mut, and their son Khonsu. It was built with sandstone from the Gebel el-Silsila area.

Luxor temple unlike other temples isn’t dedicated to a cult god but it is dedicated to the rejuvenation of kingship. Amenhotep III and Alexander built chapels to the rear of the temples in18th Dynasty. One of the chapels inside the Luxor Temple is dedicated to the goddess Mut. Other parts of the temples were built by Ramesses II.     

During the Roman era, The Romans built a fort around the temple in the late third century AD. 

Egyptian Pyramid Adventure – Ancient Egypt KS2 – Ancient Egypt Facts for Kids -Egypt facts for kids

Ancient Egypt Facts

Ancient Egypt Pyramids

The fourth-dynasty king, Sneferu 2686 – 2667 BC, was the first to create the pyramid shape that we all recognize and associate with Egyptian architecture.

Things You May Not Know About Ancient Egypt

The fourth-dynasty king, Sneferu 2686 – 2667 BC, was the first to create the pyramid shape that we all recognize and associate with Ancient Egyptian architecture. He built three pyramids in all—but the first two were glorious failures.

His first, the pyramid at Medium, began as a step pyramid and was then modified to form the first true pyramid. But it was unstable and the limestone blocks began to slip. Soon, work on it was abandoned.

 King Sneferu then moved to Dahshur and built a second pyramid, which we now know as the “Bent Pyramid” because its upper part rises at a shallower angle of incline than the lower part.

The Bent Pyramid was originally planned as a true pyramid,

 But the corners were built on unstable ground, and the walls of the burial chambers inside began to crack and shift inward. Of necessity, the building’s geometry was altered at a point just above half its height.

 This was probably done to alleviate the stresses in the lower part of the pyramid and make it stronger. But the bent pyramid was never used. Instead, Sneferu began the third pyramid about a mile away.

This one is called the red pyramid because of the red limestone blocks used in its construction. It became the world’s first successful true pyramid.

The Pyramids of Giza

the pyramids of Giza

With the red pyramid, Sneferu set the standard for all true pyramids to come. He included above-ground burial chambers, a mortuary temple, and a causeway leading down to a valley temple. This was the model followed by his son,

 Khufu, built the first and largest pyramid at Giza. The Giza pyramids were erected on a rocky plateau on the west bank of the Nile in northern

Egypt and were connected, by covered causeways, to mortuary temples in the valley below the plateau. These temples had landing stages that were linked to the Nile by a canal. In ancient times, they were included among the Seven Wonders of the World.

Khufu – 2575-2566 BC

The largest of the three pyramids at Giza, known as the Great Pyramid, is truly an astonishing work of engineering. It was built over a twenty-year period. Some believe that it was built by slaves, but this is not true.

One hundred thousand people worked on the great structure for three months of each year, during the Nile’s annual flood, when it was impossible to farm the land and most of the population was unemployed.

The pharaoh provided good food and clothing for his workers and was kindly remembered in folk tales for many centuries.

The sides are oriented to the four cardinal points of the compass, and the length of each side at the base is 755 feet (230.4 m). The faces rise at an angle of 51º 52’ and their original height was 481 feet (147 m). (They currently rise 451 feet [138 m].) .

It was constructed using around 2,300,000 limestone blocks, each weighing an average of 2.5 tons. Some blocks weigh as much as 16 tons. For centuries, the Great Pyramid was encased in smooth limestone, but this was plundered in our era to build Cairo.

Khafre 2558–2532 BC

Khufu’s son, Khafre (also known as Chephren). His pyramid, on a nearby site at Giza, appears taller than his father’s, but this is an illusion; it is built on higher ground.

Khafre’s pyramid retains some of its original limestone casing at the apex, and so it is possible to imagine how the pyramids might have appeared in antiquity.

Khafre also built the Great Sphinx, which is 66 feet high (20 m) and 240 feet long (73 m) and is part of Khafre’s pyramid complex. It represents Ra-Harakhte, the sun god,

As he rises in the east at dawn, the face of the Sphinx is a portrait of Khafra himself and is contemporary with his pyramid. It was carved from an outcropping of limestone left after quarrying the stone for his father’s pyramid.

Menkaura 2532-2503 BC

The Pyramids of Giza Ancient Egypt

Khafre’s son, Menkaura built the third pyramid at the Giza necropolis (cemetery). With an original height of 228 feet (70 m), it is less than half the height of the pyramid built by his grandfather, Khufu.

The lower layers consist of red granite from Aswan, and the upper courses were originally made of gleaming white limestone.

Pyramid List

Although pyramid-building in stone continued until the end of the Old Kingdom, the pyramids of Giza were never surpassed in their size and the technical excellence of their construction.

In the New Kingdom, Ancient Egyptians marveled at their predecessors’ monuments, which were then well over a thousand-year-old.

Pyramids were built during the Middle Kingdom (2055-1650 BC) but these consisted of a mud-brick core with stone skin and are now mere piles of rubble.

There are over 100 recorded pyramids in Egypt, most of which belong to minor royalty or have no known owners.

They required an enormous investment in resources and stood out in the landscape as easy prey to the robbers. The last royal pyramid was built by the first king of the 18th dynasty Ahmose 1550-1525 BC but, after that, the Ancient Egyptians ceased building these majestic burial structures for all time.

Amazing facts about Ancient Egypt

  • Cleopatra was not Egyptian.
Cleopatra VII.

Along with King Tut, perhaps no figure is more famously associated with ancient Egypt than Cleopatra VII.

Along with King Tut, perhaps no figure is more famously associated with ancient Egypt than Cleopatra VII. But while she was born in Alexandria, Cleopatra was actually part of a long line of Greek Macedonians originally descended from Ptolemy I, one of Alexander the Great’s most trusted lieutenants. The Ptolemaic Dynasty ruled Egypt from 323 to 30 B.C., and most of its leaders remained largely Greek in their culture and sensibilities. In fact, Cleopatra was famous for being one of the first members of the Ptolemaic dynasty to actually speak the Egyptian language.

  • Ancient Egyptians loved board games
  • After a long day’s work along the Nile River, Ancient Egyptians often relaxed by playing board games. Several games were played, including “Mehen” and “Dogs and Jackals,” but perhaps the most popular was a game of chance known as “Senet.” This pastime dates back as far as 3500 B.C. and was played on a longboard painted with 30 squares. Each player had a set of pieces that were moved along the board according to rolls of dice or the throwing sticks. Historians still debate Senet’s exact rules, but there is little doubt of the game’s popularity. Paintings depict Queen Nefertari playing Senet, and pharaohs like Tutankhamen even had game boards buried with them in their tombs.

  • Egyptian workers were known to organize labor strikes
  • Ancient Egyptians loved board games. ...

    Even though they regarded the pharaoh as a kind of living god, Ancient Egyptian workers were not afraid to protest for better working conditions.

    Even though they regarded the pharaoh as a kind of living god, Egyptian workers were not afraid to protest for better working conditions. The most famous example came in the 12th century B.C. during the reign of the New Kingdom pharaoh Ramses III. When laborers engaged in building the royal necropolis at Deir el-Medina did not receive their usual payment of grain, they organized one of the first recorded strikes in history.

    The protest took the form of a sit-in:

    The workers simply entered nearby mortuary temples and refused to leave until their grievances were heard. The gamble worked, and the laborers were eventually given their overdue rations.

  • King Tut may have been killed by a hippopotamus.
  • Surprisingly little is known about the life of the boy pharaoh Tutankhamen, but some historians believe they know how he died. Scans of the young king’s body show that he was embalmed without his heart or his chest wall.

    This drastic departure from traditional Egyptian burial practice suggests that he may have suffered a horrific injury prior to his death. According to a handful of Egyptologists, one of the most likely causes for this wound would have been a bite from a hippopotamus.

    Evidence indicates that the Ancient Egyptians hunted the beasts for sport, and statues found in King Tut’s tomb even depict him in the act of throwing a harpoon. If the boy pharaoh was indeed fond of stalking dangerous game, then his death might have been the result of a hunt gone wrong.

  • Some Egyptian doctors had specialized fields of study.
  • An ancient physician was usually a jack-of-all-trades, but evidence shows that Ancient Egyptian doctors sometimes focused on healing only one part of the human body. This early form of medical specialization was first noted in 450 B.C. by the traveler and historian Herodotus. Discussing Ancient Egyptian medicine, he wrote, “Each physician is a healer of one disease and no more…some eye, some teeth, some of what pertains to the belly.” These specialists even had specific names.

  • Ancient Egyptians kept many animals as pets.
  • Egyptians kept many animals as pets.

    The Egyptians saw animals as incarnations of the gods

    The Egyptians saw animals as incarnations of the gods and were one of the first civilizations to keep household pets. Egyptians were particularly fond of cats, which were associated with the goddess Bastet, but they also had a reverence for hawks, ibises, dogs, lions, and baboons. Many of these animals held a special place in the Egyptian home, and they were often mummified and buried with their owners after they died. Other creatures were specially trained to work as a helper.

    Explore the previous examples and facts, and you will find yourself getting the necessary knowledge and information to fully grasp Ancient Egyptians. So, keep on visiting our Learning Mole to get more knowledge and information about all different kinds of stuff.

    Engaging Facts About Ancient Egypt

    Egypt is the gift of the Nile as it was described by the Greek traveler Herodotus in the fifth century B.C. History of Egypt is one of the oldest and longest world civilizations. Egypt civilization passed through various stages from ancient Egypt to the present, from Kings to emperors to presidents.

    History of Ancient Egypt is one of the most well-known civilizations all over the world. Historians divided the ancient civilization into different stages and different time periods. It starts from Pre-dynastic (ca. 4300-3000 B.C.E.) to the ROMAN and BYZANTINE EMPIRE (ca. 30 B.C.E. – 642 C.E.)

    Egypt witnessed a completely new phase during the Republic (1953–70). This is considered the modern history of Egypt. It is a turning point in the history of Egypt. Then, the history from 73 to the present time with all the prominent milestones. 

    AS it is mentioned before how ancient is the history of Egypt, there are a lot of art works especially movies that have represented most of this civilization. There are Arab as well as European movies that reflect these stages with both political and social sides. 

    Various historians with different nationalities documented this fabulous mysterious civilization in their books. These books can be found all over the world in different languages. These books documented the various stages of Egyptian civilization. 

    What are The Features of The Pre-dynastic Period (ca. 4300-3000 B.C.E.)?

    The Pre-dynastic period refers to the time before recorded history. There are no written records for this time however the excavations revealed some features about the development of culture in the Nile River Valley. People during that period of time lived along the banks of the Nile River. 

    People built villages and learnt to plant and grow crops. Finally, they established two kingdoms, Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. Upper Egypt was in the South while Lower Egypt was in the North. In about 2900 B.C a king named Menes possibly united the two parts of Egypt. Menes built the capital city of Memphis. This is how the dynastic period started.

    Early Dynastic

    The first dynasty started with the unification of Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt possibly by Menes. King Menes is the founder of the capital Mamphis. The records about this period of time are known through few monuments and objects bearing royal names. One of these monuments is the Narmer Palette. 

    The only record that has survived is the Palermo Stone. It has the lists of the kings’ names on it. The tombs of Pharaohs found in Naqada and Abydos were made of wood and mud bricks along with small stones for walls and floors. Stones were used for ornaments, vessels and statues.

    Here is a list of the names of the rulers in the first dynasty:

    Name of the RulerComment
    MenesBelieved to be Narmer around 3100 BC
    Hor-AhaLed an expedition against the Nubians 3050 BC
    DjerHis tomb was later thought to be the legendary tomb of Osiris.
    DjetRuled for 10 years
    MerneithAround 2950 BC
    DenFirst pharaoh depicted wearing the double crown of Egypt
    AnedjibRuled for 10 years
    SemerkhetHis complete reign is preserved on the Cairo stone.
    Qa’aRuled very long, his tomb is the last one with subsidiary tombs.
    SneferkaVery short reign
    Horus BirdVery short reign,

    The second dynasty witnessed the expansion of the cities and the development of the structure. They used jewelry of precious gems for the upper class. As the wealth and power of the cities grew, they attracted more and more people from rural areas.

    Those who remained in rural communities were left with the burden of providing at least the same amount of grain to the cities. This caused a huge burden on the workers to the extent that they seem to have preferred the work in the city. Here is a list of the rulers’ names:

    Name of the RulerComment
    HotepsekhemwyRuled for 25-29 years.
    NebraRuled for 10-14 years.
    NynetjerRuled for 40 years.
    WenegListed as the fourth king of the dynasty on the Turin, Saqqara and Abydos king lists.
    SenedjListed as the fifth king of the dynasty on the Turin, Saqqara and Abydos king lists.
    Neferkara IMay have only ruled Lower Egypt.
    NeferkasokarMay have only ruled Lower Egypt.
    Hudjefa IMay have only ruled Lower Egypt.
    Seth-PeribsenOnly attested in Upper Egypt.
    Sekhemib-PerenmaatMaybe the same person as Seth-Peribsen.
    NubneferMay be the birth name of Raneb.
    KhasekhemwyRuled for 17-18 years.

    Old Kingdom (Dynasties III–VI), 2663–2195 BC

    King Djoser (sometimes spelled Zoser), also known as Netjerikhet, ruled Egypt during the Third Dynasty of the Old Kingdom around 2650 BCE. He undertook the construction of the earliest important stone building in Egypt. Making Memphis his capital, Djoser probably extended Egypt’s southern and eastern borders.

    His reign, which probably lasted 19 years, was marked by great technological innovation in the use of stone architecture. Djoser erected the Step Pyramid at Saqqara. Surrounding the Step Pyramid were a large number of limestone buildings intended to represent shrines used for royal rituals. 

    King Khufu is the second and most famous king of the 4th Dynasty.Following his father’s example, Kheops again built his funerary monument away from his predecessor’s. There he built the monument that has made him one of the most famous kings of Ancient Egyptian history: the great pyramid of Giza.

    King Khafra is most famous as the builder of some of Egypt’s most impressive monuments. He is the builder of the second of the three Pyramids of Giza.He was the son of King Khufu. Although many of his relatives were hastily buried in cheap tombs, his own pyramid was almost as vast as the Great Pyramid of his father. 

    Middle Kingdom (2040–1540 BC) of Ancient Egypt

    The Middle Kingdom was the second peak period of the Ancient Egyptian civilization. During this time all of Egypt was united under a single government and Pharaoh. Mentuhotep II became king of southern Egypt. He reunited Egypt under one rule. This began the period of the Middle Kingdom.

    Mentuhotep made Thebas the capital of Egypt. Built his tomb and mortuary complex near the city of Thebes which was considered as a major religious and political center. The Middle Kingdom reached its peak under the rule of the Twelfth Dynasty. They built a powerful standing army that protected the country from outside invaders and maintained control of the government.

    Pharaoh Senusret III was one of the most powerful leaders of the Middle Kingdom. He is sometimes called a “warrior-king” because he personally led his troops into battle..The Second Intermediate Period is most famous for the rule of foreign invaders called the Hyksos. The Hyksos ruled northern Egypt from the capital city of Avaris until around 1550 BC.

    New Kingdom (Dynasties XVIII–?XX), 1550–1064 BC

    Thutmose III is considered as the greatest of the rulers of ancient Egypt. He transformed Egypt from an inward-looking kingdom into a successful conquering nation. He also built a great number of temples and monuments to monumentalize his accomplishments.

    During Thutmose III’s reign, art and craftsmanship received new impetus from his sponsorship. The last decade of his reign is marked by the building of a new temple at Dayr al-Baḥrī. During the last years of his life, Thutmose appointed his son Amenhotep II as cogent. 

    Hatshepsut was Queen of Egypt. She was the daughter of Thutmose I and wife of Thutmose II. She achieved an unprecedented power. She achieved military conquests. She also re-established important trading routes.

    Hatshepsut was one of the most productive builders in Ancient Egypt, achieving hundreds of construction projects throughout both Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. Following the tradition of most pharaohs, Hatshepsut had monuments constructed at the Temple of Karnak.

    Akhenaten was a pharaoh of Egypt who reigned over the country for about 17 years between roughly 1353 B.C. and 1335 B.C. He introduced the new sun-god Aten, to be the center of Egypt’s religious life. He erased the name of the previous god from monuments and documents throughout Egypt’s empire. He changed his name from Amenhotep IV to Akhenaten.

