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Flowers are indeed pretty; they have unique fragrances; and each flower has a distinguished meaning, depending on its shape and colour. Flowers are characterized by different attributes and distinct features.

Flowers are what we will read more about together in this floral journey, so buckle up!  We will learn all about flowers, fluorography, how they originated and where, their types, their significance, importance, how deadly they can be, learn more about the rare flowers, how to grow a flower, the occasions that require flowers, and many juicy facts in between.

What are Flowers?

Flowers are a part of a plant. That is sometimes called bloom or blossom. Inside the flower petals, there is the part that produces pollen and seeds. Those are later transferred by bees, bats, moths, and other creatures that absorb the nectar of the plant in the bees’ case or visit the plant for a different purpose.

That nectar is what produces honey by the bees later on. Flowers rely on the outside factors to transfer the pollen or seeds to another plant or area. To, reproduce and multiply. The outside factors can be water, wind, birds, butterflies or bees as insects, or animals, such as bats.

All of which visit the flower for different reasons. Since these external factors help in the process of pollination, we call them ‘pollinators’.

Pollinators of Flowers

Their main job is to transfer pollen and seeds from one flower to another or a new area. Pollinators are necessary for our survival. Pollinators are creatures that assist plants in the process of reproduction.

The pollen or seeds stick to the bodies of the Pollinators when they are doing their purpose of visiting the flower, such as absorbing nectar in bees. Then, it gets transferred to another plant or another part of the same plant when the Pollinator moves onto another plant or another part of the same plant.

They mainly carry pollen from the male part of the plant to the female part. The male part of the plant is called ‘stamen’. Whereas, the female part of the plant is called ‘stigma’. The process of Pollination is necessary for the plant to become fertilized. It enables the plant to produce fruits when it becomes fertilized.

In turn, providing us with essential plants that we eat in our everyday life. Most fruits are flowers to begin with, that are fertilized by the pollination process that the Pollinators carry out. It also enables the plants to spread and reproduce more fruits by spreading the seeds.


Water pollination is called hydrophily. The plants that are pollinated by water are called aquatic plants. The process takes place when pollen floats on the surface of the water. It keeps on drifting until it comes in contact with flowers.

Water pollination has two types. The surface pollination and the submerged pollination. Surface pollination happens when the pollen of the male part floats on the surface of the water until it comes in contact with the stigma of the female flower.

We can see plants like Waterweeds, Hydrilla and Elodea, Water Starwort as Callitriche, and Ditch Grasses as Ruppia pollinate using hydrophily surface pollination.

Hydrilla and Elodea

Hydrilla is also known as water thyme. It can survive in salty water. It grows deep in the water or even on the surface. It forms mats and each of them is slender. It branches 25 feet long. The roots have tubers that look like a potato growing in the mud.

As for Elodea, it is often referred to as waterweeds. It is from the Hydrocharitaceae family which is a plant. It provides shelter and food for many aquatic creatures. For example, insects and fish. It purifies water. Goldfish love eating Elodea.

It is mostly used as a decoration, however, it grows rapidly in nitrogen and phosphorus-rich environments which leads to a decrease in oxygen that eventually leads to the death of the fish in the aquarium.

Water Starwort

Water Starwort is also known as Callitriche. Callitriche grows from July to September. It forms many seeds. Ducks love to feed on it. It is green. The leaves on top of the stem take an oval shape, like an egg. Whereas, the lower part of the stem has straight leaves. Two leaves are growing on each joint of the stem. 

Ditch Grasses

Ditch grasses, widgeon grass, or as it is commonly referred to as Ruppia is a unique shallow submerged grass. It has diverse types. Mainly, it has about eight types.

In Eel-grass, such as Vallisneria, the whole male part of the flower detaches itself from the plant body and floats on the surface of the water until it comes in contact with the female part of the flower or as we call it the ‘stigma’.


Growing Vallisneria is really easy. All you need is a good fertilizer and light. Then, sit back and watch your aquarium turn into a jungle. It is easy to remove when it exceeds the area you specified for it.

On the other hand, submerged pollination mostly takes place with pollen grains. A male part of the plant is referred to as pollen grain. Pollen grains are considered heavier than water. Therefore, it sinks.

Eventually, the sunken pollen grains are caught by the stigma. The stigma is a female part of the flower. The submerged pollination can be observed in water- nymphs. Water- nymphs are also known as Najas. In addition to Coontail.


Coontail is also known as Ceratophyllum demersum or Hornwort. It is rootless. It is a lake weed. It forms colonies using submersed pollination. It grows rapidly and quickly. It provides shade and a source of food for some insects and fish.  

Generally, hydrophily is rare in plants. It can reach up to 2% of plants that pollinate through the usage of water. Which is about 30 genera. For example, monocotyledons or as they are commonly referred to monocots. Monocots are grass and flowers that are similar to grass called angiosperms.

The seeds of the angiosperms are mostly one embryonic leaf or a cotyledon that is transferred through water and keeps floating on the surface of the water or sinks in water. Until it reaches the female part of a flower that it fertilizes.

For instance, as we observed previously, water pollination takes place in common Waterweeds, Water Starwort, Ditch Grasses, eelgrass, Najas, and Coontail.


Pollination takes place by different methods as we mentioned. The wind is another factor that helps pollinate a flower. Wind pollination is also known as ‘Anemophily’. Anemophily is the process of transferring pollen from one plant to another by the effect of wind.

Many of the most important crops worldwide are wind-pollinated. Many plants are pollinated by wind, however, we will discuss a few. For example, grass, cereal crops, trees, and ragweeds.


In addition to all the methods we discussed, there is one factor that is essentially as important. It is pollination by insects. This type of pollination is called ‘Entomophily’. Where some insects distribute the pollen throughout the area. Usually, it is the pollen of flowery plants.

For example, butterflies and bees. Butterflies drink the nectar using their proboscis. Learn more about butterflies on Also, remember to learn all about the butterfly’s cycle of life:


Each bee has a specific role. Some bees are forager bees. Forager bees collect nectar from flowering plants. They drink the nectar and store it in their crop. The crop is also known as the honey stomach. It is used for storage and the nectar is not digested.


Some animals help out in the pollination process. It is called ‘Zoophily’. It is the type of pollination that includes an animal. For example, some birds and bats help out in the pollination process.


Pollination can take place by birds. This type of pollination is called ‘Ornithophily’. Birds help fertilize the plant by transferring pollen using their bills from one flower to another. Birds move from one plant to another feeding on nectar. They help pollinate many different types of flowers. For Example, orchids, the cardinal flower, and pineapple.


As for bats, they also help out in the pollination process. This type of pollination is called chiropterophily pollination. Bats eat insects and nectar found on the flower as well as some flower parts. In the process, they transfer pollen from one plant to another. More than 300 types of fruits are pollinated by bats. For example, Bananas, Mangoes, and Guavas.

Let us check some interesting facts about flowers before moving on to the flower language that we find most entertaining. Remember to check out the cycle of a plant on LearningMole, before carrying on.

Some interesting facts about Flowers

  1. Broccoli is a flower
  2. In the past, Tulips were more valuable than gold in Holland
  3. Orchids get their nutrients from the air
  4. Saffron, an expensive spice, comes from a type of crocus flower
  5. Bamboo is a flowering plant that flowers every few years
  6. Moonflowers only bloom at night and close by day
  7. The nice scent of roses comes from microscopic perfume glands on their petals
  8. Lilies are toxic for cats
  9. Certain flowers only release pollen when they feel a bee buzzing
  10. White flowers have stronger smells

The Language of Flowers

Now that we know all about pollination and the life cycle of the plant, we can carry on with our journey. Let us learn all about the language of flowers! The language of flowers is also known as floriography.

Floriography is the language that tells us all about each flower, its meaning, and its symbolism. The language of flowers helps us determine the most suitable flower bouquets for each occasion. Every single flower has a story to tell.

Floriography started to flourish in the Victorian era. During the region of Queen Victoria, flowers were considered an invaluable expression of feelings because people were too shy to express their emotions openly.

The region of Queen Victoria in the United Kingdom was from 1837 to 1901. People sent Tissue Mussies.  Tissue Mussies are also known as nosegays. Nosegays are small bouquets that express a gesture of love and interest.

In the Victorian era, the way a bouquet was held or received determined the feelings of the receiver. Whether they appreciate the gesture or are not interested. If a bouquet was held at heart level, then the receiver loves the bouquet.

However, if it was held facing downwards by the receiver, then they are not interested. This means, they do not share the same feelings or the feelings are not mutual. If the sender asked a question when giving the bouquet, the receiver may answer by reaching out their hands to receive the bouquet.

For example, if the receiver reaches out their right hand, then it means ‘yes’. However, if the receiver reaches out their left hand, then that means ‘no’. Flowers were indeed the most important means of communication at that time.