    He built the new capital city, which is now called Amarna, for the worship of Aten. Akhetaten was a planned city with the Great Temple of the Aten, Small Aten Temple, royal residences, records office, and government buildings in the city center. Was initially buried in a tomb in the Royal Wadi east of Akhetaten.

    Tutankhamun ruled Egypt for 10 years until his death at the age of 19. He was the grandson of the great pharaoh Amenhotep III. He reversed the religious life back to worship of the god Amun. He restored Thebes as a religious center. 

    Tutankhamun unexpectedly died in his 19th year. In 2010 scientists found traces of malaria in his mummified remains and posited that malaria in combination with degenerative bone disease may have been the cause of death.

    Seti I is the son of Ramesses I. He is considered as one of Egypt’s great warrior-pharaohs. He built a number of monumental buildings, including Karnak’s hypostyle hall, which is one of the most impressive monuments of Egyptian architecture.

    He ruled for 11 or 15 years. He exerted much effort to promote the prosperity of Egypt. He fortified the frontier, opened mines and quarries, dug wells, and rebuilt temples and shrines that had fallen into decay or been damaged.

    Rameses II is often considered as the greatest, most celebrated, and most powerful pharaoh of the New Kingdom. He is famous for his extensive building programs and for the many colossal statues of him found all over Egypt. He is also famous as the great builder of many of Egypt’s most impressive monuments including the temples at Abu Simbel.

    The early part of his reign was focused on building cities, temples, and monuments. He built for himself a full-scale residence city called Per Ramessu which was famous for its beautiful layout, with gardens, orchards, and pleasant waters. He had made Egypt rich from all the supplies and bounty he had collected from other empires. 

    The Most Famous Temples Built in Ancient Egypt

    Luxor Temple is a large temple complex located in what was ancient Thebes. The Temples at Karnak, part of the great city of Thebes, were constructed as an ancient place of worship for the god Amun. Although pyramids were no longer built at this time, magnificent tombs were constructed for the pharaohs and powerful nobles of the New Kingdom.

    The Best Books on Ancient Egypt

    One of the most recommended books about ancient Egypt is The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt by Toby Wilkinson. There is also the book of Ancient Egypt by Barry J. Kemp. We also have Tutankhamun’s Armies by John Coleman Darnell and Colleen Manassa.

    Ancient Egypt has been ruled by many pharaohs, kings through different dynasts. It is divided into pre-dynasty, old kingdom, middle kingdom and new kingdom. Egypt witnessed great development in art and structure. Pharaohs kings built various temples and monuments. It is a fabulous civilization. 

    Festivals are happy events where people gather to dance, eat exceptional food, remember great historical times, and have fun together. Yet, this is not what festivals are all about, and there is so much beyond the food, outfits, or any other tradition associated with it. Festivals are events that commemorate special occasions or incidents, revealing the culture and traditions of each country. 

    Today, we are shedding light on the Irish festival celebrations. Ireland is a beautiful country with rich history, unique culture, friendly people, delicious food, and amazing landscapes. No matter where you come from, it is always a great idea to learn about the cultures of the rest of the world. And while there are many ways to acquire that knowledge, learning about the happy moments could be the best. 

    Walk with us through this exciting list of the most popular Irish festivals. We will get to know what happens at each festival, what people eat because there is always exceptional food during celebrations, and whether special outfits are associated with the event. 

    1. St. Patrick’s Day

    St. Patrick’s Day is the most prominent Irish festival that takes place every year. Some people also call it the Feast of Saint Patrick. It is considered a religious celebration that occurs on 17 March. That day marks the death of the renowned Saint Patrick. 

    Who exactly was Saint Patrick? Well, he was the patron saint of Ireland back in ancient times, around the 5th century. He was born in Britain but immigrated to Ireland and took the credit for bringing Christianity for the first time into the country. St. Patrick died on 17 March in 461; that’s why people commemorate his legacy on this day every year. 

    Saint Patrick was also a holy man who did many great things in Ireland. Some people used to believe that, thanks to him, snakes no longer stayed in Ireland. He also built lots of schools, churches, and monasteries. 

    On this unique Irish festival, people march in parades in the streets of different cities. They wear green as the national colour of Ireland. It is said that this colour has great significance in the Irish culture for many various reasons. First of all, it is part of the Irish Flag. Also, it is the colour that the mythical creatures, Leprechauns, wear. Most importantly, it is the colour of the shamrock plant that is said that St. Patrick used to explain the concept of the Trinity. 

    2. St. Stephen’s Day (Feast of Saint Stephen)

    Another Irish festival dedicated to a saint is St. Stephen’s Day. This festival takes place every year on 19 December. People take the time to honour the memory of yet another precious patron saint that greatly influenced Ireland.

    Saint Stephen was deemed the first Christian martyr who was killed for his profound faith in Christianity. The Jewish were the ones to kill him in a public place in the city by throwing stones. They accused him of blasphemy, which means speaking ill of other religions of God. Yet, the Irish believe he was a hero and don’t believe the Jewish claims.

    3. Samhain Festival (The Irish Halloween)

    Samhain is an Irish Festival that takes place on the same day as Halloween, 31 October. It is rather pronounced as SAH-wen than what you are expecting. This festival takes two days, 31 October and 1 November. Both days are considered Halloween or other related festivals across different parts of the world.

    People in Ireland consider it to be the festival for the dead. According to myths and legends, the doors of the mortal world are open on this day, and spirits of dead people come into our world. People in the past believed that good spirits belonged to their families who passed away, and there were evil spirits. 

    For the belief in the evil spirits, people came up with the idea to wear scary outfits and masks to frighten the evil spirits and send them away. Over the years, this day has become associated with scary costumes and horror movies. Some believe that the American Halloween that is globally famous originated from this Irish festival.

    Nowadays, people no longer believe in these mythical stories. They actually celebrate Samhain in happy vibes. They feast on their favourite food, wear fun outfits, and build altars to honour their deceased families. It is also the day that marks the beginning the start of autumn. People call it the beginning of the dark half of the year as the nights become a little longer than the mornings. 

    4. May Day (The International Workers’ Day/Labour Day)

    May Day may be one of the famous festivals in Ireland, but it also takes place in different countries, including the United States, Canada, and Egypt. This festival takes place on 1 May, honouring the struggles of workers and people involved in the labour movement. It is also known worldwide as International Workers’ Day or Labour Day.

    In Ireland, this day is more concerned with the return of the summer season, which has been celebrated since ancient times. It goes way back to the times before Christianity arrived in Ireland. On this public holiday, people celebrate the arrival of summer by dancing, collecting flowers, and lighting a bonfire. 

    5. The Rose of Tralee International Festival

    The Rose of Tralee is an international event in several Irish communities. It was inspired by the famous Irish ballad that dated back to the 19th century and was under the same name. This song was written about a beautiful woman called Mary; she was so beautiful that people gave her the title the Rose of Tralee.

    Years later, the Rose of Tralee festival became a contest in August, where the women from Tralee took part. However, this rule changed years later to involve girls from parts outside Tralee. Irish girls worldwide or any girl from an Irish descendant can participate. The maximum age of each girl should not exceed 29. The winner is always the girl that resembles the attributes mentioned in the song’s lyrics.

    6. Galway International Arts Festival (GIAF)

    Art is very appreciated in Ireland, and for that very reason, Galway started holding this famous Irish festival in 1978. This festival was founded by the Arts Society that was in University College Galway. They collaborated with Galway Arts Groups, producing this inspirational event.

    This Irish festival lasts two weeks in late July on an annual basis, and it takes place in Galway. Galway Arts Festival exhibits different forms of art, where a diversity of artists contribute to showing their work. It could be anything from street art, dancing, music, visual arts, or theatre. 

    7. Summer Solstice (Midsummer)

    Irish people love to celebrate the beginning of every new season. Summer Solstice is the festival where the people are delighted for the arrival of summer. In the end, summer is when everyone travels with their families or friends, has fun, and has a great time by the beach, so it is worth the celebration. 

    This Irish festival is also known as Midsummer Carnivals. It takes place on 21 June every year. On this day, people from different parts of Ireland head to the Hill in County Meath to watch the season’s first sunrise. Festivals also take place across other cities, where people light bonfires to celebrate the season, go dancing, and exchange gifts sometimes.

    During this year, the sun travels a longer distance through the sky. That is why the daytime in summer is longer than the night. It goes the other way in winter when the night is longer than the day. In spring and autumn, both day and night start being equal, and so on. 

    8. The Winter Solstice

    There is also the Winter solstice, where people mark the beginning of the darkest half of the year. These celebrations go way back to the Pagan times, before Christianity or other religions came forward. This Irish festival is an ancient ceremony; people go outdoors to celebrate the longest night of the year. 

    Like many other festivals, people take the opportunity to gather and spend time together. Feasting is also an essential part of celebrations. Yule trees are decorated with beautiful ornaments and illuminating lights. This festival takes place on 21 December, marking the beginning of winter every year. It is also around the same time as Christmas celebrations; thus, people usually link them together.

    Greek civilisation is one of the oldest and one of the most ancient civilisations throughout history. It dates back to about 3650 BCE on the island of Crete, making it the basis and reference for the entire Western civilisation.

    The history of ancient Greece is considered one of the most important stages of human history due to the immortal civilisational contributions produced by this history and which are still present in our contemporary culture, especially in the field of political thought, philosophy, literature, and drama. Greek culture has contributed to scientific development in many fields, such as mathematics, physics, and medicine, as well as the Olympic Games.

    The civilisation of Ancient Greece existed many centuries before the birth of Christ on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea; their philosopher Plato expressed this by saying: “We have descended on the shores of this sea as frogs descend around a pool of water.” The first Greeks established unstable colonies on the shores of the Mediterranean.

    Greeks created prosperous cities in Spain, France, Italy, Sicily, North Africa, the islands of the Aegean Sea, the shores of Asia Minor, the Sea of ​​Marmara, and the Black Sea. The Greek peninsula was only a tiny part of the Greek world. The Greeks inhabited all aspects of the Balkan Peninsula. Still, a group of Greeks considered the Greek island the origin they descended from. Accordingly, the Balkan Peninsula is divided into three regions:

    1. Northern Greece: includes Macedonia and Thessaly in the east and Elis and Epirus in the west.
    2. Central Greece: includes several regions, as follows:

    i. Aetolia: This region is most famous for hunting pigs.

    ii. Locris: It is divided into the counties of Doris and Phocis.

    iii. Attica: The most famous and influential region, with the city of Athens in its centre.

    iv. Boeotia: The most famous locations in this region are the city of Thebes and the island of Euboea.

    v. Megaris.

    Southern Greece (Peloponnese): consists of several regions as well:

    i. Achaia: to the northwest,

    ii. Alice: to the west, which was famous for the city of Olympia, the cradle of the Olympic Games.

    iii. Argolis: to the south, where the influential city of Argos was famous,

    iv. Laconia: to the far southeast of the Peloponnese peninsula, where the city of Sparta was established.

    v. Messenia: to the southwest, famous for the Messinian Plain and its Gulf, which bore the same name.

    The Greek peninsula represents the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula, the Peloponnese peninsula, or the present-day Morea peninsula. It is connected to the northern and central regions through the Gulf of Corinth. The basin of this sea, with its vast shores, is independent of the neighbouring countries.

    1. Ancient Greece Geography

    Greece is located in southeastern Europe, it is a peninsula stretching from the Balkans to the Mediterranean Sea. It is characterised as a mountainous area interspersed with many forests, in addition to the presence of many bays in it. It also includes areas suitable for planting many types of plants, such as citrus, olives, palms, wheat, barley, and the rocky regions ideal for grazing only.

    The geography of ancient Greece occupied a large area of the map, and most of the population centres were in the Greek peninsula, the islands of the Aegean Sea and the shores of Asia Minor; they all share common environmental and geographical characteristics. It is marine and mountainous with excellent territory. The mountain ranges are the Pyrenees, the Alps, and the Balkans, and it is protected from the east by the Taurus and Armenian mountains.

    As for the mountainous character of Creed Island, it is not less important in its impact on the shape of the country and its inhabitants than its marine character. The mountains constitute 80% of the total area of ​​the country. He may not be able to cross it.

     Greece is surrounded by major mountain chains, which are:

    1. Crystalline mountain: extends in the form of an arc from Thrace and Macedonia and includes the peninsula of Chalcidice and the eastern part of the province of Thessaly, where Mount Olympus is located, which is the highest mountain in Greece, with a height of 2985 m.
    2. Pindus mountain range: extends from north to south between the provinces of Thessaly and Epirus.
    3. Chain of extended mountains: extends from southern Thessaly to central Greece, including the island of Plague.
    4. Great southern chain: begins in the north from the Peloponnese peninsula in the form of plateaus, then branches in the south into three arteries, and ends in Asia Minor.

    The extended mountain ranges and the many landslides that occurred in that region contributed to the emergence of countless plains and broad valleys, the most important of which is the Thessaly district, which is a low land surrounded by mountains on all sides.

    The region would have been almost closed if it were not for its connection to the sea; its plains were known for the cultivation of grain and the abundance of horses, as well as the province of Attica, which is one of the most extensive in the plains, known for the cultivation of olives.

    • The Climate in Ancient Greece

    The geography of ancient Greece occupied a large area of ​​the map, and most of the population centres were in the Greek peninsula, the islands of the Aegean Sea and the shores of Asia Minor. They all share common environmental and geographical characteristics. It is marine and mountainous with excellent territory.

    As for the marine environment, it is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea, but the most crucial sea for it is the Aegean Sea, which is one of the branches of the Mediterranean Sea, and Asia Minor, and the number of those islands with which it is connected is more than 500 islands.

    The northern corner of the Aegean Sea is connected to the Dardanelles Strait and the Bosporus Strait, which are the link between Asia and Europe. A meeting point for the three continents.

    The basin was in the middle of the burning deserts of the south and the cold forests of the north. Storms rarely blow over it most days of the year regularly. As for the soil, it is not as fertile as the plains irrigated by the Nile, the Tigris or the Euphrates, and the drought begins prematurely or continues more than usual.

    Therefore, the farmers do not stop working, lest their efforts are in vain. In general, the country has combined a wealth of fish, animals and plants with excellent production conditions for it so that it can be considered the best place for human habitation.

    • The Expansion of Ancient Greece

    Many ancient Greek cities began to aspire for expansion during the first half of the first millennium (1 BCE), so they established centres across the Mediterranean Sea. Independent or of a new Greek character, some of them acquired a new culture from the neighbouring peoples.

    By the year 500 BCE, the Greeks had established about 500 areas under their control, which included nearly 60,000 Greek citizens who constituted 40% of the total Greeks. These expansions led to the spread of art, the movement of goods, and the Greek way of life in Spain, France, and the sea region The Adriatic, the Black Sea, North Africa, and Italy.

    2. The Greek Society

    The Greek society in Athens was divided into four classes, which are as follows:

    1. Upper class: They are the people who were born in the city of Athens and are responsible for matters of government, education and philosophy.
    2. Middle-class: This class represents the hard-working merchants, not necessarily born in the city of Athens, and although they were considered free, they were not granted the same rights as people of the upper class.
    3. Lower class: This class is higher than the slave class by only one degree, to the extent that most of them were initially slaves and then were liberated because of their work, and their rights are not up to the rights of the middle class.
    4. Slaves: This class was responsible for carrying out various service tasks, and they did not have any rights or authority.

    Religion in Ancient Greece

    Greek society knew twelve main deities; however, there were hundreds of gods and goddesses in Greek myths and literature. Each deity had a dedicated field and personality that distinguished him from other deities. The Greeks went to places of worship, whether in the countryside or the city, to make an offering.

    Greek Myths

    Greek myths showed that most of these gods are located in their homeland, the highest mountain on the Greek mainland, which is Mount Olympus, and among these deities are the following:

    1. Rhea: She is called the mother of the gods, and she was the one who gave birth to the first generation of gods; Zeus, Hestia, Hades, Poseidon, Hera, and Demeter.
    2. Athena: She is the goddess of reason, wisdom, skill, peace, and handicrafts. After her wondrous birth from the head of the great goddess Zeus, Athena became her father’s favourite child. Athena was the leader of the three goddesses who never married.
    3. Hestia: She is a virgin goddess who symbolises the warmth of the home. She rejected all marriage proposals and swore to remain a virgin forever. She is the only one who has never participated in wars or disputes. Thus, she became a symbol of family life, peace, solidarity, and contentment.
    4. Hebe: She is considered the divine embodiment of eternal youth and beauty, and the Greek word «hebe» means youth. She used to distribute wine to the gods and goddesses on Mount Olympus. She is the daughter of Zeus and Hera.
    5. Nemesis: She is considered the god of retribution, as she was concerned with executing punishments and judgments on the guilty.
    6. Leto: She is the goddess of motherhood and was considered a humble and respected maternal figure in Greek mythology.
    7. Aphrodite: She is the goddess of beauty, love, desire, and pleasure. She was born from sea foam, the daughter of Zeus and Dione. She was married to Hephaestus.
    8. Apollo: He is the god of music, arts, knowledge, poetry, and archery, son of Zeus and Leto. He was the most beloved god among all the Greek gods. He was worshipped, especially, in the cities of Delphi and Delos, as among the sacred places in the Greek world.
    9. Ares: He is the god of war, bloodshed, and violence. The son of Zeus and Hera.
    10. Zeus: He is the king of the gods, ruler of Mount Olympus, and god of the sky, weather, thunder, lightning, law, order, and justice. Zeus is the ruler of all immortal mortal creatures, particularly humans. He is the first protector of humanity in the ancient Greek civilisation.

    Family Life in Ancient Greece

    Family is the basic foundation of Greek society, as the family is the primary source that provides emotional and material support to its members. Despite the decline in the role of families in Greek society as a result of their small size, they maintained their position in Greek social life.

    Extended families have great importance in Greek society. Thus, the name of the family, its origins and the reputation of its members became a source of pride among people. Consequently, Greeks came to praise their families for their noble qualities of generosity, integrity and achievements.

    Most ancient Greeks tended to live with their small families, but while maintaining interdependent relationships with the extended family and their relatives, and in some cases, grandparents could live in the same family home, especially if they were older people who needed special care.

    Greeks were known to appreciate and respect the elderly and take their opinions and decisions. Some families allowed their children to live with them even after marriage as an aid to them before they could find their own housing.

    Traditional Greek Clothes

    Ancient Greeks were famous for their simple clothes. Speaking of women’s clothing, it differs from one region to another. They were known for the «peplos», a traditional women’s dress consisting of one piece of cloth with a hole in the head and sleeveless for the arms; aprons and sashes may also be added to it.

    The is another renowned garment called the «chiton», which is a traditional dress similar to the dress as mentioned above, except that it contains arm sleeves, and both clothes were made of wool due to its abundance as a result of sheep farming at that time. Different layers made it a heavy costume. Women also wore this dress with a handkerchief on their heads studded with gold coins as a sign of wealth and luxury.

    The costume contains 400 folds and a white shirt with wide sleeves, topped by an embroidered woollen jacket. The costume was usually white pantyhose, a scarf, and distinctive pointed shoes. Enslaved people in Greece had their own unique version of the «chiton», as it was distinguished by the fact that the right shoulder of the Enslaved person always remained open.

    There is another traditional costume that consists of a white undergarment with wide pants, a white shirt, a sleeveless coat, a scarf and a jacket, and it is worth noting that the Greeks retained their traditions of clothing and some of the essential elements of clothing at present, especially in festivals and national holidays.

    3. Greek Civilization

    Greek civilisation is defined as the period that followed the Mycenaean civilisation, which extended from 1200 BCE to 223 BCE and ended with the death of Alexander the Great. The period of Greek civilisation was characterised by many achievements in various scientific, artistic, political and philosophical fields, which left a distinguished legacy of Western civilisation.

    Important Historical Events in the Greek Civilisation

    The Greek civilisation passed through several periods, some of which witnessed discoveries and developments, some of which saw complex events, and the most important of these events are the following:

    1. Trojan War (1250 BCE)

    According to Greek myths, the Trojan War took place between the people of Troy and the Greeks, lasted for several years, and ended with the entry of a group of Greek warriors to the city of Troy with a giant wooden horse after the Trojan king allowed him to enter it without his knowledge of the presence of warriors in it. Then the warriors came out, they opened the gates of the city, and it was captured.

    2. The Olympic Games (776 BCE)

    Many celebrations and games were held in Olympia as a religious festival. The Olympic Games began as a race in one of the stadiums and then developed into 23 competitions that included many sports, including horse racing, wrestling, discus throw, Javelin throwing, running, boxing, and others.

    3. The Era of Pericles (445-429 BCE)

    Pericles was one of the rulers of the city of Athens, and the city flourished during his reign because of the many achievements and reforms that took place during his reign, including providing equal opportunities for all groups to obtain public jobs and allowing children to be educated in Homes until the age of seven, then go to schools that focused on music, physical education, and mathematics.

    4. The Bubonic Plague in Athens (430 BCE):

    This epidemic hit the city of Athens and eradicated it completely. It entered the city through food and supplies through the port of Piraeus and spread to the entire Mediterranean region. It caused massive deaths, and dead bodies were left on the streets, burnt, or buried in mass graves.

    5. The Rule of Alexander the Great (336 BC):

    Alexander the Great took power after the death of his father, Philip II. He is known for his military and diplomatic prowess and played a role in spreading Greek culture, religion, language and Greek thought in the regions of north Africa and west Asia. He gained the title «the Great» for expanding his empire to include Egypt, Mesopotamia and Persia. He founded nearly 20 cities that bore his name. Alexander was a brilliant military leader who built his own empire and died of malaria in Babylon at the age of 32 years.

    6. The Invasion of the Romans (146 BC):

    After the Battle of Corinth, the Greek peninsula came under the control of the Romans in 146 BCE, many Greek cities surrendered, some towns were still partially independent, and Corinth became the capital of the new province.

    4. Economy in Ancient Greece

    Greece had many economic resources due to the diversity of its geographical environments. The peasants cultivated land in the plains surrounded by mountains, but of its vastness, it was not very fertile, as its soil was of a poor type. Hence, the land production was not sufficient for the needs of the people of the country themselves, ad among their most important crops were wheat, barley, grapevine and olives.

    Agriculture is followed in economic importance by industries, as their land was rich in some industrial resources such as building marble, silt prepared for ceramic pots, copper and silver for metal industries.

    One of the economic resources of great importance to Greece was trade, it was based on three components:

    1. surplus production,  
    2. land or sea route to deliver the surplus to the consumer, and
    3. means of dealing between the merchant and the consumer through barter or money created by Athens later.

    The Greeks traded many goods, the most important of which were food, such as wheat, cheese, bread, honey, fruits, garlic, wine, meat, and fish, in addition to enslaved people, metal, leather works, and even books.

    • Coin Minting (600 BCE)

    The Greeks minted coinage to be a reliable system of payment. The first coin was minted in Lydia before 600 BCE, known as electrum, a mixture of gold and silver. Over time, most cities used metal coins with their sculpted symbols and signs.

    5. Politics in Ancient Greece

    The geographical disparities in the Greek countries led to the creation of separate torn states in what was known as the city-states or the police, in addition to the various economic and political interests that exacerbated the relations between cities, as well as the different tribal origins of the population, as they were keenly aware of their different sources belonging to them and other factors.

    These city-states were both a blessing and a curse at the same time. It was a curse as Greek cities were lost due to colonial wars, and they could not respond to the aggression due to their lack of unity. It was a blessing because the Greek love of individualism was what showed all that civilised creativity.

    In its history, Greece did not rule in a single system that unified its cities and regions, but different political systems followed it, varying from one town to another. The economic competition between them is intense, and each sect needs the other to survive.

    • Authority and Monarchy

    The king was the owner of all powers; executive, judicial, religious, and military. He shared legislative power with the heads of tribes and their leaders according to the king’s control over his city.

    The monarchy began to gradually turn into an aristocratic system because the landowners realised the importance of the wealth they owned, as it is the mainstay of Greek society. This led them to gradually wrest the powers from the king until he no longer had any authority. Thus, the rule moved from an individual system to a collective approach that adheres to members of the ruling aristocracy.

    • Monopoly and Social Injustice

    After that, the population turned to the lack of lands and their monopoly in the hands of a small group of the aristocracy to another resource, which is a trade that was dependent on sea shipping, and soon they became interested in political participation and a conflict erupted between merchants and landowners over power, which ended in an agreement between them on creating the oligarchic system.

    The oligarchic rule did not last long due to the increasing pressure from the public class, which felt its political weight and importance. The general class was not highly qualified to lead, so some of the wealthy classes took advantage of this weakness as they found in revolutions an opportunity to reach the helm of power.

    • Greek Tyrants (650 BCE)

    A group of aristocratic rulers continued to rule with the help of mercenary soldiers and were distinguished for being opportunists. Therefore, they were hated by ordinary people. The era of tyrants ended in 510 BCE at the hands of the King of Sparta by expelling Peisistratus’ son.

    The new rulers were known as tyrants; the origin of the word means the ruler who came to power illegally; they could satisfy the ordinary people and kept them from ruling by confiscating parts of the lands of the aristocrats and distributing these lands to commoners.

    1. Early tyrants

    Tyrants realised the power of ordinary people and what they could do. Therefore, they managed them and were careful not to provoke them. There were no uprisings during the era of the first generation of tyrants.

    2. Second generation

    As for the tyrants of the second generation, they ruled the people with tyranny that led to the outbreak of revolutions in which a number of them were assassinated, and others fled to end the rule of tyrants.

    The rule was no longer in the hands of the public and did not return to what was common before the era of tyrants, but rather the democratic system began to appear, which was based on the association of the commonplace, not the revolution or the tribe.

    • Important Wars in Ancient Greece

    The Greek lands witnessed several internal conflicts and wars between the Greeks themselves due to their dispute over political or economic issues or between Greece and external enemies who were greedy for the country’s strategic position. The most important of these wars are:

    1. Battle of the Marathon Plain: The first Persian campaign against Greece occurred in the year (490 BCE), in which the Athenians and Spartans united to confront the Persian threat, and the result of the war was that the Greeks landed the Persians with a heavy defeat.
    2. Second Persian Campaign: This war took place in a Persian attempt to take revenge on the Greeks. The battle lasted for two years (480-479 BCE), during which several sites took place between the two armies, the most important of which are:

    i. Battle of Thermopylae (480 BCE): The Persians succeeded in besieging a Spartan force and eliminating it altogether.

    ii. Battle of Salamis (480 BCE): The Athenian fleet inflicted a crushing defeat on the Persian fleet.

    iii. Battle of Plataea (479 BCE): a land battle in which the Greeks defeated the Persians.

    iv. Battle of Mycale (479 BCE): It was a naval battle that was the last between the two sides, as a result of which the Persian threat was removed from Greece.

    3. Athenian-Spartan conflict: It was a bloody conflict that took place between the two Greek cities, spanning three decades through three phases:

    i. First phase: It lasted for ten years, starting from the year (430 BCE). It took place in the Greek peninsula, south of the Balkan Peninsula, and ended with the conclusion of a peace agreement between the two parties in the year (421 BCE) called the Nikias ladder after the Athenian leader who represented the Athenian side of reconciliation.

    ii. Second phase: In which Athens revoked the peace treaty with Sparta, but the confrontations between the two forces had led to a disagreement with hope, as the Athenian army was crushed by land and sea in (413 BCE).

    iii. Third phase: It was an attempt by the Spartan forces to complete their victory, but this was delayed for several years due to the weakness of their troops and the delay in the supply they requested from the Persians.

    They did not reach them until the year (406 BCE) when they tried to seize the entrances to the Black Sea, where the supply line Athens defeated the Spartan forces at the beginning of the battle of Arginosae but was defeated in the next fight two years (404 BCE) at the battle of Egospotami, in which the Athenian forces were utterly destroyed.

    4. Battle of Lyucantra near Thebes (371 BCE): It was a battle between the forces of Thebes to wrest power from the Spartans, and they inflicted a crushing defeat on them.

    5. Macedonian War: a war waged by King Philip; He took advantage of the disintegration of the Greek force and the presence of its north on the northern border, inflicting a crushing defeat on the joint Theban and Athenian forces at the battle of Chaeronea in the year (338 BCE), this led to the fall of the whole country under the rule of the Greeks who ruled them indirectly through an alliance known as the Hellenistic Pact based in Corinth.

    6. Invasion of the Persians: These are battles led by Alexander the Great, Alexander the Great, the son of King Philip, after the death of his father. It lasted for nine years (334-325 BCE), in which Alexander relied most on the Greek soldiers and subjected that country to his control.

    • Important Kings of Ancient Greece

    Accounts differ in the number of kings who succeeded each other in the Greek cities, confusing kings, heroes, and gods. However, the most important of them are:

    1. Cypselus: He followed a wise policy that led to the prosperity of political life in Qornet for a period of thirty years.
    2. Periander, son of Cypselus: He stimulated trading until Corinth became the most famous Greek city during his reign.
    3. Pisistratus: (died 527 BCE) He was distinguished by culture, intelligence and administrative skill. Aristotle described his rule as fair. He was known for his strength and severity in law, which was the reason for the unification of the city of Attica, and he was the reason behind the prosperity of the city of Athena.

    After great battles he fought against the city of Athens, he was able to win and become king. He remained in power until his death.

    • Hippias, son of Pisistratus: (born around 570 BCE) He followed in his father’s footsteps for thirteen years until he was exposed to an assassination attempt in which his brother was killed, and he miraculously escaped from it and turned into a dictator.
    • Cleisthenes: He defeated Hippias with the help of the aristocrats in the year (510 BCE), ridding the Athenians of dictatorship, consolidating democracy, and undermining the aristocratic regime.
    • Simon: (born 510 BCE and died 459 BCE) He was known for being a statesman and a seasoned politician. He also led the fleet of the Athenian state in many battles and wars in that city, especially against Pausanias and the Persians. He was later exiled from Athena and was unable to regain his position, but he retained his excellent reputation as one of the most outstanding military leaders.

    During his reign, Simon did several works aiming at improving citizens’ public life, such as building public places, extending water courses and creating special places to practice sports and other social services.

    • Demosthenes: (born 384 BCE and died 322 BCE) He was known for his excellent style of rhetoric and mobilising the masses. He was one of the greatest orators in ancient Greek civilisation. Most of those speeches revolved around the political, economic and social life in Athens, and through these influential speeches, he was able to create a significant opposition to King Philip of Macedonia.
    • Alexander the Great: (born 356 BCE and died in 323 BCE) He was known as Alexander III or Alexander the Great; he took the throne of Macedonia in 336 BCE and continued until he died in 323 BCE.

    Alexander led the army to achieve many victories, especially in the lands of the Persian state, Asia Minor, Egypt and Syria, and this powerful army was not defeated in any battle it entered. He took power in Macedonia when he was young and became king at the age of 25. Alexander founded as many as 70 cities, the Greek Empire stretched across three continents and created a global trade network between many countries of the ancient world.

    • Cassander: (born in 358 BCE and died 297 BCE) Son of the Macedonian regent Antipater, and he took over the reins of power in Macedonia in 305 BC. M. and continued to rule until 297 BCE. He waged many wars, especially after the death of Alexander the Great. He was able to control the entire territory of Macedonia as well as most of the territory of Greece, including the city of Athens.

    For incorrect alliances, Cassander lost Athens and most of southern Thessaly, which was in the year 307 BCE. He murdered Alexander IV and Roxana, the son and widow of Alexander the Great, then obtained the royal title in 305 BCE.

    • Demetrius I (born 336 BCE and died 283 BCE), Son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus, took the throne of Macedonia in 294 BCE and continued to rule the country until 288 BCE.

    7. Culture in Ancient Greece

    The ancient Greek civilisation can be considered the cradle of Western civilisation, where there are many similarities between the two cultures. Many of the activities and practices that are adopted in Western civilisation have their origin in the Greek civilisation, such as using the alphabet for reading, and enjoying the Olympic Games every two years, in addition to some customs, traditions, and methods of constructing buildings.