Let us read some more fun facts about flowers and carry on with our flower-filled exploration journey. Flowers have so many stories to tell and we will try to hear each one of them till we have successfully learned all about flowers.

Awesome Facts about Flowers

  1. Shenzhen Nongke Orchid blooms once every four to five years
  2. Chocolate Cosmos is a flower that smells like Chocolate
  3. Sunflower seeds contain a substance that prevents any plant from growing near them
  4. The skeleton flower has petals that are white but turn invisible when wet
  5. The lotus is a holy flower for Buddhists because it represents purity
  6. Daffodil bulbs look like an onion and are poisonous
  7. Tulip bulb can replace onion in cooking
  8. Dandelion leaves make a caffeine-free coffee
  9. Cauliflower and Artichokes are flowers
  10. Bluebell flower juice was used to make glue

The History of Flowers

Flowers existed about 140 to 250 million years ago, nearly the same time as the first dinosaurs. However, it is believed that plants existed 500 million years ago. During, a period called the Cambrian period. Each flower had a different connotation then. A connotation is the meaning, symbol, and significance of the flower.

For example, ancient Egyptians fancied the Lotus flower. We can find numerous depictions of the Lotus flower in the drawings found on the walls of ancient tombs and the symbols of the hieroglyphics. It portrays different coloured Lotus flowers. Mainly, white and blue. They believed it signifies purity.

Whereas Turkish people adored the Tulip. It is the symbol of the Ottoman ruling era. The beginning of the 17th century is known as the age of Tulips. They believed it was a sacred flower that symbolizes beauty and harmony.

On the other hand, the Japanese loved the Sakura. It is also known as the Japanese cherry blossom. Cherry trees bloom for a short period in spring. They believed it represents hope and renewal. As for Britain, they adopted the roses.

Mainly, the Tudor rose was adopted by Henry VII as the emblem of peace once the War of Roses ended. The War of Roses was the civil war between the royal house of Lancashire and the royal house of York.

It took place in England. The royal house of Lancashire wore red roses. While the royal house of York wore white ones. India and the Lotus, China and the Peony, Mexico and the Poinsettia, and so much more are all different flowers that are favoured by different cultures for different reasons all over the world.

Scientists believe that the first flower to have ever existed is an aquatic plant named the Montsechia Vidalia. It is believed to have been dainty and white. It had curved petals arranged in three each circles. It was first found in Spain.

However, it was in France and England, that giving flowers took over throughout the years. Originally, it all seemed to have started in Turkey. Giving flowers became very widely common during the middle ages. Each flower came to signify a specific emotion or gesture.

 For example, giving chrysanthemums symbolizes friendship. Whereas, a rose is a representation of love. Bluebells represent kindness and loyalty. A lily represents purity. Iris is the flower of hope and Carnations tell the person you miss them.

Flowers are a unique form of communication. Even the arrangement of flowers can tell a story. Flower Arranging is an art that started far long ago. It has different rules, types, and styles that people adhere to craft the desired final look of the flower arrangement.

Flower arrangement aims for balance, proportion, harmony, rhythm, and emphasis. There are 9 popular types of flower arrangements. For example, the Elliptical, Vertical, Triangular, Crescent, ‘S-shaped, Oval, and Cascade flower arrangements.

The Western style of flower arrangement is more familiar with symmetrical arrangements. Whereas, the Eastern style is more familiar with asymmetrical arrangements. The Western cares about the mass effect, so they add more flowers. However, the Eastern care more about the individual beauty of each flower.

The Western arrangements may and do touch the rim of the vase. On the other hand, in Eastern arrangements, the flowers never touch the rim of the vase. There is no right way to arrange flowers, but it is an art in itself and should be valued.

We shall carry on with some facts for kids about flowers before we carry on with our learning journey. Flowers still have so much to tell us. Stories vary from one flower to another. Each story is unique and fun to hear about.

Facts about Flowers for Kids

  1. The Yarrow flower was used in World War I to help heal soldier’s wounds
  2.  Fertilizers are not necessary for flowers, but sunlight and water are
  3. Flowers make their food by photosynthesis by using sunlight, water, and minerals
  4. Bees are the most important pollinators worldwide
  5. Tulips started in Turkey
  6. Orchids do not need soil to grow
  7. The Titan Arum flower is endangered
  8. Chrysanthemums are unlucky in Malta
  9. The Rose is considered the most beautiful flower
  10. The Rosa Sericea has four petals only

Different Countries, Different Flowers

There are a total of 195 countries. The ten most famous countries in flower trade, in order, are The Netherlands, Colombia, Ecuador, Kenya, Belgium, Ethiopia, Malaysia, Switzerland, Italy, and Germany.


The Netherlands is famous for flowers. It is mainly associated with Tulips. However, it is responsible for a variety of different flowers, trees, and bushes being transported all over the world. The Netherlands is ranked as the top country involved in floral trade worldwide.

It exports different varieties of flowers throughout different countries. More than half of the floral trade is being handled by the Netherlands. Each country has a national flower that it is associated with. The Netherlands’ national flower is the Tulip.


Colombia is best known for Orchids, roses, and carnations. Colombia has the largest amount of Orchids worldwide. More than 95 countries prefer to buy roses on Valentine’s Day or Mother’s Day. Colombia exports those.

The Orchid Cattleya TTrianais the most famous flower in Colombia. Colombia is also rich in a variety of different flowers. For example, the Cut flowers and Protea flower. The national flower of Colombia is the Cattleya Orchid.


Ecuador is known as the top producing country of roses and summer flowers. There are more than 400 varieties of roses there. Do not get me wrong, it produces different flowers as well, like Orchids. However, it is mostly known for roses.

The location of Ecuador is optimum for growing roses since roses mainly need sunlight. Ecuador is an equatorial country. Meaning it lies on the equator. They grow roses in the Andes Mountains.

The biggest and brightest roses are produced in Ecuador. The country built its success on the floral trade. The rose is the national flower of Ecuador. Black, rainbow, or any colour of roses, can be found in Ecuador.


Kenya is mostly known for growing roses, carnations, and Alstromeria. There are even more types of flowers produced in Kenya. Kenya’s weather is ideal for growing flowers. The Orchid is the unofficial national flower of Kenya.

Kenya did not establish a specific flower as its national flower yet. However, the traditional stunning Orchid is the closest thing Kenya has to a national flower. Kenya has about 110 farms of flower farms.


Belgium is known as the largest producer of Azaleas and Begonia. In addition to many other flowers, like roses, chrysanthemums, and Bluebells. Belgium has mild and humid weather. Its national flower is the Common Red Poppy.

The Common Red Poppy grows in fields and waste places. They have sedative properties and healing abilities. This is why they have long been used in European herbal medicine. Especially, with children or elders. It relieves pain and treats irritable coughs.


Ethiopia produces mostly roses and exports them to the world. In addition to, coriander, myrrh, cardamom, chat, and caraway. Ethiopia is well known for the Rosa abyssinica. The Rosa abyssinica is Africa’s only indigenous rose species.

It is an evergreen Rosaceae with white and creamy fragrant and orange climbing hips. It can be found in high altitudes in Ethiopia. The national flower for Ethiopia is the Calla Lilies. The Calla Lilies are native to South Africa.


Malaysia has over 15,000 species of flowers, plants, and trees. Some are used as decoration and others are still undiscovered in Malaysia’s rainforests. Examples, are Orchids, Rafflesia, Ixora, Sabah Highlands Pitcher Plant, Bougainvillea, Pagoda Flower, and so much more.

More than 800 species of Orchids grow in Malaysia. Rafflesia is one of the largest single flowers out there. It is also known as the ‘Stinking Corpse Lily’. The Stinking Corpse Lily is used to refer to the red and white Rafflesia because of its foul smell.

Whereas, Ixora is known as Jejarum. It is a flowering garden shrub. It translates to Needle Flower. Sabah Highlands Pitcher Plant is one of the most unusual plants in Malaysia.

It is a carnivorous plant. It is tubular structured. It lures insects and vertebrates inside to be digested. BBougainvillaeais the official flower of Ipoh. It enjoys a tropical climate and can be found especially in hot and wet environments.

The Pagoda Flower is also known as Clerodendrum paniculatum. It is one of the most beautiful flowers in Malaysia. The flower is native to Malaysia. As the national flower of Malaysia, it is the Hibiscus Rosa- Sinensis. It is also called bunga raya. Meaning, a great flower in Malay.


Switzerland has so many beautiful flowers flowering all the time. For example, the Swiss Alpine Flowers are known as the jewels of the Alps. It is one of the loveliest sceneries. Especially, when they are in full bloom.

Most of those pretty flowers are endangered. Some are even highly poisonous. Some are shades of pale lilac. Others are deep purple. There are many cheerful colours to admire. The national flower of Switzerland is the Edelweiss. It only grows in the high Alps.