    The political fragmentation and intense competition in which Greek cities lived greatly impacted Greek culture, as Durant points out.From the beginning of the 5th century to the middle of the 4th century BCE, Athens was considered the capital of culture in the whole world, and among those Greek cultural manifestations:

    1. Greek language

    The Greek language belongs to the Indo-European group of languages, which includes Persian, Sanskrit, Slavonic, Latin, German and English, then branched out into different dialects, such as Aeolian, Dorian, Ionian, and Attic. These dialects are not very different, and the Greeks, despite their various dialects, understand each other.

    • Greek Alphabet

    The Greek alphabet was based on the Semitic alphabet of the Phoenicians, which consisted of 22 letters with some symbols that added movements to the letters. Phoenician by creating separate vowels and changing some characters, in addition to making the alphabet more phonetically correct.

    • Translation Movement

    The conversion of the countries of the Mediterranean basin to Christianity had a significant impact in spreading the Greek language, as it was the official language of the Church at that time. When Christianity entered the countries of Egypt, Syria, Italy and the areas of the Jewish diaspora, translation movements became active.

    2. Literature in Ancient Greece

    Ancient Greek literature is considered of great importance, despite the scarcity of it reaching the present era, due to its high quality. In addition to the input of a large part of Western literature until the middle of the 19th century by accomplished authors who are distinguished by their comprehensive knowledge of the Greek traditions and their acknowledgement that the literary models were mainly based on Greek models and were written directly in Greek or Latin. The history of Greek literature can be divided into three periods, which are as follows:

    1. Ancient Literature: continued until the end of the 6th century BCE.
    2. Classical literature: spread during the 5th and 4th centuries BCE.
    3. Hellenistic and Greco-Roman literature: spread from the 3rd century BCE onwards.

    3. Rhetoric

    The Greeks placed rhetoric in a lofty position from themselves, and competition intensified between individuals in the acquisition of rhetoric and tools of persuasion, especially when democracy spread in the country and judicial debates became widespread. Speeches that were delivered in the era of its prosperity were divided into lessons of:

    1. Forums: the sermons of forums, they were those that were given to glorify or lament; the most famous of their orators were Gorgias.
    2. Judicial speeches: the judicial sermons, they were those that were given in the courts for a fee paid by the litigant to the orator, and the most famous orator was Lucas.
    3. Political speeches: were given in public assemblies to discuss state policy; the most famous was Demosthenes.

    4. Poetry

    Songs and epics were the first arts of Greek literature, as they appeared in the prehistoric period or in the era of heroes and myths in the 15th century to the 8th century BCE, and the most important of what it produced is the poetry of religious hymns and epics.

    The poets of religious hymns belong to the world of myths, as they belong to the sons of the gods, and nothing remains of their traces. Among the most famous of their poets are Orpheus, Linus, and Mosaeus. As for the epics, Hesiodus organised his epic Works and Days and Homer’s greatest epics, The Iliad and The Odyssey, and counting the most famous systems of epics in literary history.

     After the succession of the various political systems in Greek societies, the spirit of individualism emerged among the Greeks, and a new type of poetry appeared that fit the requirements of the new political and social life. However, none of them sang about the gods and the glories of their early heroes.

    The new lyrical poetry flourished in the Ionian colonies, and among the most significant poets who pioneered that poetic genre:

    1. Sappho
    2. Simonides
    3. Anacreon
    4. Callinus
    5. Tutaeus

    5. Theater

    Plays were closely associated with Greek religions. The acting scenes appeared with the worship of Apollon, Demeter and Dionysus; the Dionysus feasts were the most important occasions that helped in the emergence of this genre, as the life of this deity, in particular, was filled with many sad accidents and pleasant events.

    The first type of lyrical poetry organised by poets to represent the basic building block of theatre art is the poetry of Dithyrambs. They sang it in the festivals of Dionysus. The accounts gather that the first to create this poetic genre was Arion (650 BCE), and the heads of the choir sang it and made movements consistent with these improvised songs, as well as acting classes, which became the worship of heroes on their holidays.

    8. Art in Ancient Greece

    Greek art and sculpture had a profound impact throughout the ages, many of the methods that were used in the past were reproduced, and contemporary art in the eastern world is derived from Greek art. The importance of Greek art and sculptures is that they reflect Greek life, including events, heroes, Gods, mythical creatures, and Greek culture.

    Many materials and tools were used in Greek sculptures, such as marble and various stones available in Greece, in addition to the use of clay. Still, most of the statues made of clay were destroyed, and most of the sculptures of Roman origin remained.

    The Romans deeply respected Greek sculptures, and they copied many of them, which preserved myths from being lost. Greek sculptures were divided into seven time periods, which are as follows:

    1. Mycenaean art.
    2. Semi-Mycenaean Art (Dark Age).
    3. Proto-geometric art.
    4. Geometric art.
    5. Abandoned art.
    6. Classic art.
    7. Hellenistic art.

    The Greek sculpture reached its peak during the Classical period. This is due to the application of advanced mathematics principles when designing sculptures, which contributed to supporting their aesthetics. Among the most prominent Greek statues are the following:

    1. The statue of Alexander the Great: It is a statue of a ruler and a military leader. Byblos Core Statue: It is a statue of a girl wearing a worn shawl.
    2. The statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton: They consist of two people who were considered a symbol of freedom and democracy in Athens.
    3. The statue of the Dying Gaul: This statue depicts the wounds and pains of a warrior’s last moments.
    4. The statue of Laocoon and his sons: It is a figure that represents the murder of father Laocoon and two of his sons because they attempted to discover the Trojan Horse.

    i. Visual Arts in Ancient Greece

    One of the most important aspects of civilisation known to Greece is the visual arts, which are arts that appeared at a relatively late stage. The first great Greek painter was Polygnotos (475–447 BCE). He executed his works in wall paintings in most of his works. He also presented drawings that used wax in their implementation.

     In the late 5th century, Greece witnessed significant progress in these arts. The Athenian painter Apollodorus introduced the idea of ​​gradual shading, which gives the illusion of the embodiment of the image. The most famous Greek painter is Zeuxis, whose paintings and his students’ paintings were celebrated in the late 4th century BCE. He executed portraits of King Philip of Macedon, his son Alexander and some of the people surrounding them.

    ii. Architectural Arts in Ancient Greece

    The Greeks developed the art of architecture through what they had learned from the ancient Near East civilisations, i.e., Western Asia, which was once the historical Fertile Crescent, later called the Levant, Turkey, and Egypt. Their architecture appeared in palaces and large public buildings. As for tiny houses, they were built from primitive materials, such as wood and mud. As for public buildings and palaces, stones were basically used in their construction from an early era.

    Greek architecture differed from Egyptian architecture in a number of aspects, most notably: the Greek construction abandoned the vast dimensions that appear in Egyptian public buildings, Greek architecture left the many Egyptian details in its public buildings, and Greece added more elements that were unique to them, the most important of which are the front facades of temples that became a remarkable aspect of Greek architecture.

    9. Science in Ancient Greece

    Greek life flourished after the reign of Alexander, and tangible progress was made in the branches of natural sciences, such as medicine, astronomy, mathematics, and physics. Their sciences can be summarised as follows:

    i. Natural Sciences

    Natural sciences emerged at the hands of philosophers in Greece as an attempt to study the problems raised by poets in their poems, as well as their proximity to the eastern civilisations that had preceded them in the study of some natural phenomena, such as the Egyptian civilisation.

    Greek scientists and early scholars researched the universe’s origin and its phenomena. Still, their research has been mixed with philosophy and other sciences, so their studies were unclear and thorough in a given field. Among the most famous scientists who researched in the various natural sciences fields are those who were called sages, and the most famous of them are:

    1. Thales: He is the first sage among the renowned who learned the origins of space from Egypt and supported the idea that water is the first substance and the substance of which things are composed.
    2. Anaximander: He was a disciple of Thales who rejected his teacher’s doctrine and advocated the idea that air was the origin of the world.
    3. Heraclitus: He considered the n to be the first principle of things, and he was famous for his doctrine, which says: «Things are in constant change, and if it were not for change, nothing would exist».
    4. Pythagoras: It is said that he was the first to create the word philosopher. He and his followers were the first to establish a tendency to understand the world with clear mathematical laws and particular numbers.

    ii. Philosophy in Ancient Greece

    The word philosophy was taken from the Greek word «Philosophia», consisting of two syllables. The first syllable (Philos) means love, and the second syllable (Sophia) means wisdom, it means the love of learning, and the word love infers interest in or fondness for something; it denotes giving value to something. A philosopher, according to the ancient Greeks, is a person who loves wisdom and seeks comprehensive knowledge.

    The sciences of philosophy and logic began in Ionia at the hands of Thales in an attempt to understand natural phenomena and research the origin of the universe. Then came Socrates, who was not interested in religion, metaphysics, or life explanations, but rather a passion for politics and moral teachings.

    Plato, the great philosopher, appeared next, accompanied his teacher Socrates and became famous for his philosophical theory in which he spoke about the world of ideals. Then, Aristotle’s philosophy emerged, and his teachings were a reversed response to the Platonic ideals. In that era, Greek philosophy reached its peak during the period of these three philosophers, and other names rose, such as Epicurus, who advocated that true pleasure is happiness.

    Philosophical Phases in the Greek Civilization

    Ancient Greek philosophy can be divided into two periods: pre-Socratic and post-Socratic periods. This is because of the importance and ambiguity of Socrates’ personality at the same time, as he influenced the philosophy of both Aristotle and Plato, whose philosophy gained prominence and popularity for a period of up to 2500 years, and the Greek civilisation was distinguished by the presence of a large number of philosophers.

    Most of them had distinct philosophical ideas, but some of them were able to balance their philosophical ideas about primitive natural sciences with the ethical application of intellectual values, which made them distinguished until the present time. Among the most important Greek philosophers are the following:

    1. Parmenides (560–510 BCE).
    2. Anaxagoras (500–428 BCE).
    3. Anaximander (610–546 BCE).
    4. Empedocles (490–430 BCE).
    5. Zeno (490–430 BCE).
    6. Pythagoras (570–495 BCE).
    7. Socrates (469–399 BCE).
    8. Plato (427–347 BCE).
    9. Aristotle (384–322 BCE).
    10. Thales of Malti (620–546 BCE).

    iii. Medicine in Ancient Greece

    Modern medicine was born in ancient Greece, where doctors like Hippocrates began to search for a more scientific approach. Medical scholars of ancient Greece borrowed many ideas from ancient Egypt, while many people searched for supernatural explanations for their illnesses, such as curses and judgments of gods.

    Hippocrates (460– 375 BCE) was one of the most prominent physicians who advocated science and reason; he was called the father of medicine. He was one of the first physicians to accurately describe conditions such as epilepsy.

    His prominent thoughts and theories helped immensely in the development of medicine, as he reinforced the theory of the four humours that are usually liquids within the body blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm and that maintaining the balance between them helps in keeping the human body healthy and strong.

    Thanks to the work of Hippocrates and his followers over the generations, in distinguishing between acute (short and sudden) and chronic (long-term) diseases and in emphasising the importance of follow-up.

    iv. Astronomy in Ancient Greece

    Since the 6th century BCE, the Greeks have been interested in astronomy. They considered it a theoretical science far from experience but instead based on engineering systems and the calculation of surface and spherical triangles. They could explain the daily movement of celestial bodies, such as the sun, moon, and planets, and they measured the circumference of the Earth.

    Early Greek Astronomers

    One of the first Greek philosophers who took an interest in astronomy was the Greek philosopher Thales, who lived between (640–562 BCE) and is considered one of the Seven Ancients and the founders of natural science. Thales excelled in various sciences, including astronomy, the movement of stars, and predicting solar eclipses. The mathematician and astronomer Eudoxus of Cnidus marks the beginning of Hellenistic astronomy.

    The earliest Greek astronomical observations appeared in several works, such as Hesiod’s Works and Days, as he introduced some pieces of advice to the farmers that might be considered as astronomical observations. The Greek observation of astronomy was rather philosophical than scientific.

    Early Greek philosophers established their beliefs on the universe according to their own philosophical interpretations. Such ideas appeared in the works of Thales of Miletus, Anaximander of Miletus, Heraclitus, Parmenides of Elea, and Xenophanes of Colophon.

    10. Greek Civilization between Progress and Decline

    Greek civilisation extended for many centuries, punctuated by eras of advancement or decline according to the ruling political system and what the internal relations between the Greek states imposed on the population, as well as the external relations with the countries surrounding them, and the two stages can be summarised as follows:

    Prosperity Phase

    The stage of prosperity is the one that begins in the last 3rd of the 4th century BCE, which is the most mature stage known to Greek society in the field of economic activity and political development in thought and application due to the unification of the Greek states through Macedonian control.

    Regression Phase

    The stage of decline in the Greek state began in the 4th century BCE and continued until the collapse of the Macedonian state, and the most important reasons for the decline are:

    Political Factors:

    1. The leadership struggle between the Greek states.
    2. The disruption in the internal conditions of the states.
    3. The emergence of Macedonia and the subjugation of the states.
    4. The rich and most influential groups over political decisions directly and behind the scenes.
    5. The prevalence of tyrants who sought their personal interests only and their abuse of power.

    Social Factors:

    Greek culture enjoyed a civilized society due to its prosperity in arts, science, literature, language, educational systems, etc. Nevertheless, society had a great impact on its collapse, and one of the most prominent social factors of the collapse of Greek civilization:

    1. The poor layers rebelled against the wealthy and aristocratic layers.
    2. The loyalty of every people to their city alone and not to Greece as a whole, despite the fact that those cities share large parts of their culture.
    3. Social class conflicts that led to the rise of lower classes against the ruling elite.  
    4. Internal uprisings and chaos between the people and the rulers.

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    The Arabic language is one of the oldest living languages on the face of the earth, researchers dispute the age of this language. The Arabic language used today can be dated back more than 1600 years. The Arabic language is the largest language of the Semitic group, it is also the fifth most widely spoken language in the world, as it is the mother tongue of more than 480 million people.

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    Arabic is the language of the Holy Qur’an, the sacred holy book of Islam. Under the Holy Qur’an, the Arabic language became a global language and the mother tongue of 22 countries located in the Middle East, the mother tongue of more than 480 million people, and the second or third language of hundreds of millions of Muslims all over the globe. It is also one of the six official languages of the United Nations.

    The importance of Arabic is also evident in that it is the key to the Islamic and Arab culture, as it allows its learner to see how civilized and intellectual a nation has been on the throne of the world for several centuries and left a huge civilizational legacy in various arts and sciences over a period of 400 years. 

    The Arabic language is used as an official language in more than 20 countries in the Middle East, thus, it is considered a widely spread language. Many people all over the world are now striving to learn the Arabic language, not caring about the difficulty of learning it because they realize the importance of this language.

    Arabic Alphabet for Kids
    Arabic Alphabet for Kids

    Arabic and Islam

    The Arabic language prevailed in the Arabian peninsula hundreds of years before Islam. The Arabic heritage before Islam was quite rich and full of vivid multiplicity. The Arabic language is indeed the heritage of Muslims, both, Arabs and non-Arabs, it is a language rich and sophisticated in its vocabulary, expressions, and implied connotations. 

    Arabic is the language of Islam and the language in which the Noble Qur’an was revealed. The inimitability of Arabic is that it could contain the elevated meaning and purposes of the Noble Qur’an, as it is one of the most vivid and flowery languages in the world which make it fixable and valid across times and civilizations. 

    Many people became curious to understand the Islamic religion. There is no better way to understand and assimilate it than by learning the Arabic language until they clearly understand its teachings and rules. Therefore, if someone wants to understand Islam and Muslims properly, he/she must learn the language of their Holy Book.

    Official Language of Science

    During the Middle Ages or medieval period in the Western World, the Arabic and Islamic civilization was at its peak. Arts, literature, and sciences were prosperous and new inventions and great discoveries were very common. Various Muslim scholars have sought research and knowledge. Their research in the Arabic language has become a reference to which all languages ​​sought to translate and copy.

    During these ages, all Greek and Latin sciences were translated into Arabic and it became the official language of science after the decay of the Ancient Greek language. Later on, all Arabic texts were translated into Western languages in order to transmit old sciences, inventions, and discoveries to the West.