Italy grows lilies, roses, chrysanthemum, Orchids, sunflowers, Mimosa, peonies, carnations, Buttercups, poppies, oleanders, and so much more. Italians love flowers. They especially adore lilies.

 It is a special plant with many special names and meanings. Lily is not only the most adored flower but is also considered the national flower of Italy. Lily was the all-time favourite flower during the renaissance age. However, it is now the national favourite in Italy.

The scientific name of the lily is Lilium. It is also known as Asiatic lilies, a stylized lily, and oriental lily. They come in different colours and each colour holds a special significance. The orange is for passion, yellow for happiness, and white for modesty.

Each lily looks different and unique. They range from 4 to 8 petals. They can grow up to 6 feet in height. As for the usage, the Asiatic lily is mainly grown for decoration or oil extraction. Whereas, Oriental lilies are more fragrant. 


Germany produces the Freiland Rosa. It is native only to Germany. Ireland means ‘outdoors’. These flowers are mostly produced in summer in open-air conditions. The extreme weather conditions in Germany help people to grow such roses.

The national flower of Germany is the Cornflower. Cornflower is also known as knapweed. It has a remarkable blue colour. However, it is now available in different colours as well. It used to be commonly known as the bachelor’s button because in the 19th century unmarried men and women wore it at their buttonholes to communicate their status.

It grows annually. It is native to Europe. It often grows as a weed in cornfields. For example, wheat, barley, rye, and oats. This is why they are sometimes known as the Cornflowers. However, it is named the Centaurea Cyanus.

Quick Flowers’ Facts

  1. Years ago, at the time Vikings were invading Scotland, wild thistle patches slowed them down and the Scots had time to escape. This is why the wild thistle is Scotland’s national flower. You can learn more about who the Vikings were on
  2. Sunflowers follow the sun’s movement throughout the day from east to west
  3. Flowering ‘Nicotiana’ is related to tobacco and it is from which the cigarettes are made
  4. Some gas plants produce ignitable gas on warm nights
  5. Angelica was widely used in Europe for a long time as a cure for everything
  6. In Middle Ages, Lady’s mantle was thought to have magical healing properties
  7. Yarrow is known for its healing properties
  8. 25% of flowers are endangered species
  9. 571 flowers species are already extinct since 1750
  10. 400,000 species of flowers exist and roses make up about 35,000 out of them

Flower Types

There are a variety of different flowers out there. Each variety has a wide range of types. And each type has a vast amount of colours. We will investigate the wide variety of different flowers we have out there, together!

There are many types of flowers out there. About 300 or more. However, we will discuss only a few of them and you can learn more about the flower types extensively on Where, you will find an article about the types of flowers, specifically.


We will mainly, talk about 10 common flower types. The first flower type we will discuss is Aster. Aster is a purple flower with a yellowish centre. It is named after the Greek word ‘Star’. It symbolizes love, wisdom, and colour.

It may bloom in many other colours, like pink, red, white, lilac, or purple.  It blooms in late summer or about early fall. They are quite easy to grow and they flourish beautifully. They can survive even in winter.


Carnation look like a flourishing spark. It comes in different colours. Each colour varies in meaning. It is commonly found near the Mediterranean region. It is native to the area. It needs to be planted in an area that is subjected to sunlight for about four to six hours per day.

Carnations reflect ideas of fascination and distinction. It is also known as Dianthus Caryophyllus, grenadine, clove pink, or as we call it: carnation.  A white carnation is a wish of good luck, innocence, and purity.

It can be found during spring. Light red carnations represent admiration. Dark red carnations express deep affection. Carnation is the birth flower of those who are born in January. Striped carnations symbolize regret.


 Daffodils are as William Wordsworth said:

“I wandered lonely as a cloud

That floats on high o’er vales and hills.

When all at once I saw a crowd;

A host, of golden daffodils,

Beside the lake, beneath the trees,

Fluttering and dancing in the breeze.”

They are beautiful yellow flowers. Usually found in spring. They are also known as Narcissus. Narcissus is the Latin name for daffodils. It is said to be named after the son of the river god in Greek mythology.

They represent rebirth and new beginnings since they bloom right after the winter frost. Daffodils can last up to 10 days in a vase. They represent hope. They come in white as well. They are a symbol of positivity and forgiveness.

However, one single daffodil means bad luck. Daffodils multiply by adding bulbs indefinitely. This is why they are believed to hold an infinite life span. In other words, a very long life span.


 Dahlia is natively a Mexican flower. They are bushy. Dahlias come in different colours. They are sun lovers. The more sun they are subjected to, the better they grow. They need at least six hours in the sun daily.

They are easy to plant. Dahlias bloom beautifully from mid-summer through fall. A blooming season can last up to 4 months. They used to be a religious symbol. A dahlia expresses wealth and elegance.


Daisies can be found all over the world. On every continent. Except for Antarctica. Daisies tend to open in the morning and close at night. Maybe that is why they are known as day’s eye. It relates to the Old English name ‘daeges eage’.

Daisies have white petals with a circular golden yellow centre. It refers to childbirth and motherhood. It symbolizes new beginnings and rebirth as well. It is made up of two flowers. The yellow centre and the petal florets. Sometimes the petals can be colourful.


Lilies are also known as Lilium. They are incredible pollinators as they attract many insects with their colourful flowers and tasty nectar. They have large petals that can range in colour. From white, yellow, orange, red, purple, to pink. Some even have freckles.

Lilies are commonly thought to represent devotion or purity. For example, the Virgin Mary. They can even symbolize the rebirth of hope. It is usually used at funerals because it may refer to death. The lilies that are given at funeral service are known as the white stargazer lily.


Orchids are believed to have healing abilities. They absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen just like any other plant. Orchids flourish when subjected to the sun. They symbolize beauty and elegance. They are believed to bring good luck and prosperity.

They are believed to have legendary healing qualities. They are a common addition to homes and farms. Different traditional cultures have long used them for healing and medications. For example, the Chinese and Ayurvedic.


Roses are a wonderful expression of love and affection. They come in different types and have a variety of colours. The number of roses given also makes a difference. For example, giving 10 roses is like saying: “You Are Perfect!”

12 roses means be mine and 13 is not so in love. Red roses symbolize love and romance. Pink roses are the women’s favourite. They symbolize gratitude. Orange symbolize passion and enthusiasm. Whereas, yellow symbolize friendship.

Rose petals are eatable. Roses teach us that no matter what you are going through, you are still spreading joy by existing. Roses have thorns at every stage in its life. From when they are still buds till full bloom. They always spread joy by merely looking at them.


Sunflowers follow the sun throughout the day as we previously mentioned. They provide vibrancy and energy. They are known as happy flowers. They remind us of the sun. Sunflowers are a symbol of positivity.

They make our admiration and loyalty attribute show by giving them. Sunflowers attract bees and pest-patrolling birds which eventually improves the harvest. They can live from 8 to 12 weeks. Usually at the beginning of July till October.


Tulips are the flowers of love. They represent perfect and deep love. They are also known for their vibrant bold colours. They have beautiful shapes as well. They are long, broad, and have parallel-veined leaves that are cup-shaped. They may even appear in different colours.

Usually with six petals. However, they have only three petals and the other three are sepals that appear as petals. They are usually associated with forgiveness. The Tulip is the national flower of Iran.

Flowers’ Facts to Remember

  1. The world’s largest flower is the Titan Arum
  2. The Titan Arum is almost 10 feet
  3. The Titan Arum is one of the most stinky flowers out there
  4. The Titan Arum is also known as the corpse flower
  5. The Corpse Flower is labelled as the ugliest flower in the world
  6. The Oleander is the official flower of the city of Hiroshima
  7. The Oleander was the first plant to bloom after the atomic bomb in 1945
  8. The Sego Lily plant is the state flower of Utah
  9. Mormon pioneers survived on the Sego Lily plant
  10. The world’s oldest flower bloomed 125 million years ago

The Importance of Flowers

Flowers are sure pretty. They bring joy by just admiring them, but have you ever wondered why they are important? Well, they have many functions, we bet you didn’t know about them. Let us tell you a few of them.

We will tell you a lot about the manufacture of flowers, what do we extract from them, and what is its usage. We will discuss how essential are flowers in the medical field and medicines by concentrating on herbalism.

Finally, we will tell you how magnificent flowers make everything seem. We will elaborate on examples of cities that mainly use flowers for decoration while we discuss their different artistic features.

Flowers and Manufacture

Flowers are used in different manufacturing processes. They are used in cooking and food manufacturing. Flowers are also used in making perfumes. Their oils are used for different purposes as well. In addition to that, flowers are used in cosmetics.

We will learn about each of the three manufacturing processes. The first process is the cooking and food manufacture. Flowers are used extensively in food production and are even used as ingredients in cooking.

Cooking and Flowers

Some flowers are edible and their petals make delicious snacks. For example, roses. There are a lot of edible flowers that take cooking up a notch. We will discuss a few types of those flowers. However, not every plant that smells good is tasty.

Just remember that some plants and flowers can be poisonous, so make thorough research before cooking with a flower or just stick to the following list because we did our research and you are safe to go.


The Hibiscus flower has a sweet yet citrus taste. People say the taste reminds them of cranberries. They are added fresh or dry into teas or other hot beverages. In addition to being used as a garnish for a fresh salad.

Usually, Hibiscus is grown for ornamental purposes. However, it is also widely used for culinary and medicinal purposes. It is edible. Still, it tastes better when used for tea, jam, or salad. Most people drink Hibiscus tea for medical purposes.

To create such tea, you should steep the dried pieces in hot water. It creates a deep rose-coloured infusion. It is plain but has a subtle, tart, and floral flavour. It is also a great flavour addition to drinks and dishes.


The petals of Carnation taste sweet. However, the base of the flower is bitter. So, make sure to separate them. “What’s Cooking America”, a culinary show, stated that Carnations are the secret behind the making of Chartreuse.

Chartreuse is a French liqueur since the 17th century. Only the petals are edible. Carnations can be used as desserts, to decorate pasta dishes, or in cooking rice. You name it! They have sweet-tasting petals for every sweet- tooth out there.

Carnations are the second most cultivated flower after the roses. Each colour of carnations stands for a different entity or occasion. For example, pink Carnations are a representation of motherly love. Whereas, red Carnations are a necessity for Chinese weddings.


Closed Sunflower buds that have not opened up yet can be steamed and eaten as you would eat an artichoke. Its bright yellow petals add flavour and colours to our everyday salad. Sunflower oil is used for different variety of usages.

You can even cook the flower head of the Sunflower. Let us investigate how to do so step by step, together. First off, preheat your grill to medium heat. Remove all the outer and inner petals. This will reveal the creamy seeds.

Brush it all over in olive oil. Dust some sea salt and place it head down on the grill. Cover the head for 5 minutes. Then, remove the head and add a bit more oil and season it however you like. Now, take one big bite.


Lilacs have a variety of flavours. They range from bitter to bittersweet. However, it has a lemony taste with a floral overtone. It has a slightly bitter taste with its perfumed fragrance. Some may find that it tastes like citrus. Quite the zesty flavour.

Lilacs are great in fresh salads. They also make a good addition to candied or crystalized with a mixture of egg whites and sugar. The simplest most known way to enjoy Lilacs is by an infusion of the flowers to create Lilac sugar.

Lilacs are edible, specifically the flowers themselves. They do not contain any form of poison or harmful substances that may harm humans, animals, or upset the stomach. You can make Lilac honey, Lilac astringent, or sugar them for dessert.


People love to eat Chrysanthemums. It tastes a bit like cauliflower. It has a tangy and peppery taste. The petals are usually added to fresh salads. Young leaves and stems are added to an Asian dish called Chop Suey.

It is also added to Shingiku as it is known in Japanese. The base of the flower can be extremely bitter. However, it is still widely used in different cooking recipes as a favourable ingredient. Chrysanthemum may be similar in taste to cauliflower, but it still has a unique taste of its own.

The taste is commonly referred to as a Chinese flavour taste. The leaves of Chrysanthemum are eatable even in their raw state. They can be eaten as they are, cooked to taste even better, or added to the food to enrich the taste.


Nasturtiums are one of the most enchanting additions to cooking. It is commonly used in cooking. The colourful flowers are sweet yet slightly peppery. It is just the right amount. It reminds us of the watercress.

Nasturtiums can be added to fresh salads. It fills up the savoury stuffing taste. We can even use their seed pods as a pocket-friendly alternative to capers. We can even use them as a sweet peppery addition to sandwiches, appetizers, and even cocktails.

The leaves of Nasturtiums are eatable. They make beautiful garnishes. Not only the leaves, but the whole flower is fully edible. The leaves, flowers, and seeds are all edible. They are a good source of vitamin C. Always remember, that they have a peppery taste.


The petals of Peonies are sweet. They are usually added to tea or water to infuse flavour. Especially, in China. It is also used in giving a nice appearance to the salad or cold beverage. Peony petals are so pretty and quite tasty.

Peonies are fragrant. The petals may taste good, but the roots, flowers, and seeds are toxic. It will cause poisoning. That will result in diarrhoea, skin irritation, tremors, and an accelerated heartbeat. So, be sure to split the petals from the roots and eat only the petals.

Peonies may look beautiful and smell nice, but they are quite toxic. So, only eat the petals or avoid the flower altogether. Not every flower is completely edible on our list. Some have specific parts that are edible. Others are fully edible to the roots.


Finally, the roses. You see, roses are pretty and fragrant. In addition to being quite tasty. The flavours differ. It depends on the growing condition which varies. The flavour and taste would make you think of strawberries or green apples.

All roses are edible. Darker coloured roses have a stronger flavour. We can use roses in a variety of ways. They can be added to salads, desserts, spreads, jam, butter, and so much more. The options are endless.

It can taste sweet, subtle, or range from fruit to mint to spice. You can freeze them in ice cubes or add them to drinks. The flower petals can be used to make jellies, syrups, or perfumed butter. Make sure you remove the bitter white portion of the petals.

Perfumes and Flowers

Nearly everyone would agree that flowers smell good. Their good smell makes them a good ingredient to add to perfumes. Perfumes are a luxury to some people and a necessity to others. However, we can all agree that they smell good.

Flowers make perfumes smell so much better and they may even change the colour of the perfume. We will mention a few flowers that are used in perfume manufacturing and we hope you find your next favourite perfume among them.


Roses are known as the queen of flowers. Roses are an essential ingredient in many floral perfumes. They are harvested by night. That’s because they carry a strong scent before sunrise. This is why they are usually harvested by night.

Rosa Centifolia and Rosa Damascene are two types of flowers that are widely used in perfume making worldwide. Rosa Centifolia is found in the south of France. Rosa Damascene is found in most Arab countries.

The notes are mostly used in perfumes because they offer a very refreshing scent that can mesmerize people’s senses. You can create your perfume with roses at home. It usually involves rose petals and some water.


Lavender is one of the most beautiful sweet-smelling flowers out there. It is used for many different purposes. Culinary, medical, and perfumery. They are flowers that are native to the old world.

They can be found across the Canary Island, South Europe, North and East Africa, the Mediterranean, and India. Lavender’s fragrance is unique. One of the most fragrant species of lavender is the hybrid Lavandin Lavender.

Lavender can be used to make your very own perfume at home. Some grain alcohol, 8 drops of vanilla oleoresin, and 10 drops of lavender essential oil. Combine them in a small bottle that is about 10 ML.


Jasmine is one of the sweet-smelling and pleasantly modest flowers. Their fragrance is at its peak just before dawn. They are processed immediately before their fragrance fades away. They are found in tropical regions all over the world.

They come in white and yellowish colours. They are widely used in the manufacturing of perfumes and cosmetics because of their mesmerizing fragrance. Jasmine flowers are used in aromatherapy.

Dried Jasmine flowers are used to make tea and have a nice scent that has a calming effect on the brain. “Jasmine” is a Persian word. Its origin is Yasmine. It means fragrance. There are more than 200 species of Jasmine out there.

Only two out of the 200 are used in perfumery. Jasmine Sambac is the first. It is native to China and India, but it mainly grows in India. The second is Jasmine Grandiflorum. It is native to Afghanistan and Iran, but commonly grown in France.


Violet is very common in the perfume industry. Due to its magnificent fragrance. Violets can be dated back to Ancient Greece in 500 B.C. They are native to the Northern Hemisphere, Hawaii, Australia, and the Andes in South America.

Two specific species of Violets are mainly used in the perfume industry. The first one is Victoria Violet. The second is the Parma Violet. Violets usually contain a chemical called ionine.

This chemical is responsible for desensitizing the nose and sense of smell. It is used in the production of perfumes, oils, and lotions because of its scent. Violets smell soft and can create a perfume with a very feminine fragrance.


Tuberose has a strong scent. Which is one of the reasons it is used in making perfumes. Once you smell Tuberose, you cannot help but remember the smell of gardens. That is because it smells more earthly than most fragrances.

Tuberose has metallic and buttery hints in its scent. However, it does not always smell good. Beware. When its petals turn brown, the smell turns to that of rot. As long as it is blooming, you are on the safe side.

It can smell spicy, creamy, or even as an exotic floral ingredient. Tuberose is considered one of the most expensive raw materials in creating a perfume. That is because 3600 Kg are used to extract only 0.5 Kg of the Tuberose oil. Which is a tiny amount.

Ylang Ylang

Ylang Ylang is not white, but it is white at heart. Meaning, it shares the features of white flowers. White flowers have fragrant scents. So does Ylang Ylang. It smells spicy, fruity, and heady.