    Surviving Over the Ages

    Moreover, whoever desires to study and learn the culture of Muslims, he/she is in dire need of knowledge of the Arabic language, and he/she needs to delve into it until he/she reaches a level that allows them to absorb that vast and deep culture. Learning Arabic helps to understand the culture of the Arabs, their great literature, rich history, innovative sciences, vivid arts, and all other aspects of life. 

    The assimilation of the Arabic language into other languages ​​and civilizations led to its fame. If we look at the level that the Arabic language has reached now, we find that it has been approved to be one of the six official languages ​​of the United Nations, because of the Arabic language and its cultural and intellectual balance. 

    Arabic is a very flexible and adaptable language. It could cope with the rapid changes in the modern world, with all the new concepts and high-tech expressions coming up to the front. The Arabic language is characterized by eloquence and rhetoric richness. It could provide amazing equivalents, due to its richness in utilizations and derivations

    The Importance of the Arabic Language 

    The number of Arabic words is estimated at 12.3 million, compared to 600,000 words in the English language, about 135,000 in German, and fewer than 100,000 in French. The Arabic language contains 40 million original words without repetition and it has 28 letters, in addition to an unlimited number of derivations, inflections, feminine, dual, and scientific and technical vocabulary that would far outnumber the mentioned numbers.

    Proficiency in the Arabic language is considered a necessary need for Arabs. When the Arabic language is mentioned, this does not mean dialects, but Standard Arabic, the primary language of the Arabs in general. It is preferable for a person to learn one or two foreign languages ​​besides their own in order to enable them to communicate with the outside world and help them to understand other cultures and draw from them.

    The Arabic language occupies great importance to Muslims. It is the language of the sources of Islamic legislation; the Qur’an and Prophet Mohammed’s Traditions. It is also worth mentioning that it is not permissible to pray in Islam without mastering it, as prayers are only executed in Arabic. Hence, in non-Arabic Islamic nations, such as Turkish, Persian, and Urdu, the Arabic language has gained importance.

    The Arabic language is characterized by eloquence and rhetoric richness, which is the reason why the Holy Qur’an was revealed with it. For example, the word sword in the Persian language is limited to one meaning, while in the Arabic language there are several meanings indicating it. The habit of speaking the Arabic language affects the mind, morals, and religion. The Arabic language is a source of pride for the nation, and it is a fundamental component of the Islamic nation

    The Importance of the Arabic Language for Non-native Speakers 

    The Arabic language occupies fourth place as the most widespread language in the world, as it is spoken by nearly 280 million people. Learning Arabic for non-native speakers will be a feature of distinction and intelligence, as there are few who master it in Western countries. 

    Arabic is of paramount importance due to the strategic importance of the Arab region, which opens the person’s prospects for work and obtaining a job. Reading the original texts of Arabic literature as a book of tales of a thousand nights and days. Visiting Middle Eastern countries will be easier when one learns Arabic. Learning the Arabic language makes it easier to learn other languages ​​such as Persian and Turkish which share their linguistic roots with Arabic. 

    Arabic Short Vowels for Kids
    Arabic Short Vowels for Kids

    Advantages and Characteristics of Arabic 

    The Arabic language is an immortal language, and it will never go extinct with the passage of time, according to a study by the University of Birmingham conducted to research the survival of languages ​​or not in the future. These characteristics are as follows: 

    Eloquence: it is that speech is free from dissonance in words, weakness of composition, and verbal complexity. 

    Synonymy: it is the number of words indicating the same intended meaning.

    Sounds and their significance for meanings: which means that the meaning of the word is understood in general or precisely through the sound only, and this is one of the most important features of the Arabic language that distinguishes it from all other languages. 

    Vocabulary abundance: the Arabic language abounds with a very large number of vocabulary, and no other language contains a number more or equal to the number contained in Arabic.

    The science of arithmetic: it is the science that organizes the rhythms of poetry and its poetic meters, and sets the main rules for writing poetry, which made Arabic poetry the most eloquent and rhetoric as a result of following specific rhythms and main rules. 

    Free stability: one of the biggest challenges faced by Arabic is its stability and victory over time and evolution, while other languages ​​such as English have evolved and differed greatly over time. 

    Attenuation: It is that most of the vocabulary in the Arabic language has a triple origin, then comes the quaternary origin, then the pentagram, respectively, due to its large spread in the origins of Arabic vocabulary.

    Arabic is the Language of Innovation and Renovation 

    The Arabic language is characterized by its ability to adapt and its creativity in various sciences, such as engineering, algebra, medicine, arts, and scientific experiments, in addition to the creativity it has reached in the fields of literature and authorship, where various scholars were able to write several books in different arts. 

    The Arabic language is the language of a great culture, science, and an essential means of communication in the modern era. There are Syrian universities that adopt the Arabic language in all their faculties, including the Faculties of Medicine.

    The Importance of Studying Arabic Literature

    Arabic literature is one of the branches of the Arabic language, and it is noted that the study of Arabic literature is the study of language, grammar, morphology, rhetoric, and discourse. The science that organizes the rhythms of poetry and its poetic meters, and sets the main rules for writing poetry, which made Arabic poetry the most eloquent and rhetoric as a result of following specific rhythms and main rules. In addition to its rich heritage in prose and ancient storytelling.

    The Heritage of the Arabic Language 

    The importance of the Arabic language is that it is the oldest language that is still characterized by the characteristics of its structures, morphology, grammar, literature, and imagination. In addition to the ability of the Arabic language to express the various aspects of science, it is the mother of the group of Arabic languages ​​that originated in the Arabian Peninsula, such as Himyarite, Babylonian, Hebrew, Aramaic, Abyssinian. It is one of the Semitic languages, which go back to the sons of Noah. 

    Main Arab Identity 

    The Arabic language is one of the most important components of Arab identity, as it has worked for a long time to transmit the history and culture of Arab civilizations through time. It is considered one of the most important factors that preserved the unification of the Arab nation from the ocean to the Gulf. 

    It also contributed in preserving the history of the Arabs since the pre-Islamic era, including their complete history, heroism, and poetry, in addition to the final miracle of the revelation of the Noble Qur’an, which gave it sanctity and divine providence. It has transformed from a language specific to the tribes of the desert to the language of an Islamic nation that led civilization for successive centuries.

    The Difficulty of the Arabic Language 

    The Arabic language contains a huge set of syntax, synonyms, and antonyms. It is one of the richest languages in the world, but this does not make it difficult or impossible to learn, but to fully master it, those who want to learn it must make more effort and time to train and master it. 

    Learning it will not happen in a month or a year, it will take you a much longer time and it would be great if the learner visited an Arab country, befriended people who spoke the Arabic language, and practised speaking it most of the time. This is one of the best ways to learn the Arabic language.

    Arabic Vowels for Kids
    Arabic Vowels for Kids

    The Basics of Learning Arabic 

    1. Paying attention to the sound system of the Arabic language, and focusing on displaying letters during education and on the different letter forms according to their presence in the sentence. The Arabic language has many sounds that are not found in other languages. Non-Arabic speakers will find it difficult to pronounce them correctly. 
    2. Choosing the most common and widespread words and presenting new words in examples to indicate the situations in which they are used, in order to make it easier for the learner to memorize and understand the meanings of the words and benefit from them. 
    3. Linking new words and vocabulary to the experiences and daily life of the learner, in order to speed up and facilitate the process of learning the Arabic language. 
    4. Introducing punctuation marks and their uses, and despite the similarity of some punctuation marks and their use in different languages, it is necessary to explain them and explain their meanings in the Arabic language because of their importance in giving the correct meaning of the text. 
    5. The process of teaching Arabic to non-native speakers must be rich in multiple and different topics, such as historical, cultural, literary, political, and economic topics. 
    6. Using audio-visual aids such as videos, audio clips, and pictures to bring the word and meaning closer to the learner’s understanding. 
    7. Relying on the principle of gradualism in teaching the Arabic language and dividing the educational process into levels commensurate with the learner and his goal. 
    8. Taking into account the gradation in education from the easiest to the most difficult, and also starting with oral education before writing, this enhances the learner’s self-confidence and motivates him to continue learning. 

    What does a Museum conservator do?

    It is the job of a museum conservator to clean, repair, and care for objects that are held by museums so they can last a very long time for the public to enjoy.

    Why is conservation a very important role of museums?

    Museums have a very important job that helps communities and the public. Their main purpose is to store objects, care for them, research them, and present them to people so they can experience and learn from the objects. They are meant to keep stories and histories of a country safe so that future generations can enjoy them.

    To make sure future generations can enjoy the objects and learn about them the objects have to be cleaned, stored, and repaired to make sure they are still there in the future for people to enjoy. That is why conservators are so important to the success of museums.

    There are two main forms of conservation that help prevent damage to the objects held by the museum.

    1. Preventative Conservation – this is work done by conservators to prevent future damage that could happen to the objects in the collection. This includes keeping pests away from the objects in storage and on display and creating mounts to display the objects or storage for the objects that will prevent damage.
    2. Restorative Conservation – This type of conservation is done to fix damage to objects and prevent it from getting worse. This includes jobs like patching up holes in objects or removing dust from the surface of objects.
    history of medicine LearningMole
    A museum field trip

    How to become a museum conservator

    People who want to be a museum conservator usually start by getting a university degree in a subject related to what they want to conserve. This could be general history, archeology, fashion, or art. You can even do a degree in museum studies which gives you an idea of what museums do and why. After their degree conservators train through programs such as apprenticeships or a post-graduate course.

    5 ways museums conserve objects

    1. Cleaning

    Layers of dust can build up on objects and cause damage over time. Paintings can also be affected by the varnish that the artist placed on it to keep it safe hundred of years ago. Conservators can remove varnish that has changed colour and add new varnish to make the painting look brand new.

    2. Patching holes

    Statues and fragile frames for artworks often end up with holes in them which may cause further damage if left unfixed. Conservators use gentle materials that won’t cause damage to patch these holes and stabilize the object.

    3. Re-mounting

    Works on paper are often mounted on something that will harm the paper and could destroy the art or image on it. Japanese scroll works are a great example of this as their backing paper degrades over time. So, conservators take off the backing paper and remount it to make it stable again so the picture is supported and can last many years longer.

    4. Lighting

    Some objects in the collections are affected by light so when they are put on display the room or cabinet has special lights that will not damage the object. Examples of this include gem stones that lose their colour when exposed to light and some paints or ink that fade in strong light. This is a method of preventative conservation.

    5. Safe handling

    When the objects in the collections are taken out of storage or moved there are many ways they are kept safe. Gloves are worn to protect the object and the conservator, soft foam pads are placed on the tables incase the objects are dropped, and objects are only lifted if they need to be.
    A surprising fact about safe handling is that conservators do not usually wear gloves when working with books and paper. This is because they could be clumsy with the gloves on and tear the paper. Instead they wash their hands every time they are going to touch it instead.

    museum conservator cleaning a painting
    Conservator cleaning a painting

    How to learn more about museum conservation

    Museums create lots of content that you can watch to help you learn more about the work they do because they want people to know all they can about museums. Here is 3 ways you can learn about conservation done in museums.

    1. School Trips & Museum visits

    If you visit museums with your school you may meet some staff from the museums. This could be a Curator, a Docent (Tour Guide), or a Conservator. It is a great opportunity to ask about the role of conservators and what they do in their job. They will be happy to answer your questions as well as questions about the exhibits. Some museums even host events where you can have a tour around in the behind-the-scened areas. Ask a parent or guardian to help you try and find an event near you.

    2. TV programs

    The Victoria and Albert Museum in London created a whole program about their museum and the work their staff does. The program is called Behind the Scenes at the Museum and shows the work done by lots of museum staff including curators. You can also ask your parents to look for other similar programs from other museums.

    3. YouTube videos

    One of the easiest ways to learn about conservation work and see it first hand is to watch it all on YouTube. Lots of museums create videos to show the public how they take care of the objects in their care because they do it for the public.

    The National Museum of Scotland

    This video shows a museum conservator team using Japanese tools and methods to conserve a Japanese handscroll in the best way possible.

    The Victoria and Albert Museum

    This video shows a museum conservator working on cleaning a painting very delicately and conserving a waistcoat that is worn by the man in the painting. This shows the different methods used to conserve different types of objects.

    The British Museum

    This video shows the mummy of a crocodile being cleaned very gently by a museum conservator to remove dust which may damage the surface of the crocodiles mummified skin. The conservator uses a very soft rubber on a stick to remove dust without getting the surface wet.

    Want to know more about mummification of animals check out our article on Ancient Egypt.

    The Museum of Modern Art

    This video shows the museum conservator completing the process of filling gaps in a statue and covering them so it can be displayed. The materials used are not going to cause further damage to the statue and will give it support.


    A Museum conservator plays an important role in museums by taking care of the objects held in the museum collection. Without museum conservators the objects would not last long enough for the next generations to enjoy and learn from them. Conservators prevent damage and repair damage which helps the museum to display objects for a very long time. Want to learn about how objects are displayed? Read more about Museum Curators here.

    The Evolution of Communication: From Letters to SMS

    Nowadays we enjoy what is known as instant communication. We can easily send, receive, read, and reply to messages in mere seconds. Large amounts of all kinds of information are floating in the air around us or transmitted through thick and extremely long cables lying peacefully on the ocean floor.

    Ever since telephones and telegraphs were developed, the field of communication has not stopped evolving. In 1965, the first email system was invented to allow computers to communicate with one another. Two and a half decades later, emails started to be used over the Internet to exchange information between distant computers.

    First SMS

    Technology was then taken to the next level as instant messaging apps began to emerge. The beginning of this evolution started with the first SMS. Do you know what that is? Well, SMS is the abbreviation for the Short Messaging Service which allowed people for the first time to exchange instant, short messages on their mobile phones. 

    British software developer Neil Papworth who was trying to create this service for Vodafone was finally able to send the first SMS on December 3rd, 1992 from his computer to his colleague Richard Jarvis’s mobile phone. The message simply said ‘Merry Christmas’.

    In 1993, the famous Finnish telecommunications company Nokia implemented the SMS service within its mobile phones allowing them to ‘beep’ once they receive a new message.

    Interestingly, this first Merry-Christmas SMS was sold in December 2021 at an auction in Paris, France for €107,000! Well, some people are passionate about other things than stamp collection, you know!

    Then, online chatting apps

    Since then, real-time texts and online chatting apps have been evolving. WhatsApp, Messenger, Viber, Telegram, Line, and many others provide easier and pretty straightforward message exchange methods packed with so many interesting features.

    Take WhatsApp for example. At first, it was just a friendly green icon app that allowed the sending and receiving of text messages, pictures, and videos. This, in and of itself, is amazing but what came after that was not even imaginable.

    WhatsApp developed different features that track the reception of a message. A clock icon beside a message means the phone is not connected to the Internet. One tick means the message is sent but still roaming in the air and not received by the recipient. Two grey ticks mean the message is received but has not been read yet. Two blue ticks refer to a message that has been read and Typing… means your friend is replying to your text.

    It did not stop there and more and more features were added. Communication has been made ridiculously easier with voice notes and message deletion, forwarding, broadcasting, and scheduling with a high level of encryption that keeps the messages safe and secret.

    That being said, we seem to be more used to those amazing features than grateful to them, let alone those who developed them. However, only one look back at how communication used to be in the past can bring back all the missing value.

    The History of Letters

    If there is one thing that has been in use since the dawn of history up to the present day, it is letters. Unlike everything else that has a certain lifetime to exist, letters seem to be immortal. Yes, their exchange is quite limited nowadays; however, letters are still in use.

    Ever since old civilizations flourished, people have been using letters to share important information with others who lived far away. That method of news exchange was developed after the Sumerians invented writing around 3500 BC. 

    At first, people used to write their messages on rocks as long as they were portable. In 2700 BC, the ancient Egyptians invented paper and made it easy to send longer letters that were easy to carry. 

    The use of letters had become so wide that it was not limited to literate people. Even those who could not read or write were able to send and receive letters to their distant relatives by paying someone to write and read letters for them.

    Letters were delivered by people who were either heading to the same place or willing to. However, those were not the only messengers of letters. Interestingly, pigeons were too.

    The method of using pigeons to send messages could be attributed to the ancient Persians. That is mostly because they were the ones who invented the art of training birds in the first place.