In other words, Ylang Ylang is white at heart. It is referred to as the “Jasmine of the poor”. It is one exotic flower that is so sweet. Not as food, but sweet in smell. It originated from South Wast Asia, but it can be found all over Africa, the Caribbean, and the Americas.

Ylang Ylang can grow on trees or even on a vine. It produces large and long yellow or green flowers. They are usually picked up when they are most fragrant. That is when they have a reddish tint to them.


Frangipani is also known as Plumeria. Plumeria grows on trees. It can be white, yellow, or pink. It is a flower with an exotic scent of tropical wind. These flowers are native to tropical regions of South-East Asia, the Caribbean, and Brazil.

The same as Jasmine and Tuberose, Plumeria is most fragrant at night. Plumeria trick pollinators into pollinating them since they have and produce no nectar. It smells similar to Jasmine and Tuberose.

However, its scent is distinguished. It may contain a hint of lemon. It is believed to have the strongest scent among all the floral fragrances. That is why it is one of the basic ingredients of most perfumes.


Narcissus is one of the few wildflowers that is used in commercial fragrances. It is native to meadows and woods across Southern Europe and North Africa. It is widely grown across Asia and the Middle East.

The origin of the name is not exactly known. However, it somehow links to the Greek word ‘Narke’. This word means narcotic. This term suits the scent of these flowers wonderfully. It is usually also related to the Greek myth of Narcissus.

It tells the story of a handsome youth who one day was passing by a pond. He fell in love almost instantly. Once his eyes fell upon his reflection. Some say he fell in and drowned. Others say he turned into stone as time passed.

Others believe he perished away with time. However, they all agreed that Narcissus was his name. So, they called the flower that grew in the place he used to sit and admire his reflection after his name. The word refers to the story and so the name is associated with the flower.

Cosmetics and Flowers

Flowers do not only smell and taste good, they also look good and help us look even better. Some flowers are used in the manufacture of cosmetics. Cosmetics are not an everyday necessity to most people, but it is indeed an undeniably important matter to others.

Flowers are involved in the manufacturing of those undeniably important cosmetics. We will discuss a few flowers that are used in the manufacture of cosmetics.  Sunflower and Hibiscus oils are used in cosmetics to brighten the skin and moisturize it.

While they can also soften the hair and add shine to it. Roses, on the other hand, smell good, taste good, and look good. Because of their sweet fragrance, gentle texture on the skin, and nice colours, some roses are mostly used in manufacturing cosmetics.

Roses contain a variety of vitamins, antioxidants, and minerals. That is beneficial for the skin. Its oils are awesome for moisturizing dry skin. It also offers astringent properties. That makes it an excellent combatant of acne, redness, and inflammation.

Lavender, on the other hand, has many properties that allow it to gracefully enter the cosmetics field. It reduces acne. Lavender detoxifies the skin. It soothes irritation. Lavender tones your skin. It calms down the brain because of its soothing fragrance.

In turn, it helps us sleep. It is the perfect cure for anxiety and depression. Lavender also helps with hair loss problems. It gets rid of dandruff. Lavender can do so much more. That is why it became a vital ingredient in the production of cosmetics.

Saponaria is another one of those flowers that are considered the first choice of cosmetic development brands. That is because it has many properties that can be used in different variety of products.

It can be used as a powerful tool in your fight against acne. Saponaria contains natural chemical compounds that allow it to moisturize the skin. It rejuvenates it by creating rejuvenating masks, body oils, and so much more.

Chamomile mostly helps people relax because of its captivating and soothing fragrance. It is also used widely in skincare products. For example, in the creams, we use to keep our skin hydrated and moisturized.

It is also mainly used as an ingredient in the preparation of anti-inflammatory creams. It helps in improving the health of our bodies. It contains powerful anti-oxidants. For example, polyphenols and phytochemicals.

Once applied to the skin, it helps accelerate cell and tissue renewal. Therefore, it is used in anti-ageing creams or in the manufacture of products that protect the skin. According to Engelman, it reduces the appearance of fine lines and gives the skin a youthful glow.

Verbena, on the other hand, can be used in cooking, but it is mainly used as an undeniably essential element in the development of cosmetics. It helps recover the original state of the skin and keeps the skin hydrated.

Some acne creams use Verbena mainly, but it is also widely used as an important ingredient in other cosmetics products and skin-care elements. It is used in making deodorants and hand wipes because of its nice-smelling aroma.

Herbalism and Flowers

Flowers are not just sweet-smelling, tasty, and pretty. They are also handy. Flowers are used as herbs and cures in medical fields in a wide variety of countries. Some flowers are special because of their healing properties.

We will mention a few flowers that have these healing properties. Some flowers have proved throughout history that they have extraordinary healing abilities. They were used as a cure to almost every illness and as medicaments during the war.


Lotus is considered sacred in some countries and others, it is used as an everyday element in medicinal usage. It contains chemicals that decrease swelling, and kill cancer cells and bacteria. It also helps reduce blood sugar, break down fat, and protect the heart and blood vessels.

The Chemicals in Lotus help protect the skin, liver, and brain. Some people experienced feeling ‘high’ as a result of consuming the blue Lotus plant. It got them in a state of euphoria. This is one of the reasons why blue Lotus consumption is not approved in the United States.

It is also known as the sacred Lotus in some countries. The flowers, seeds, leaves, and some parts of the underground stem, also known as rhizome, of the Lotus are used to make medicines. It is used to stop bleeding. In addition to being used to treat digestive disorders, like diarrhoea.


Lavender dates back to the ancient Egyptians. Lavender played a crucial role in the mummification process. The word itself can be traced back down to its Latin roots. It was ‘Lavare’. That meant in Latin ‘to wash’.

As time went on, Lavender was a wonderful addition to bathtubs in several regions. For example, Ancient Persia, Greece, and Rome. These cultures believed that Lavender helped purify the body and the mind.

Lavender has been used to reduce many symptoms and improve multiple conditions. It was recommended for people suffering from sleep disorders. Such as insomnia. Lavender helps improve our sleep patterns and the quality of our sleep.

The aroma itself and inhaling it would eventually improve the sleep pattern. Lavender was also prescribed for those suffering from anxiety. It helps decrease anxiety as well. In addition to helping us with our hair loss problems.

It stimulates hair growth in about 28 days frame. The secret is consistency. It also helps with migraine and headaches. Lavender soothes headaches and migraines away. It also helps in handling and dealing with the side effects of chemotherapy.

It treats depression. Lavender helps fight off acne. It is also applied to burns as a traditional remedy to treat them. It helps improve skin conditions overall. It helps soothe wounds and makes them heal much faster.


Jasmine is used for a variety of purposes, but we will mainly talk about its medicinal features and usages. Jasmine oil is extracted from Jasmine. It is an essential oil that came from the plant we call Jasmine or Jasminum Officinale.

It has been popular for its sweet scent. It is used in the making of the world’s best-known perfumes, like Chanel No.5. It is also used in food, desserts, sweets, and alcohol. Jasmine oil can also be used as a home remedy to treat almost everything we suffer from.

It has lots and lots of health benefits. Jasmine is also used as an antidepressant. Aromatherapy is believed to reduce depressive symptoms. It boosts blood oxygen saturation and blood pressure. It helps people become more alert.

Jasmine improves the overall mood of the person. Jasmine oil is usually used in aromatherapy. Jasmine is also used as an antiseptic. The plant has antiseptic properties. Jasmine can be used in treating or preventing infections.

When diluted and directly applied to the skin or may be used to rinse oral infections. Jasmine has a romantic fragrance. It is also used as an antispasmodic. It reduces spasms. It is also used as a sedative.

Jasmine has sedative properties. It has a calming effect. The name ‘Jasmine’ can be traced back to its Persian roots. It used to mean ‘Gift from God’. Jasmine is highly sacred in India and the Himalayas.

Indian women use it to scent their hair and call it the “moonlight of the grove”. It is the national flower of Pakistan. It is also a sacred flower of the Kama, known as the God of Love. In the Himalayas of Western Chine, Jasmine is known as the ‘Queen of the Flowers’.

It helps with stress and insomnia. The delicate flower of Jasmine can create a fragrant tea with a soothing effect. It is rich in antioxidants. Antioxidants interact with gastrointestinal enzymes to facilitate better nutrient absorption.

It eliminates harmful bacteria and promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria in the stomach. It relieves indigestion. Jasmine deals with stomach cramps. It also soothes inflammation. Jasmine may be a delicate flower, but surely one with huge effects.


Sunflowers are native to the Americas. They are used for many purposes. Among those purposes, we have medicine. They have been used in medicinal remedies since the dawn of day. In our modern times, sunflowers still hold the status of medicinal properties.

It helps regulate cholesterol levels. Sunflower oil is rich in fatty acids. Those acids are healthy and they help lower harmful cholesterol levels. This, in turn, reduces the risk of heart attacks and atherosclerosis.

Sunflowers also help strengthen the bones since the seeds contain high levels of vitamins and minerals. These prevent age-related diseases. For example, osteoporosis and arthritis. Sunflowers also promote brain health because their seeds contain high levels of essential minerals.

Those minerals are considered brain food. They are harvested from the flower head. The seed itself is encased in a black and white striped shell. The seeds of sunflowers have a distinctive nutty flavour to them.


Chamomile is one of the most familiar medicinal herbs out there. The tea made out of Chamomile leaves was and still is used in traditional remedies. It mainly calms anxiety disorders and relieves stomach pain and cramps.

It may also relieve an upset stomach. Treat heartburn. Deal with nausea and vomiting. Chamomile does so much more. It helps with wound healing. Mainly, it is used for treating sleep, stomach, digestion, bruises, inflammation, and headache problems.

It is still being investigated as a treatment for diabetes. Chamomile is also known as Matricaria Recutita. It is sometimes also referred to as German Chamomile. It is a native herb to Europe, Africa, and Asia. It is also grown in North America.

Germany uses it as a treatment for coughs, bronchitis, and fevers. It contains many elements that are key to many other diseases and disorders. It is often consumed as herbal tea that soothes the mind and the brain.


Calendula is a plant. The flower is used to make medicine. Calendula is used to relieve and prevent muscle spasms. It helps reduce fever. It is also used to treat sore throat and mouth. Calendula helps with cramps, cancer, and stomach indigestion.

Calendula is also known as Pot Marigold. It is native to the Mediterranean region of Europe. It has antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties. In addition to being used in cosmetics, soaps, and shampoos.

It is also used as a wound treatment. The name Calendula is derived from the Latin name Calendar. It refers to the blooming season. It is also known as Marigold. The oil is extracted and used for different purposes.

Flowers as Decoration

Flowers, undeniably, look pretty and they make everything else look good. Some countries mainly use flowers as inspiration to design their buildings or decorate the place for a specific occasion. Other countries usually use flowers to decorate their gardens and houses.

Some people just love to decorate themselves using flowers. That includes their dresses, hairstyles, as well as cosmetics, as we previously elaborated. We will investigate each of them as much as time allows us to. In the end, we hope you can determine what your country mainly uses flowers for.

Flowers and Buildings

Flowers inspired many works of art, they still do, and they always will. Flowers do not only taste, smell, and look good, but also they spread goodness. Some countries went looking for flowers when they wanted to build and decorate.

Other countries still seek out flowers as their main source of inspiration. We will talk about a few buildings that were inspired by flowers. Then, we will discuss how flowers are used as a decoration inside buildings for a specific occasion or as an everyday beautiful sight.

The Lotus Temple

It is designed to look like a Lotus Flower. It is located in Delhi, India. It is a Bahai House of Worship that is open to people of every belief. Wherever your faith and beliefs lie, this place is open for you to explore.

The Lotus flower is one of the flowers that are considered sacred in India. The structure is shaped like that of the petal of the Lotus flower. The structure is clad in white marble. That white marble came from Greece.

MAXXI Museum

The National Museum of the 21st Century Arts is also known as MAXXI. It is the masterpiece of Zaha Hadid. Zaha Hadid is a Roman artist. The MAXXI museum contains many exhibits that are truly works of art.

However, it particularly contained The Golden Lotus piece. That piece was inspired by the shape of the Lotus flower. It was created by Choi Jeong- Hwa. Another artist could not help, but admires the beauty of flowers and sculptured it into life.

Sheikh Zayed Mosque

Muslims go to Mosques to pray their five prayers a day. A Mosque is a holy place just like a Church or a Temple. They are all places where people go to pray and practice their religion. The Sheikh Zayed Mosque lies in Abu Dhabi.

Its floors are covered in beautiful floral mosaics. They were designed by the artist Kevin Dean. The designs cover most, if not all, of the floors of the Mosque. The designs cover the interior walls and floors as well as the courtyard.

Marina Bay Sands

The Marina Bay Sands resort lies in Singapore. It contains a beautifully designed Art Science Museum. It was inspired by the Lotus flowers as well. Moshe Safdie found this inspiration that resulted in this beautiful piece of architecture.

The building is designed based on the shape of a Lotus flower. Each petal features a skylight. That skylight is at the tip of the pedal. To illuminate the interior that is visible to the people outside with natural light.

Burj Khalifa

Burj Khalifa is located in Dubai. The architecture was inspired by the Spider Lily. The Spider Lily is also commonly known as Hymenocallis. It was designed by the architects at SOM. The three-pronged footprints of the tower are more or fewer abstractions of the Spider Lily.

The plant inspired the architects to the point that they decided to work day and night on bringing this inspiration to life. They have thoroughly succeeded. The building is now considered the tallest skyscraper in the world.

Hangzhou Sports Center

The Hangzhou Sports Center is located in Beijing. It was designed for a specific purpose. The Hangzhou Sports Center was designed for the 2022 Winter Olympics that will take place in Beijing.

The building is inspired by the Lotus flower. The Lotus flower has indeed inspired many buildings and architecture. The Hangzhou Sports Center was designed by NBBJ. Intended to look like a Lotus- façade that is wrapped in white petals.

Prentice Women’s Hospital

The Prentice Women’s Hospital is a part of Northwestern University’s campus in downtown Chicago. However, it is now demolished. It was designed by Bertrand Goldberg. The artist was inspired by a cloverleaf.

A single fragile cloverleaf inspired a whole architectural building. It was completed in 1975. It was one of the very few first structures that were designed using computers. The Brutalist structure was one of the few of the first whose plans were made and mapped out using computers.

Quizhong Tennis Center

Quizhong Tennis Center is located in Shanghai. It was inspired by the magnolia flower. It is a beautiful flower. The Quizhong Tennis Center features a dynamic roof that consists of petals. The roof closes and opens depending on the weather.

Grand Lisboa

The Grand Lisboa is located in Macau. Specifically, in the Grand Lisboa hotel and casino. It was also inspired by the blossoming Lotus. Therefore, the postmodern design resembles the blossoming Lotus.

Flowers did not only inspire works of art and buildings, but they also helped improve our moods by just being there. That is why you would see flowers in Churches, gardens, or events. We will pick a few flowers to talk about in decorating weddings.


Rose is the symbol of Love. This is why it is popularly used as a decoration at weddings. It comes in different colours. Because of the variety of colours it comes in, it is easily paired with other flowers for decoration.

Roses look pretty in almost everything. They look pretty in large arrangements. They look good as centrepieces. They look good as bouquets. They look good in a corsage. They look good in almost everything.

They would and will add to the beauty of a well-decorated wedding event or venue. Roses are elegant. They are also fresh. Those two features make roses one of the most frequently used flowers in decoration because they fit for every celebration. 


Daisy, on the other hand, is a traditional wedding flower. It also comes in a variety of different colours. Which is one of the reasons why it is usually used by people in venue decorations for occasions and events.

Rustic and vintage are simply asking for a daisy. It is the perfect flower for decorating the event in rustic or vintage themes. Daisies make the perfect centrepiece for such weddings. The arrangements and bouquets will be dominated by those colourful daisies.

It is quite easy to fix daisies up with other flower arrangements. They simply fit in right away. Plus, they are low- maintenance. So do not worry about watering them now and then. Daisies are a smart choice for your wedding themed venue.


Carnations are quite affordable if you are looking for something high quality, good appearance, and on budget, then you have come to the right place. Carnations are the perfect addition to almost every event out there. Especially, weddings.

Carnations are available in a variety of shades and colours. You can choose any shade based on the theme of your event and the other plants or flowers involved in the event. It all falls back to your personal preference.

These flowers last way longer than your normal flower. Not to mention, they look extra fancy. Which makes them the perfect fit for your extravagant wedding right there. Did I mention, they are quite affordable?


Fluffy and cute? We got you right here! Look no further, Hydrangea are on the go. Do you want to make your big party a success? Fill it up with flowers? However, you ended up unsure which flower is the perfect fit for your cute party.

Well, Hydrangea is here now, worry no more. It will fill up all that extra space right there. The bouquet, centrepieces, and the décor. Especially, in summer. It comes in different varieties of shades and colours.

They are usually used up along with other flowers to increase the volume and give shape to the flowers as a whole. They greatly add to the look of the overall theme. Hydrangea increases the volume of the bouquets or vases. They will certainly add a magical touch to your event.


Did you mention charming and beautiful? Well, orchids are right here. They represent all the charm and beauty you can look for in one flower. They will most certainly add to your overall look of the theme.

Whether traditional or modern, orchids will do the trick. They look gorgeous on almost every occasion they set foot in. One arrangement or a single stem will look good anyways. The number does not matter as long as it’s orchids.

Delicately sweet orchids come in different varieties and shades. They are the perfect addition to your wedding or event if I may say. A glass vase with orchids in it will look heavenly perfect as a delicate theme.