    Because pigeons had this instinctive ability to go back home no matter where they were, people used them to send messages by attaching them to their legs.

    This method of message delivery was widely used in and between many places around the world for centuries. It continued for thousands of years throughout history up until the early 20th century. After that, the pigeon post was gradually limited by the revolution of postal services, telephones, and telegraphs.

    Postal services? What are those?

    The idea of the postal service was quite simple. Whoever had a letter to send could just subscribe to a service that took the responsibility for delivering the letters. People would pay a certain amount of money to a post office. Then whenever they wanted to send a letter, they only needed to write the recipient’s name and address on the back of the envelope, stick a stamp, and drop it into the nearby mailbox. 

    People who worked in the post office would then take the letters from the mailbox and travel to the exact destinations to deliver the letters. Letters were sent not only nationwide but also abroad. The postal services developed to use planes to deliver letters to far places. This was commonly known as Airmail.

    Types of letters

    It is not just the means of letter delivery that developed over the years but also the content of the letters. As we mentioned, people of the past used to share information, news, life updates and even greetings and condolences in their letters.

    Then more and more letter purposes started to come out. For instance, letters turned into a way to practice writing itself. Senders tried to express themselves and share their thoughts with the receivers.

    People were even arguing and debating about scientific topics through letters. Academics exchanged letters to share ideas, advice or even warnings in secrecy. An example of that was the famous letter from the scientist Albert Einstein to the US president Franklin Roosevelt in 1939. In this letter, Einstein explained the possibility of creating a nuclear reaction using uranium. He also suggested the US government started an atomic bomb project.

    More and more letter categories appeared, mostly determined by the letters’ content. The first famous category of letters is intended to show emotions. One type of letter in this category is the love letter. This is when two lovers exchange messages expressing their sentiments toward one another, complaining about being so far apart, or maybe even dreaming of the moment they will be reunited.

    The opposite is the hate letter. Telling by the name, this letter is full of hatred talk and intimidating, abusive, harassing, and even threatening words to the recipient. No one would ever want to receive a letter like this.

    People also send letters to show their condolences to others who lost a dear person. 

    The fourth type is the fan mail which was pretty common among celebrities during the 20th century. That was when people who liked an actor or a singer sent letters of admiration, support, or encouragement to their favourite public figure.

    Fan mail was not only limited to written messages. People also used to send presents, cards, or works of art along with their messages. In return, the celebrity may reply to their fans thanking them for their kind words. Some of them even used to send a signed photo or a poster.

    Then we have the letter category that is mostly used in study and work.

    A cover letter is sent with a CV for a job or a scholarship application to boost one’s chance of winning what they are applying for. In such a letter, a person should mention in some detail their top skills, abilities, and professional experience in the field. The tone of such a letter should show confidence but not arrogance. A winning cover letter should, therefore, be persuasive.

    Next is the sales letter. That may sound like the cover letter but instead of being sent to a company or a university, it is rather sent to customers. Such letters try to convince people to buy a certain product or subscribe to a service.

    A resignation letter is sent when an employee informs his/her boss that they are leaving their job. The opposite is the termination letter in which a company administration tells an employee they have been sacked. Such is admittedly a scary letter to receive.

    In addition, a business letter is the one exchanged between companies or clients asking for information, urging an action, pinpointing mistakes, or just sharing anything related to the business as a whole.

    Other than that, there are many different kinds of letters that each fulfils a certain purpose.

    Then what happened?

    With the rise and evolution of technology, letters gradually lost their convenience as the number one communication method. People realised that they were not very helpful in times of emergency. If they needed to immediately communicate with someone, letters were no use but telephones and instant messages were.

    Year after year, more people were tuning to use their phones and computers for messaging. On the other hand, letters slowly fell into the old school category. People started viewing them as something from the past.

    Now, letters are mostly treated like antiques, something of heritage that should be well-preserved. In fact, there is a museum in Paris, France named the Museum of Letters and Manuscripts that has a wide collection of original famous old letters. 

    Yet, letters have not completely disappeared

    As technology literally took over our life, many have become tired of it. Surprisingly, some people are turning back to writing letters nonetheless. They are using it as a way to slow down and detach from technology. In a world full of buttons and touch screens, holding a pen and writing on paper seems as nostalgic and enjoyable as it is uncommon.

    Over and above that, writing letters has turned into an art. People who are reviving letter writing use a whole set of stationary tools of different pens, crayons, stickers, stamps, papers, and envelopes. They are practising handwriting and lettering and adding different small drawings that make their letters look vintage and beautiful.

    The importance of letter writing for kids

    As kids make it to school and move from one year to another, they learn to write different kinds of text. One way to make writing practise more fun is by making kids write letters. Letter writing in and of itself is not only an important skill to learn, but it also allows kids to:

    • Learn to express themselves and describe things.
    • Practice correct grammar.
    • Learn new vocabulary.
    • Improve handwriting.
    • Develop their thinking.

    Out of all the types of letters we mentioned above, kids primarily need to learn to write formal letters which they can send to adults and informal letters to exchange with their distant family members and friends.

    In order to be able to send the letters they write, kids need to have some important information beforehand. In addition, they need to roughly plan what the letter is going to include and whether or not they will enclose any material within the envelope. In general, kids need to know:

    • The recipient’s full name.
    • The detailed address of the recipient: country, city, neighbourhood, street, and building number.
    • Recipient’s postcode.

    Material-wise, kids will need:

    • A sheet of paper
    • A good pen
    • An envelope
    • A stamp
    • Any cards or gifts they wish to send along.

    Now, let’s discuss how to write both types of letters. 

    How to write a formal letter

    Kids would usually send formal letters to adults to either share information or request it. For instance, a pupil might send a formal letter to a teacher or school principal in case they have any requests or even complaints.

    To write good letters, it is easier to think of them as consisting of blocks. Each block contains some information. 

    Block 1: contact information and date

    On the right side of the page, write your address (the sender’s address) and today’s date. Start with the street name and number in the first line, city and postal code in the second line, and then include the date in the third line.

    62 Oliver H. Jacob St.

    Brighton BN3 1HJ

    21st January 2022

    Block 2: Salutation

    Skip a line, then on the left, write a formal salutation followed by the recipient’s last name and a comma. You can use the recipient’s full name or title but never address them with their first name.

    In case you do not know the name of who you are contacting, you can just say Dear Sir or Madam or To Whom It May Concern.

    Dear Mr. Hudson,

    Block 3: Write the body of the letter.

    This is the most important part of your letter. You need to make sure you get your message clear and straight to the point. It is recommended you start by introducing yourself to the recipient if they might not know you in person. Then you should mention your concern or question. 

    The body of the letter can be one or multiple paragraphs.

    I am writing this letter to you to ask if it is fine to retake the science midterm exam. I happened to be quite ill for a few days before the test and was not able to study well. I was even absent when you announced the test will be held on Tuesday. Now that I got better and was able to study hard, I would be grateful if you would allow me to take the test again.

    Block 4: Write a fine close to the letter.

    This is the final block of your letter. You can either write a thank-you note to your teacher or add a call-to-action such as ‘please reply to me as soon as you are able’.

    Followed by that, you should write a fine closing as well as your first and last name.

    Thank you so much for your support and for being a great teacher.

    Looking forward to hearing from you,

    Yours sincerely,

    Nate Michaels

    Block 5: Add a postscript (optional)

    Handwritten letters are not like emails. If you forget to add something, there is no way you can go back and free some space on the page to write it. You can definitely rewrite the whole letter. However, you can avoid that by adding a postscript to the end of your letter. This is to tell the recipient what you forgot to say.

    You can also use this part to mention any material you enclose with the letter such as a certificate or a picture.

    P.S. I have attached the homework from the day I was absent. I am sorry for being late submitting it.

    So all in all, your formal letter can look something like this:

    62 Oliver H. Jacob St.

    Brighton BN3 1HJ

    2nd November 2021

    Dear Mr. Hudson,

    I am writing this letter to you to ask if it is fine to retake the science midterm exam. I happened to be quite ill for a few days before the test and was not able to study well. I was even absent when you announced the test will be held on Tuesday. Now that I got better and was able to study hard, I would be grateful if you would allow me to take the test again.

    Thank you so much for your support and for being a great teacher.

    Looking forward to hearing from you,

    Yours sincerely,

    Nate Michaels

    P.S. I have attached the homework from the day I was absent. I am sorry for being late in submitting it.

    After you are done writing your letter, you need to:

    • Read the letter once again and look for any spelling, grammatical, or punctuation mistakes and correct them.
    • Fold your letter and put it in an envelope.
    • Enclose any extra documents if found.
    • Seal the envelope.
    • Write the recipient’s full name, address, and postal code on the back of the envelope.
    • Drop it in a mailbox.
    • Wait until you receive a reply!

    Pay attention..

    Since this is a formal letter, you need to be careful with the language as much as you can. Remember you are writing to an adult. So you need to use polite and neat expressions. Here are some things you need to avoid when writing a formal letter:

    • Do not use contractions. Write (you are) instead of (you’re).
    • Do not use informal salutations or expressions such as (hi) or (what’s up).
    • Do not address the recipient by their first name.

    Pen pals and informal letters

    Despite being highly important, writing formal letters can be an occasional event. However, writing to distant friends is more frequent as well as enjoyable. One way to do this is by exchanging letters with pen pals.

    But who are pen pals?

    Pen pals are primarily two strangers living in different countries who start to develop their friendship through exchanging letters. They usually write about themselves and ask questions to explore each other’s life and culture.

    Such a kind of letter exchange was popular between writers and philosophers in the 18th century. But the idea started to receive more attention in the 1930s when an American teacher wanted to develop his students’ creativity and learning abilities.

    So he encouraged them to write to other friends from different countries to learn about their cultures and broaden their understanding of the world.

    Another purpose of developing a pen pal relationship is to practice reading and writing in a foreign language one of the pals is learning. For instance, a kid learning French in the USA can practice his French by writing to and reading letters from another same-aged kid from France.

    The idea then evolved into a service that matched students with one another so the letter exchange experience turned out fruitful for both. Interestingly, the service is still operating and kids can use it to connect with and start writing to other kids from all around the world.

    Nowadays, there are many pen pal websites that connect people to one another and let them start the interesting journey of developing a pen pal relationship and exploring other cultures.

    How to write an informal letter to a pen pal

    Letters to pen pals are usually informal letters. They are different from the formal letters we learned a section ago because of the tone used. Since you are mainly writing to someone at the same age as you, a friend-to-be, the tone is much lighter and informal. You can use contractions as well as everyday expressions.

    Now imagine you have used a student letter exchange service and were matched with someone from New Zealand. You then have to write your first letter to him or her.

    An informal letter has the same blocks as a formal letter. You write your detailed address and today’s date at the top right of the paper. Then you greet your pen pal and add your body section. The main difference is the content of your letter.

    For your first letter to your pen pal, you need to write a bit about yourself. Self introduction should include your name, age, where you live, how many members there are in your family, and what school year you are in.

    Next, you can add some information about your favourite subjects, hobbies, and what you like to do in your free time. Another part can be about how you look and what type of personality you have. 

    You can also send your pal a picture of yours.

    In the next paragraph, you should ask your pal some questions about him/her to get to know them. You can generally ask them to tell you about themselves or you can specify these points as name, age, family, hometown, favourite pets, etc.

    Asking multiple questions shows you are interested in your pen pal and want to know about their life and culture. At the same time, you should be careful with what you ask. Remember they are from a different culture. Sometimes, what might be very familiar to you can sound awkward to them.

    You also need to avoid asking very personal questions. For instance, you cannot ask your pal: are you rich? Do you live in a fancy house? Does your father make a lot of money?

    If your pal does not reply to certain questions, that probably means they do not want to talk about that topic. So respect them and avoid asking those questions again.

    After that is the closing. You should finish your letter with a nice closing and let your pal know you are waiting for their reply. You can use expressions like see you soon, until next time, or hope to hear from you. Then you add a final greeting and your name.

    Your first letter to a pen pal can be something like this:

    18 Ronald Road

    Dublin D03 526

    19th October 2021

    Dear David,

    I am Chloé Wilson. Although my name is French, I am actually Irish. I live in Dublin which is the capital city of Ireland. I live with my parents and a younger brother called Jimmy. I am 11 years old and I am in the 5th class. I like geography and science a lot but I am not very good at maths.

    I like school so much and I study a lot. But when I have free time, I like to read or play with my little brother. On weekends, I go to swimming classes and I really like it. But I don’t train in winter because it gets extremely cold here in Dublin. 

    We have a cute cat called Whitney but I call her Whitty for short. She has fluffy grey hair and big green eyes. She likes to play all the time but she hates water. Every time we shower her, she keeps meowing loudly.

    What about you? Do you have any pets? What is your favourite subject at school? Do you play any sports? Are you learning any foreign languages?

    Please write soon and tell me about yourself and your life.

    Best wishes,



    Connecting with other people is one of the joys of life. Thanks to modern communication methods, we are able to communicate with family members and friends who live far away in just a few seconds.

    But in the past, people used completely different ways to get in touch with others. They used to exchange letters to share important news and life updates. Letters were either sent with other people who were either hired to deliver the message or were heading where the recipient lived.

    For thousands of years, people also used pigeons for message delivery after the ancient Persians showed the world how to train birds. Thanks to their homing instinct, pigeons were able to send messages between distant places. This method was used up until the early 20th century.

    As the delivery methods developed, letters’ content also varied. This allowed letters to be categorised differently. For instance, letters could be for sharing love, hate, or admiration of others, especially celebrities. Cover letters were sent to boost one’s application for a job or scholarship. Other types of letters also included resignation letters, sales letters, business letters, and termination letters.

    With the widespread use of technology and instant messaging applications, the use of letters has declined dramatically since the mid-20th century. However, this did not make letters go extinct.

    Still, many people are writing and sending letters. The skill of letter writing still has so much significance, especially for kids. It enables them to improve their writing and proofreading skills. They also learn to express themselves and develop their thinking.

    In this article, we learned how to write formal letters. These are letters which are usually sent to teachers, school principals, or adults in general. In addition, we learned to write informal letters which we exchange with family members and friends.

    Kids nowadays can practice letter writing by developing a pen pal friendship with another distant kid of the same age. The idea started in the USA by a teacher to allow his students to feed their curiosity about the world by connecting with other students from different countries. It also allows kids to practise reading and writing in foreign languages if their pals speak the language they are learning.

    Now how about finding yourself a good pen pal and writing to them? 

    Minecraft is a video game that since 2009 has amassed millions of users, including many children, who by placing and destroying the blocks of the famous pixelated world learn to develop their creativity and problem solving skills. In fact, Minecraft is not just a videogame: thanks to the game mechanics it can become a very useful learning tool for children, to be used also in schools to learn the rudiments of coding and programming and to study STEM subjects while having fun. The role of Minecraft in teaching has long been recognized, so much so that the birth of Minecraft: Education Edition, a version with a specific educational purpose that allows teachers to use the video game as a teaching aid to any subject.


    What is Minecraft?

    Minecraft has become one of the most popular and well-known video games in the world: since 2009, date of publication, it has millions of players, who try their hand at collecting materials and building shelters and objects, destroying or placing the 3D blocks of which they are composed the game worlds.

    Minecraft is an adventure video game consisting of a sandbox with a design inspired by Lego, an open-ended sandbox game.

    A sandbox is a game that offers players the ability to enter a world shared with other players, with no goals or missions to accomplish. This provides users with a game with endless possibilities. Children learn to play by exploring, trying out random features, or by reading guides or blogs and watching videos on YouTube.

    And since it’s a sandbox game,it does not have a specific objective, although it is possible to end it with the killing of the Enderdrago. Having reached this goal, it is still possible to continue playing, precisely because the fun is in carrying out the fundamental operations of the game, mining and crafting, or the collection of materials.

    And the combination of these to create different objects and buildings, with the freedom to explore and design following your own intuition and creativity.

    The application was developed by the Swedish programmer Markus Persson,: the game was born with the intention of not being one of the usual video games in which you have to reach a goal with violence and force, but to develop and use their imagination and ingenuity.

    and it has become so popular that it is considered one of the most influential games of the decade and has given rise to numerous communities, guides, tutorials on YouTube, so much so that after “music”, Minecraft is the most searched word on the video platform.