Garden Flowers

Some flowers are a must-have addition to our gardens. We will demonstrate a few flowers that will add to your garden by just blossoming there. Gardens reflect the beauty of the eye of the beholder.


Angelonia is a beautiful stem flower that has a wide range of varieties. It has different colours and types. There are about 30 types of Angelonia stem flowers out there. Angelmist Lavender Angelonia and Serenita Raspberry Angelonia are two examples. 


Azaleas bloom in spring. They can and would tolerate shade. They often last several weeks. They are found usually near or under trees. Azaleas are flowering shrubs. They come in a variety of different shades and colours.


Begonias are also known as wax begonias or bedding begonias. It is an annual plant that grows quickly and fills up space. They are attractive frilly flowers. Some say they are even deer-resistant.


Calibrachoa is also known as million bells. It is one of the most popular plants that are grown outdoors. It comes in rainbow colours and a variety of shapes. They are best planted in spring. They will grow and bloom throughout the season.


Clematis or as some may call it ‘Queen of the Vines’. Comes in different varieties of colours and shapes. However, it is agreed that it will always give that ‘wow’ addition to the landscape of your garden.

A few Flowers’ Facts

  1. Dandelions are considered weeds
  2. Dandelions’ leaves are a good source of vitamins A and C, you heard that right! They are rich in iron, calcium, and potassium
  3. Roses are related to apples, raspberries, cherries, peaches, plums, nectarines, pears, and almonds
  4. Chrysanthemums are associated with funerals in Malta
  5. Almost 60 % of fresh-cut flowers in the U.S. come from California
  6. The world’s oldest flower is named Archaefructus Sinensis
  7. The world’s oldest flower was found to have bloomed in northeast China
  8. The world’s oldest flower resembles a water lily
  9. Scientists discovered the world’s oldest flower in 2002
  10. Flower buds of Marigold are pickled to substitute for capers

Flowers’ Significance

We have spoken a bit about the importance of flowers, but we haven’t fully covered their significance and the value they add to our relations. Each type of flower, specific number of flowers, and the colour of the flowers as well as their arrangement all matter.

Each one of those has a huge impact and is undeniably significant. We will review some flowers, the months and their relation to flowers, and discuss different styles of flower arrangements in as much detail as possible.

Black-eyed Susan

Black-eyed Susan is bright yellow with daisy-like petals and an almost black centre. It usually flourishes between June and October. They are considered a symbol of encouragement and wisdom. It is an important food and shelter for different animals and insects.

For example, slugs, rabbits, and deer. Even butterflies lay their eggs on it. For example, Silvery Checkerspot. The Black-eyed Susan thrives in the sun. It attracts parasitic insects that lay their eggs on the flower as well. For example, blister beetles.

Black-eyed Susan is also known as Rudbeckia hirta. It is native to Eastern and central North America. Black-eyed Susan is also naturalized in the Western part of the continent as well as China.


Catmint is also known as Catnip, Nepeta Cataria, or Catswort. However, it is not Catnip. Catnip stimulates cats, but catmint does not. They are often mistaken for one another. To the point, people refer to Catmint saying “oh, look Catnip” Na- ah, buddy, those are Catmint. Not Catnip.

Catmint has a long history of being used as a traditional herbal remedy. Usually, it is used to treat digestive system disorders. It stimulates sweating. It is useful in reducing fevers and dealing with them.

Catmint can grow up to 3 feet tall and 4 feet wide. Catmint is actually from the mint plants family. It usually flourishes during summer. It grows quickly and is known as deer-resistant. It can be planted from spring to early fall.


Chrysanthemums are sometimes known as mums or chrysanths. They are native to East Asia and northeastern Europe. Most of the species originated in East Asia. However, they became common in the centre of diversity, China.

Chrysanthemums differ in connotations, depending on the culture. In Malta, they see the flower as a bad omen. It is associated with funerals and death. It is considered bad luck to bring it into the house.

In Japan, however, they see Chrysanthemum as a wonderfully happy and cheerful flower. It is often referred to Chrysanthemum as ‘the Queen of Fall Flowers. Over time, Chrysanthemums became associated with death in European cultures.


Lantana looks pretty unique and colourful. However, it is quite toxic for most livestock. Lantana needs sun to flourish and bloom wonderfully. They are evergreen shrubs. They grow rapidly and spread tall.

They look pretty, but as we already mentioned they are quite toxic. There is a difference between Lantana and Verbena. Lantana is climbing plants. Whereas, Verbena’s maximum reaches between three to six feet tall.


Lavender is native to northern Africa and the regions that are full of mountains on the Mediterranean. It is used, grown, and cultivated for many purposes. One of them is for the production of its essential oil.

Lavender is used for medicinal purposes and so much more. However, its essential oil may cause skin irritation or an allergic reaction. It was reported that in some cases it caused nausea, vomiting, or headache after the usage of lavender.

We are probably all familiar with the song that goes; Lavender’s blue, dilly, dilly

Thanks to Cinderella 2015 movie. Since we are talking about lavender, we should probably mention that this song was also sung by Dinah Shore in 1948. Now, back to talking about the plant, lavender is not all dilly, dilly.

It is quite poisonous to cats and dogs as well, so be careful which bush is your pet playing in, assuming that your pet is either a cat or a dog that is. Lavender has different nationalities. It may be French or English or even otherwise.

Lavender is also known as Lavandula. However, it is commonly known as lavender. Lavender flowers represent purity, silence, devotion, serenity, grace, and calmness. The distinguished purple colour gives off a sense of royalty.

It speaks of elegance, as some may say. The colour purple is associated with the crown chakra. That is the energy centre associated with a higher purpose in life. It represents spiritual connectivity.

Spiritually, lavender symbolizes purity, devotion, and love. Lavender helps out when it comes to the mind. It helps calm the mind and that may be why it is usually used in spiritual healing sessions.

It is known that lavender evokes serenity and a sense of purification. Not only that but also it is considered to have a feminine colour as some believe. Others think it just resembles the ‘grown-up’ pink. What do you think?

Lavender is used in purification rituals. Lavender’s essential oils and perfumes are worn by high priests and nobilities. Of course, we only spoke of lavender’s significance briefly and even its medicinal properties are brief as well. Lavender represents so much more.


Snapdragons represent strength. They grow in rocky and uninhabitable areas. Some say they may represent deviousness and grace. As they are usually used as charms against falsehood as some may call it or ward off evil spirits.

Snapdragons represent grace and virtue. The stems of snapdragons stand up straight looking up to the sky. They carry themselves with excellent posture almost effortlessly. They emit poise and confidence.

Snapdragons are the perfect gift to give to someone you highly appreciate, respect, and may look up to. Especially, if you want to show gratitude. It is the perfect form of expression of appreciation and showing you think highly of someone or hold them in high regard.

Reasons may vary. However, you would certainly give snapdragon to someone you appreciate in your life. It may even be considered a way to express how you see that person. It represents particularly graceful people even in difficult situations.

Sweet Alyssum

Alyssum is also known as sweet Alyssum. It evokes feelings of calmness and sweetness. It attracts beneficial insects to your garden. Whether your garden consists of flowers or vegetables. In the language of flowers, sweet alyssum is known as a flower that is sweet and calm.

You can call it angelic if you may. Some believe that sweet alyssum protects those who wear it from dangerous situations. The name alyssum is derived from the Greek word ‘lyssa’. It translates to ‘anger’ or ‘bitterness’.


Yarrow is also known as the devil’s nettle. As in the devil’s plaything. It was also known as the old man’s pepper due to its pungent flavour. It is used for beer making in Sweden. Yarrow is considered a herb.

It is widely used to make medicine. It helps treat fever, common cold, and hay fever. Not only those, but also helps in dealing with diarrhoea, loss of appetite, and induced sweating. People chew it to relieve toothache.

Yarrow is a beautiful flower that shares both the meanings of healing and love. In many languages, Yarrow is associated with healing. It originated from Ancient Greek mythology. The Yarrow plant is also used for divination in Chinese culture.

Flowers and Months

Each flower represents a month. Each person has a birth flower. There are numerous flowers out there. The pattern and order may differ. However, we will try to provide you with the most common pattern of birth flowers. So, you can successfully choose and determine which your birth flower is? Buckle up!

  • January: Carnations
  • February: Iris and Violet
  • March: Daffodils
  • April: Daisy and Sweet Pea
  • May: Lily of the Valley
  • June: Rose
  • July: Larkspur and Water Lily
  • August: Gladioli
  • September: Aster
  • October: Marigold
  • November: Chrysanthemums
  • December: Narcissus, Holly, and Poinsettia

The Art of Flowers’ Arrangement

Flowers are art because they have artistic features and they inspire art. They make everything look way better. They are used in manufacture and decoration. Mainly, decoration. Because art is meant to be shared.