    While it is possible to play alone, it is preferable to play with friends. Teamwork makes many aspects of Minecraft easier and more fun, such as collecting and crafting items, building structures, and fighting zombies.

    This is why users often join “servers”. The servers allow users to play with others online or via a local area network (LAN). Each server is a standalone multiplayer world.

    Note that most of the servers are not owned by Mojang or Minecraft; Anyone can create a server, so it is important to do the proper checks before allowing children to participate.

    What is the purpose of the game?

    Minecraft is a very simple and linear game; for this reason, it has also become very popular with children and younger children.

    The graphics made of “pixelated” blocks reminiscent of Lego bricks (of which Minecraft is an evolution) and the immediate dynamics based on digging, “mine” and building, “craft”, through 3D blocks, make it a perfect vehicle for the expression of one’s creativity without limits and particular obstacles, an inclusive video game suitable for everyone. Behind this linearity, however, there is a certain complexity.

    In fact, we move within a world made of materials, lands and places to explore, we collect materials and build tools, shelters and buildings, we meet animals to raise, hunt or tame, we have to face storms, lightning and hurricanes, you have to survive against nature, the chemical and physical laws and the dangers of different biomes, and you do it through the use of cubic blocks to build everything you need to continue in the game.

    The game pushes you to strive for survival, developing computational thinking and problem solving skills, critical assessment of situations and reasoning and calculation to perform the various actions.

    There is no real purpose of the game or a real plot, as there is no need to earn points or follow a guided path, but you can move freely and without time limits, guided only by your imagination, within the different habitats formed by multiple 3D cubes, interacting with animals, plants, objects and tools.

    To face the game, you can build anything through blocks made of different materials, programming the work of an agent who will dig and find the materials that allow you to build buildings, tools and settings.

    Minecraft at School for Children’s Learning and Development

    Thanks to the mechanics and modes of the game, Minecraft is not just a video game but a playful and dynamic learning tool based on creativity and problem solving.

    Pushing the child to autonomously identify new ways of placing and removing blocks, of shaping the environment, of dealing with different situations, Minecraft promotes the use of logic in the management of spaces and materials, removing any brake on the fantasy but using computational thinking and reasoning to arrive at a solution.

    Minecraft is an interactive and versatile game, which allows you to build unlimited variations of constructions by developing your own creativity, and to play together with other users, also improving children’s soft skills and the ability to work in a group on a project or in the resolution of a problem.

    The simplicity of the game and the mechanics that move it make it usable even for younger children, who with experimentation are able to perform even complex processes in the video game.

    Through Minecraft we build circuits, even complicated mechanisms that allow you to put objects or elements into operation, operate tools, open doors and much more. It is a functional teaching tool for children, as it allows them to learn information and put it into practice as they play.

    But not only that: Minecraft has also become relevant in school and in the educational field as a tool for learning coding, STEM disciplines, from science, chemistry, mathematics, geography, but also for developing problem solving, creativity and storytelling.

    It is possible to learn history by exploring ancient worlds and recreating the different eras of human history, discover geography, ecology and sustainability through the exploration of different environments, ecosystems and biomes and their flora and fauna and through the use of the map generator.

    And learning languages thanks to the instructions in a foreign language and the support for translation, but also mathematics, thanks to the kits, expansions and activities created specifically to support the study of the different subjects, constantly updated. due to the great popularity of the videogame in the educational field.

    The latest version of Minecraft also allows you to explore sciences, physics and chemistry through a real chemistry laboratory.

     In such laboratory, you can conduct different experiments by creating molecular elements and structures, exploring the periodic table, assembling and disassembling, testing reactions, playing and experimenting with electronics, building systems and circuits, generating impulses, transforming materials.

    Also playing with geometry and algebra and the Cartesian plane, discovering anatomy with maps on the human body and its apparatuses made of cubes and blocks, which can thus be explored, reconstructed and made functional.

    Minecraft is therefore a complete tool, which brings children and young people closer through play to the use of digital means for learning, which helps to develop their critical sense, computational thinking and problem solving skills, stimulating their imagination.

    and storytelling in the construction of one’s own world and of one’s own rules in an augmented reality.

    But that’s not all: Minecraft is also used as a means for learning the basics of programming and coding.

    Coding and Problem Solving with Minecraft

    Minecraft has been identified as an important tool to introduce children and young people to programming and coding, much more advanced than the many programs born with the same goal.

     The video game is a playful and fun way to learn the basics of the Java language and creative programming: thanks to the educational version Minecraft: Education Edition, it is in fact possible to apply the logic of programming to the game, through the programming mode, the Code Builder.

    The tool gives access to a block visual programming editor that allows you to program functions or cycles of instructions of various types, which will be carried out by an agent within the game.

    The Code Builder extension gives you the ability to connect Minecraft to coding software such as Scratch (we have already talked about Scratch as a tool for learning coding), Tynker or Make Code, depending on your level of programming skills.

    Through programming, an “agent” is thus instructed in digging to recover materials, in constructing buildings, towers and walls using a certain number of “cubes” referring to specific dimensions, in using certain objects, exploiting their own imagination and their problem solving skills and gradually entering the mechanisms of coding.

    Thanks to this feature, pre-established instructions are provided to an agent to perform autonomously and mechanically actions that in the normal version of Minecraft would require several clicks by the player.

    In addition to the visual programming mode, it is also possible to use the code editor, a more advanced level of coding, less intuitive and more structured, for children who are more familiar with programming languages ​​ (find out which programming languages ​​are for children in the dedicated article).

    With this mode available in Minecraft: Education Edition you pass from block programming to programming in Java.

    Minecraft and Education: Minecraft Education Edition

    Thanks to its potential in the educational field, Minecraft has become an important educational resource for primary and secondary schools around the world, used as a pedagogical tool by teachers who have seen its value beyond playful entertainment for learning different subjects.

    In 2011, a website called Minecraft Edu was created by an American professor who had started using the video game in the classroom, with a version of the game specifically for education.

    The website collects the attention of Microsoft, which after acquiring Mojang, the manufacturer of Minecraft, creates in 2016 Minecraft: Education Edition, the version of Minecraft for teaching, now used by teachers in hundreds of schools around the world as a playful and interactive support for teaching.

    Even before the birth of the educational version of Minecraft, several schools in Northern Europe and England had identified this video game so loved by children as a valid didactic tool for teaching history and geography, involving students in an active way and stimulating their ability to reason.

    as well as to program: in the Haslingfield School in Cambridgeshire the students recreated the Bronze Age with Minecraft during the history hours.

    With the advent of the Education version, continuously updated with new activities, files and expansions called mods, which can be added to the video game in support of all school disciplines.

    The “Minecraft Educators” who deal with the training of teachers who wish to use the video game in the classroom with their students: to date the Minecraft Education community has over 35 million members worldwide, and the tool is used in schools in 115 countries.

    Museums are also using Minecraft as a means to bring the school closer to their cultural programs, thanks to the possibility of creating ancient worlds and past environments, to build civilizations to explore and get to know up close through the characteristic 3D blocks, to play with art, shapes and architecture but also chemistry and biology, always leaving room for creativity and imagination.

    Why is Minecraft used for STEM Education Problem Solving disciplines?

    It is well known that Minecraft has achieved tremendous success in the children’s games industry, and has been used by the most advanced educational organizations precisely because it allows you to learn by playing the STEM disciplines but not only those.

    Considered one of the most advanced educational tools, Minecraft allows you to enhance your imagination and ingenuity, activate experiments for children and simulate some real-world situations, in an exhilarating way and with serious and profound learning.

    It is possible that future architects, engineers, scientists or programmers will pass by games like Minecraft.

    Obviously, to acquire a good level you need to gain experience and dedicate time to it. Sometimes it is difficult for an adult to understand how Minecraft works, it is also difficult to understand the meaning of the game.

    It is a tool that requires specific skills, imagination, a desire to know, innovate and share, understand the different rules of the virtual world, combined use of blocks and commands, etc. These are completely natural concepts for a child’s learning.

    Hilarious, imaginative and fun ideas to enhance learning and to become a model citizen, quickly guessing what are the right choices to make to create a better world and future.

    Minecraft modes

    There are three play styles available which change the objectives of the match: Creative, Adventure and Survival modes.

    Creative mode has very little violence. It is all about creativity, like building houses or making objects. This game mode is the most relaxing, ideal for children who just want to explore the world, test game mechanics, or build and create seamlessly. Note, however, that Creative Mode gives players access to “TNT”, which works like a bombshell in the game.

    Adventure mode plays like an RPG (think Genshin Impact or Final Fantasy XV). This game mode contains violence and focuses less on the construction aspect of the game. Unlike the creative mode, players cannot make changes to the world they are in.

    Survival mode is the most violent game mode. As with the adventure mode, children can choose an RPG play style; but they can also make changes to the world. In addition, the survival mode has several “difficulty levels”. These levels determine the appearance of creatures that damage characters in the game (called “mobs spawn”).

    • Peaceful Difficulty Level: No mob spawns
    • Normal Difficulty: Normal amount of mob spawns (usually in dark areas)
    • High Difficulty Level: Mobs are harder to kill and more are spawned

    Minecraft versions for different consoles

    There are four versions of Minecraft:

    • Java Edition (Windows, Mac and Linux)
    • Bedrock Edition (Windows, Mac and Linux)
    • Pocket Edition (Mobile)
    • X-box

    The differences between Java Edition and Bedrock Edition are minimal, but these two editions are not compatible with each other. So, before buying this game for your child, make sure you know which version he wants: his friends probably use one or the other.

    Does Minecraft have an age rating?

    No matter what game your child is playing, you should know the age range. When it comes to Minecraft, it’s easy to get lulled into a false sense of security.

    But does age rating really matter? As After all, it’s just a sandbox game with mineable blocks.

    Well, yes they do.

    In North America, the rating is agreed by the Entertaining Software Rating Board (ESRB), considers Minecraft suitable for audiences aged 10 and over as it contains the violence typical of the fantasy genre. Additionally, Minecraft requires all children under 13 to have parental approval before playing.

    Meanwhile, in Europe PEGI area of Europe including the European Union, the United Kingdom and non-EU countries to the east), Ratings are decided based on the suitability of a game for an audience. (Minecraft is rated 7.)

    However, the game may also be appropriate for elementary school kids, due to its block graphics and intuitive nature. If you allow your younger children to play:

    • Use your email address for registration and make a note of your login credentials.
    • Restrict the account to single player and private server mode.
    • Have your child play in the same room with an adult to make sure there are no problems.

    Advantages/benefits/amazing things

    Minecraft is a very amazing world. Maybe you are playing it now and having fun with it and enjoying your time as you dive into its big world. But the path that this game has taken from the beginning until now is bumpy, full of difficulties, but the result is absolutely amazing.

    If you enjoy the game of Minecraft in general, we are here to increase the fun more and more by achieving a set of information, facts and different things about the game Minecraft that will increase your love for this game more and more.

    Minecraft has the second largest map in the world of all games

    There are so many open world games out there right now, so popular that it’s hard to get around to all of the places in them.

    Such as The Witcher, GTA, Assassin’s Creed, Skyrim, and others. However, no matter how wide the maps of these games are, they will not reach Minecraft.

    In fact, in the video game world, the Minecraft map is the second largest. Only one person was able to roam 16% of the entire Minecraft game area, which is the most explored area in the game.

    In numbers, a Minecraft map covers an area of ​​64,000 square kilometers, which is the equivalent of the planet Neptune if you want to put it in that estimate. You might be wondering about the number one game in this ranking, No Man’s Sky.

    This is because its infinite worlds are due to the artificial intelligence that automatically embodies the planets and maps.

    For newcomers to Minecraft… There is also a Peace Mode

    There are two main modes in Minecraft which are Survival and Creativity mode within it. But what many do not know is that there is a third situation called the Peace Mode.

    In this mode, you play Minecraft normally where you have to find food, water, food and everything, but the only difference is that there are no monsters in the game (Mobs).

    This mode is mainly intended by the company for children who want to keep Minecraft, and everyone can try it out as well.

    There is no set age to start playing Minecraft

    A group of games that sets a specific age in order to play their games. For example, the GTA series, the age limit for playing it is 18 years. Other games as well, such as Assassin’s Creed, which starts at 16 years old. But what is the age limit to play Minecraft, any person of this age can literally play the game.

    But it’s a little illogical, right? So in general, there is no specific age to start playing Minecraft, and you can present it and show it to people of all age groups.

    You can ride on many Passive Mobs

    Passive mobs are monsters in Minecraft that don’t attack you in the first place. In fact, it does not harm you unless you harm it. In general, there are many Mobs that you can ride that will help you go great distances by riding on them.

    Of course you might say: This is normal, you can ride on horses and donkeys, for example, in Minecraft. But that’s not all, there are animals that you can ride on: llamas, wolves, cats, birds, and horses in the form of a skeleton.

    Yes, you can ride on a cat or a bird, you just need to train it first before you can ride on it.

    One day in Minecraft is like 20 minutes in the real world

    The day and night in Minecraft alternate and alternate as you play the game. But, did you know that one day in Minecraft is equivalent to 20 minutes in the real world? That is, every 20 minutes, the night falls on you in the game. That is, in one hour of playing this game, you can spend 3 days in it. This information may help you avoid or prepare for the night in the game, as it is the most difficult stage or period within the game of Minecraft.

    history of medicine LearningMole

    The effect of Minecraft on children

    The impact of the Minecraft game on children varies between positive and negative alike on thousands of children around the world in an obsessive manner that pushes them to play it daily without interruption, which leads parents to worry about this obsessive game, even though it is a game used for education and mental development of children.

    Positive effects of Minecraft

    Developing their creativity

    The positive aspects of Minecraft for children cannot be overlooked, with its creative ideas that encourage the child to think, speed, design and build.

    The idea of ​​Minecraft, depends on the electronic Java system, which focus on the creative aspect of the players, and allowing them to build a variety of buildings using cubes with different graphics and colors in a three-dimensional world, where the player speeds up with the availability of building tools and weapons to build a shelter for him before darkness falls, or else he will fall prey to the night monsters!

    And the more he searches in his mine for diamonds, during the construction process, the more he can pass advanced stages in the game, which consists of 10 stages.

    Minecraft combines different game modes, including Survival Mode and Creative Mode. In this mode, the player can create almost anything inside the game of Minecraft in an unlimited way, when you offer a child such a space for creativity and exploration, you help him to cure his curiosity, and to explore his most creative abilities. No other games can give you more creative playability than Minecraft and its creative mode.

    Passing through all of this will allow the child to think in different perspectives and boost his creative thinking.

    A social and cooperative game between users

    Social games are suitable for children, especially during periods like the quarantine, if they return again. The child does not get enough of social communication with others, and also does not find better ways to create friendships and communication skills than online games.

    The problem with other online games other than Minecraft is that they are full of cursing and slandering which you don’t want your child to suffer from currently.

    Therefore, there are servers in Minecraft that are intended for children, and also creative, that the user can access and have a good time with other users and players.

    Gaining a set of logical perceptions

    Logical cognitions are a set of things whose source can be understood or how they can be made. For example, to be able to make an archery bow in Minecraft, you have to combine wood with string. Such things transmit some logical perceptions to the child. Like understanding what materials can be assembled to make different things.

    Minecraft is full of different things that you can make by crafting. This will help the child to understand and acquire these perceptions and things, and know how things are made, and how they can also be used.

    Choosing multiple game modes

    Minecraft isn’t always about survival; you can turn to other game modes in the middle of the game. For example, you can raise animals, or you can start farming and build your own garden. To imitate the peasant situation and become a peasant in the middle of the game.

    These things raise a lot of interest in children, instead of teaching them violence according to what other people say. You can even ride the animals and roam within the game circles, they are unlimited, which is why it is so convenient for children to play them all the time.

    Involvement in education

    Although classified by Microsoft as a game, it is a good tool for learning, as it has been subjected in many universities and schools to research and exploration because of its creative properties that open up players’ horizons for innovation, and therefore it is a tool for teaching both subjects (History, Mathematics). Language, economics, science), in addition to that the game needs a lot of mental skills to practice, such as the use of (logic, reason, ability to solve problems, aiming towards the goal).

    The other positive aspect is that the game is safe for children, as it is free from scenes of violence, weapons, blood, foul language and sex. Although there is some kind of violence, it is for the purpose of protection, not attack.

    Development of Coding skills

    And the most wonderful aspect of the Minecraft game, Microsoft encourages children to develop their computer programming skills, as it will allow players to access game files, and thus the child becomes interested in how software works and assembles together in a smart educational way.

    He learns about the codes that make up movements and shapes, and he also learns how to edit those files to learn how the game is made and formed, and thus learn computer programming through the game Minecraft, as well as searching on the Internet, making videos and practicing graphic design, which develops their skills to work later.

    Stimulating Teamwork

    The Minecraft game teaches to stimulate the teamwork of the players, and thus unite the energies and strengths, and thus play as an integrated team, which encourages children to cooperate and participate, and thus the construction becomes faster, and it is easier to access resources to collect them, and the players’ resistance to monsters during attacks.

    In addition, Microsoft has worked on designing the Minecraft game in a flexible way, meeting the needs of players, each according to his ability to learn while playing, and the way he prefers to play, as it can be modified according to preferences, skill levels, and can also develop with the growth of the child, where it is More complicated for older adults.

    Negative effects of Minecraft

    Safety concerns

    This game raises questions and confusion for parents about the goal and stages of development of the game to which their children relate.

    The development of playing it depends on the child’s imagination, and therefore it may tell stories that are difficult for parents to communicate with him to understand its progress, as there is no similar way to play between two players, each player He has a different experience.

    The network of players on servers around the world raises the suspicion of parents about the safety and security of other strangers on the game.

    A child cannot be left playing or talking to another person without follow-up, just like talking to a stranger, young or old. However, it is possible to adjust the setting of the game so that the child is the only player, but this may frustrate him with the passage of time when getting to know the game more and wanting to try all its skills.

    Although the game is easy to use at first for all children, when the need for development, the child needs to have complex skills in thinking, memory and building strategies, so often the game Minecraft afflicts some children with frustration and psychological pressure.

    This game is an obsession for many children, as Minecraft cannot be satisfied as a game, but there is a huge world of videos on YouTube, forums and songs that teach children the skills of playing on them and discovering more of its mysteries, which lure the child to spend long hours busy Online.

    So Is it safe for children?

    Compared to other famous video games, Minecraft has a very healthy game environment; the community is largely non-toxic. In most cases, it really encourages collaboration and the development of cognitive skills.

    However, as with all games, there are exceptions to watch out for.

    Violence in Minecraft

    Even though Minecraft only features a low level of violence, the game can still be dangerous for younger children. Block graphics make violence unrealistic, unlike what happens in other titles. However, it is obviously up to you to decide whether certain game modes are inappropriate for your children.

    To fight monsters, you need weapons – for example a sword, or a bow and arrow. When a monster is defeated, it disappears in a puff of smoke, potentially leaving behind useful materials that can be used in crafting.

    The number of hearts of monsters is decreased When attacking them, to show that they have taken damage. The game has no blood or wounds.

    If the player “dies”, he reappears (also called “respawn”) at the same point from where he started and began the game. He may also reappear on his bed if he has one and recently slept in it.

    Cyberbullying and Inappropriate Content

    Mojang, the company behind Minecraft, doesn’t control all online interactions. While some servers have their own moderators, this is not guaranteed to be the case for all servers. This means that players’ communications with your child online may not be monitored, and therefore inappropriate and harmful.

    Additionally, the competition inherent in player-to-player interactions (PVP) can anger players. Without adequate supervision, healthy competition can turn into cyberbullying or an exchange of inappropriate phrases via chat.

    Even larger servers can be a problem. Servers with a large number of players are more difficult to moderate, and members are often not thoroughly vetted. There is a possibility that your children will end up playing with someone much older than them or with problematic players who repeatedly break the rules.

    Threats to your privacy in Minecraft

    Censored eye on laptop screen Whenever your child connects to a server to play multiplayer, your IP address will be visible to the server owner. This can pose a threat to your child’s privacy – and yours – so it’s vital that you take steps to protect your anonymity online.

    Online interactions with other people go beyond player-created servers. Imagine this game’s servers as a community – people working together to create a beautiful virtual world. The only problem is that communication does not take place only on the platform.

    Most Minecraft servers also have a Discord server, and the passion for Minecraft can lead your child to external places like unmoderated forums or Reddit. In addition, there are third-party websites that offer game mods, which promise to improve your child’s gaming experience.

    Without the right security measures, all this online activity can make you vulnerable to data leaks, phishing attempts, and other forms of cybercrime.

    How to keep your child safe in Minecraft?

    Don’t miss the Important Technical Tips and instructions

    To guarantee your child a safe gaming experience, it is crucial to communicate clearly and openly with him. Make him feel safe and have an incentive to communicate as well. Cyberbullying is a real problem, albeit not common in Minecraft. Make your children feel comfortable telling you about their gaming experiences, to look for solutions to any problems together.

    1. Educate your children about and avoid online dangers

    Having information about cybercrime is one of the best ways to prevent it. You should educate your kids about privacy and staying away from cybercriminals. It is important that they know that they should not click on any links they find on the forums. Make sure they are not involved in piracy and show them how to surf the internet correctly by setting an example.

    In general, it is good that you make the following recommendations to your children:

    Never give out personal information. Even just providing a first and last name to other players or moderates, bulls can give online predators enough information to cause harm.

    This is one of the reasons why you should always use a unique game-tag for your child.

    Never use your child’s name or age in their gametag. This gives too much private information to strangers online. Instead, use a creative and fun alias. For example, CraftingSurfer007, MineCrafter8812, LuvCrafting1844.

    Report any harassment or bullying to moderators and parents. It is never good for someone to harass or bully someone else, even online. Let your children know that they can always come to you if they feel unsafe or bullied.

    Be cautious with links and downloads. Teach your child about the dangers of clicking links and downloading from unknown sources. It’s a good idea to let a trusted adult review any content before clicking, whether it’s chat, blog, or video.

    2. Download Minecraft from its official source

    Laptop Download: Minecraft is an extremely popular video game. This makes it easily available for free online, on torrent sites or on platforms like TLauncher.

    While using TLauncher or browsing torrent sites isn’t illegal, downloading Minecraft for free is illegal. It’s piracy.

    If you want to make sure your child stays away from piracy sites, be sure to purchase and download Minecraft from its official developers.

    3. Monitor your child’s activity on Minecraft

    Everyone has the right to privacy, including children. But that doesn’t mean you can’t check their Minecraft activities from time to time. It’s one of the best ways to make sure they enjoy Minecraft without being exposed to online dangers.

    Make sure software downloads go through you first.

    Minecraft has a huge community of independent developers who create changes and improvements to the game, also called “mods”.

    These mods can change elements of the game such as the number of missions, visual effects, or even the entire outline of the setting. They are a core part of Minecraft, but you should make sure your child only downloads mods from reputable sites, such as Curse Forge.

    Use parental control apps on their device.

    Parental control apps can monitor the time your children spend on specific programs and even limit their access. Just make sure you don’t rely on these apps too much as your kids grow up; the need for independence and privacy will develop with age, and it is important that they feel included in this.

    With the latest Minecraft updates, you need to have an Xbox Live account to play on any Minecraft server. From Minecraft Earth (PC) or Minecraft Pocket Edition (Mobile), Xbox Live offers the ability to control chat and any game time limits.

    To set up Minecraft parental controls on Xbox Live, complete these steps:

    1. Log in with your parent account at
    2. Scroll to the top menu and click on My Profile.
    3. From the profile page, click on Privacy Settings.
    4. Click on your child’s name or Microsoft Gamer-tag image.
    5. Update the various privacy settings according to your needs.

    Use chat filters to keep the conversations appropriate

    If you allow your child to chat with others, you can use the chat filter to filter out inappropriate words. To access the chat filter:

    1. Right-click on the head of your child’s character.
    2. Click on “Settings and visibility”.
    3. Click on “Chat Settings”.
    4. Update the “Public Profanity Level” according to your preferences.

    Play Minecraft with your kids

    Have you ever thought about playing video games with your children? Recent studies show it’s a great way to connect with them. Also, if you log into the same server together, or pick mods to download together, it’s easier to make sure they’re safe.

    We know this may seem odd to people who have never played video games, and it’s definitely not a prerequisite for making sure they’re safe in Minecraft. In fact, they’ll probably want to play alone or with their friends, so you won’t be playing together every day.

    But if you give Minecraft a chance you may find that it’s a really fun game. You will see that you will cut trees and build houses in no time at all.

    Use a VPN to protect your child when they play Minecraft

    A VPN (Virtual Private Network) changes your IP address by routing your connection through different servers. On top of that, it protects your connection with strong encryption and adds additional layers of security to your connection (like a kill switch). VPNs reliably encrypt your connection.

    4. Child-friendly Minecraft servers

    Talk to your kids about the servers they connect to. There are plenty of kid-friendly multiplayer servers, so you should make sure your kids use one of these.

    Choose a single player server or private multiplayer server. When your child plays Minecraft on their computer, tablet, or phone, choose a single player server or private multiplayer server to make sure they are safe while still allowing them to enjoy Minecraft.

    Choose a monitored multiplayer server. If you allow your child to use a multiplayer server, choose one that is age-appropriate and in moderation. Third party partners offer these servers which provide additional control in order to keep the server free of inappropriate comments, links, etc.

    Below are some kid-friendly servers to get you started. But always do research on any online Minecraft community to make sure it is suitable for your child.

        Autcraft: This server was created for children with autism and their families. It offers parents more peace of mind and does not have a voice chat.

        Blocklandia: The Blocklandia server is great for new players with guided tours and peaceful mods (no hostile computer generated creatures).

        CrazyPig: If your kids need variety and multiple activities to keep interest alive, CrazyPig could be a great alternative. It has a variety of worlds, including mini-games, creative world, and multiple levels of survival worlds to keep kids busy.

        Cubeville: Cubeville has a feature that allows you to protect the player’s personal space, thus claiming a section of the server map and even applying to have their buildings listed as a reference point. Also, many Cubeville server moderators are parents of the same children who play.

        Famcraft: Famcraft is known for welcoming its moderators who guide children through the server, as well as their clans who allow players to work on group projects.

        Intercraften: This server is another great alternative for kids who love variety. From the wide range of worlds and careers to choose from, to mini-games and the ability to earn coins, players on the Intercraften server are sure to never get bored.

        Kid Club: The Kid Club server is run by moderators who are experienced in computer science and video game design. Kids can work together to complete construction challenges, play mini-games, or try survival mode.

        Minesquish: The Minesquish server is family-friendly and great for teaching kids how to explore and build.

        The Sandlot: The Harry Potter-inspired lobby and the vaguely Hunger Games-inspired world of this server capture the imagination of players.

        Ohanacraft: The Ohanacraft server is known for its commitment to supporting all players. In fact, their motto is “Don’t leave any players behind”.

    5. Report harassment and cyberbullying in Minecraft

    Chat icon on a computer screen

    Unfortunately, the game does not currently have an official way to report harassment, cyberbullying and other offenses. However, many servers offer the ability to report. So it is important to carefully check the characteristics of each server before signing up.

    Furthermore, the average age of the players should be taken into consideration. A higher age group than your child would increase the likelihood of interacting with players who use potentially foul or harmful language.

    As mentioned above, there are some parental control features built into Minecraft tied to an Xbox live account (playable on Xbox and computer) that allow you to disable or filter the chat feature.

    You can also silence specific players by forbidding them from communicating with your children during the game. Below are the steps to silence players in the game:

    1. Go to the game settings
    2. Under the Cheats menu, enable “Cheats” and click on “Continue”.
    3. Navigate to Cheats and enable “Education Edition”. This adds several additional features, including the ability to mute users.
    4. In your chosen Minecraft world, use the command box to type the mute command like this: “/ ability [player name] mute true” and press “Enter”.

    As its name suggests, the “ability” command sets a player’s ability. When you use it in the command box, you will be prompted to choose the appropriate player type. Options include the closest player, a random player, all players, all entities, or even yourself.

    To block a specific player, you will need to type in their gametag. Once the gametag has been entered, the command box will ask you to choose one of two arguments: True or False. Simply click on “True” and you should be done.

    Some strange facts about Minecraft

    A complete simulation of Denmark!

    In Minecraft we are used to building players simulations of fantasy worlds or some famous landmarks in the world. There is more than one simulation of the world of the Avatar movie, The Lord of Rings movie, or the kingdoms of the Game of Thrones series.

     You will also find the Egyptian Pyramids of Giza, the Emirates Caliph Tower, or the Roman Colosseum amphitheater, But it is surprising to find a “complete real country” with most of its details inside the game!

    The Danish Geological Data Agency has been able to rebuild the whole of Denmark within the game Minecraft, in which four thousand billion pieces of bricks were used to create the country with an area of ​​40,000 square kilometers, simulating its most prominent archaeological and governmental buildings, streets and shops, and the size of the map download data amounted to 1 terabyte! What if the map of the United States of America was simulated?!!

    Inspired by the game Infiniminer

    Try to go to the App and Games Store, whether for Android, iOS, Windows or Xbox and type the word “Craft” in the search and then look at the results… What do you see? A

    n endless number of clones of Minecraft, because it is a simple game and at the same time its online, open and interesting world forces you to be addicted to it, and because of its overwhelming success and simple application, it was a target for game developers in an attempt to gain part of this success by cloning the same experience.

    But did you know that Minecraft is itself inspired by another game? Yes… Its developer has stated more than once and stressed that the credit for the emergence of the game Minecraft to the light is a game called Infiniminer.

    it is a game very similar to Minecraft that relies on digging for different materials from the earth and building your own world, but Minecraft took the idea and expanded in Everything has expanded tremendously, so we see that Infiniminer its world is much smaller than Minecraft, and here the version outperformed the original.

    350 starting message

    When the game starts and as soon as you finish downloading its introduction, you will find a yellow message in front of you, this message, if you notice, is always changing when the game starts every time, and it is a message whose purpose is foreplay, sometimes it is a joke, and sometimes it is a vague and frightening saying.

    The game used to contain about 100 messages of this kind, but it has now reached 350 messages.

    It is difficult for you to notice the repetition of the beginning message because of the large number of them, but you will notice the repetition in only one case, if you are addicted to the game and you play it day and night, of course you will encounter some repetition.

    Minecraft glossary: ​​what your kids are talking about

    Can’t understand what your kids are talking about with their friends? Video games create unique communities with their own jargon that is as unique as it is incomprehensible.

    These terms may be confusing to people who don’t play Minecraft, but they definitely help foster a sense of community among players.

    Biome – This word refers to a region in Minecraft, such as a jungle, forest, or desert.

    Creeper – A creeper is one of the many monsters in Minecraft; often sneaks up on players and explodes.

    Enderman – An Enderman is a creature that comes into play in pairs and typically picks up and places blocks at random.

    Mob – A mob refers to any group of living creatures in the game, such as horses or cows.

    Mod – This term is short for “modification”, as it is a modification made to the game, whether it is adding new materials to the game or changing the difficulty levels of the game.

    The Minecraft mod is a game mod that can be downloaded from the internet and installed on the game, which changes game elements and may include custom skins for avatars, additional resources and even themes like the famous dark year and many other changes,

    but players need to be careful when downloading a mod Minecraft is from unreliable sites, which may contain viruses or malware.

    Nether – The “Nether” is the alternate dimension in Minecraft. It resembles a hellish landscape that can only be accessed through a portal. The Nether offers rare materials that cannot be found in the ordinary world of Minecraft (“Overworld”).

     Redstone – Redstone is a popular material on Minecraft used to make potions or other materials. It can also power items like doors and lights.

    YouTube video recommendations

    Minecraft Youtubers are real magnets in attracting children to Minecraft. Their fun explanations on how to build certain creations, their game hacks, and their charismatic personalities help make Minecraft a community more than just a game.

    While there are plenty of family-friendly YouTubers, there are just as many non-kid-friendly channels out there, so be careful. We recommend that parents read the reviews and watch a few videos before allowing their children to watch a Minecraft YouTuber.

    Among the most popular Minecraft YouTubers for kids are:

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