Flowers share this beauty by existing. They inspire artists to create art. The flowers smell good. The flowers look good. Flowers taste good. Some flowers taste good, but not all. Also, not all flowers look and smell good.

We have already told you about the corpse flower. The ugliest and smelliest flower on the entire Earth. It smells like a rotten corpse. It has been labelled as the ugliest flower in the world. So, no, not all flowers look and smell good.

Especially, not all flowers taste good. Some are toxic and can cause severe damage to our skin if we are not careful. However, flowers are used for many different purposes. We will elaborate on the decorating aspect of flowers.

Flowers have long been used for their different qualities. Especially, beauty. Flowers look pretty, especially if they are arranged in a specific order or shape. Throughout the years, people developed different flower arranging styles.

That brought about the beauty of the flowers used in the flowers’ arrangement even more. People, naturally, admired such beauty. More and more people started doing it. Eventually, it became a daily practice in some countries and an act of elegance in others.

The Egyptian Style

Ancient Egyptians arranged flowers in beautiful patterns. Specific flowers were worshipped and treasured. Let us learn some more about the Egyptian flower arrangement style, together. First off, we must mention the Lotus.

The Lotus was one of the sacred flowers of the Ancient Egyptians. The Ancient Egyptians called flowers ‘garden scent.’ Flowers were a common motif in art. They had bouquets that decorated the places for artists.

In Egyptian homes, there were always flowers to be found. Lotus and Papyrus were the most important plants at the time. Women and men were often depicted holding the Lotus or inhaling the divine fragrance.

In offering depictions of Ancient Egyptians, blue and white lotus were drawn along with papyrus stems. The blue lotus is known as Nymphaea Caerulea Savigny. It was one of the most popular flowers in ancient Egypt.

It has a strong scent. Especially, when it opens.  When the sun shines and its rays reach the flower, the blue lotus opens up revealing its yellow calyx. That is surrounded by petals of beautiful shades of blue. As its scent spreads.

At noon, however, it closes off into a bud and sinks into the water. It repeats the process every day. Eventually, it was associated with the idea of rebirth and creation. The blue lotus possesses hallucinogenic properties. Which is yet another reason for its popularity among the ancient Egyptians.

The white lotus, on the other hand, is named Nymphaea Lotus. It blooms during the night. It eventually became the symbol of continuity and renewal of life. That was so essential to the Ancient Egyptians.

The blue lotus and white lotus are in reality two varieties of water lily. However, they are still called lotus by Egyptologists. The flower arrangement was quite popular during the times of the old and Middle kingdoms.

Sometimes, it would be a bunch of lotuses held in the hand of the person presenting the bouquet. Other times, they may add papyrus stems whether by tying them together or entwining them with the enigmatic lily of the south.

However, all of that changed with the becoming of the New Kingdom. That is when a variety of flowers, grasses, leaves, and fruits began to artfully be a part of the arrangements. They were artistically added to the arrangements of wreaths, garlands, collars, and normal bouquets of various shapes.

Collars that were made with fresh flowers were frequently worn at banquets. Servants were represented tying those onto the guests. Let us keep going and see which flower arrangement style you prefer.  

The English Style

The English flower arrangement style is quite popular. Especially, in Western countries. We can find mostly roses, peonies, dahlias, and even ranunculus. We can even find spikey flowers, like larkspur, delphinium, and snapdragons. We may even find foxglove.

The shape of the English flower arrangements is usually either oval or round. People believe the art of flower arrangement started with the Egyptians, but other people believe it all started with the Japanese.

The Japanese Style

The art of flower arrangement in Japan is known as ikebana. Ikebana is traditionally known as the classic art of Japanese flower arranging. The meaning of the term itself was extended to include various styles of Japanese floral art.

Flower arrangement is considered a form of eloquence in Japan. It is quite important. Ikebana is the art of flower arranging that originated in ancient Japan. It was and is still practised as art that studies where the flowers and other natural elements are placed in specific ways.

Those specific ways are intended to embody harmony, peace, and beauty. A flower arrangement form can tell so much about the house and the people in it. In some regions, it is required of the bride to be extensively involved in the art of flower arrangement and tea preparation.

Those are the conditions for the bride to be considered elegant. Most, if not all, of the facts regarding the Japanese flower arrangement that will follow, are inspired by a book titled “Japanese Etiquette” by the World Fellowship Committee of the Tokyo Young Women’s Christian Association.

Flower arrangement is an art that is considered an indispensable part of the daily everyday life of the Japanese people. Some believe it originated from the custom of offering flowers to Buddha and the Shinto gods.

Regardless of the origin of the custom, it most certainly expresses the love and adoration that the Japanese people have for nature. Flower arrangement is an undeniably essential part of every Japanese home.

Just as modern arts of paintings and sculptures are mostly common in Western homes. By arranging a few flowers, we create a sense of closeness to nature and an impression of natural life. It is an integral part of the Japanese way of life.

The characteristics of the Japanese flower arrangement are found in the beauty of the lines rather than in the harmonization that is found between the colours of the flowers as they do in the West.

The Japanese consider the branch, the placement of the stalk, and the shape first-hand. That is done even before the flower arranging process takes place. That is done to create a sense of beauty. Maybe, that is due to the graceful Japanese architectural designs.

The Japanese even classify the flower arrangement process into three different styles of arrangement. The first style or kind is known as Seika. Seika is a formal Japanese style of flower arrangement.

The second style or kind is known as Nageire. Nageire is an informal and natural Japanese style of flower arrangement. The third and final style or kind is known as Moribana. Moribana is the most modern form of the Japanese style of flower arrangement.

We will elaborate on each style extensively, so sit tight. The Seika style is usually called ry^ugi- bana. This style is expressed by the Koryu and Ikenobo schools. Those two schools follow definite forms of arrangement and therefore are considered to be formal as well as classical schools.

The length and angle of each branch are strictly fixed. In a specific shape of an irregular triangle called ten- chi- jin. The syllable (ten-) in ten- chi- jin, refers to heaven. The syllable (–in-) in ten- chi- jin, refers to the earth. The syllable (-Jin) in ten- chi- jin refers to man.

This specified irregular triangle gives a strong impression of uniformity and equilibrium. On the other hand, the Moribana style is a style that has no special form. The flowers are arranged to reflect natural scenery in miniature.

It falls into place with the harmony it creates with the container itself. In low, flat water- vases or baskets that are similar to a wide-mouthed vessel, the flowers are held together in a place by metal spiked holders.

This style is much more modern and free than the Seika. That is because there is no specified form or shape that the flowers must be kept in. Nigeria is the third and final Japanese flower arrangement style that we will mention.

This style specifically, has no prescriptions. None at all. No rules, no rigid instructions, nothing. However, as the flowers are supported by the rim of the vase, the arrangement should convey at one glance the impression that the flowers have been freely placed in the vase.

In reality, it is conformed to rules and has dignity and harmony. In Moribana and Nageire styles, there are different schools to be followed. Those are Ohara, Adachi, Sogetsu, and so many others, but we will only mention those and leave them here for reference.

Floral Facts

  1. Blue Cohosh is also known as Squaw root or Papoose root
  2. Papoose root was used by Native American women in childbirth
  3. In ancient times, people burned aster leaves to ward off evil spirits and serpents
  4. Chrysanthemums are associated with happiness and joy in Japan
  5. The green florets on broccoli stalks are immature flowers
  6. If the green florets on broccoli are left to grow they will open into tiny yellow flowers
  7. During Victorian times, a pink carnation meant “I’ll never forget you”
  8. During Victorian times, a striped carnation meant “No, I cannot be with you”
  9. During Victorian times, a purple Hyacinth meant “I am sorry”
  10. During Victorian times, a yellow Hyacinth meant “I am jealous”

Deadly Beautiful Flowers

Flowers have many stories to tell. Some are scary. Did you know that many people die every year because of some flowers? Those delicate plants called flowers can be deadly if you are not careful about which flower you’re interacting with.

Do not fear! We have got you. We will list fifteen of the deadliest flowers you should avoid interacting with at all costs for the sake of your safety. Get ready, it will be a fun ride full of some juicy facts about those deadly flowers.

Nerium Oleander

Nerium Oleander may look defenceless and beautiful with a light shade of harmless pink. However, beware of this plant. It carries a deadly poison. It is extremely toxic. It can cause a burning sensation in the mouth and throat. It does not end there. It may even cause nausea and vomiting. The list goes on from diarrhoea, weakness, headache to stomach pain, serious heart problems, and more complications.

It can even cause way more than that and more side effects that you would be lucky enough to not experience by never having to cross paths with this lethal flower. However, Oleander is a common ornamental evergreen shrub that draws you in by its innocent appearance.

Taking in the Oleander leaf, Oleander leaf tea, or Oleander seeds has led many to experience deadly poisonings. A single leaf of this flower is enough to kill an adult. Oleanders contain toxic stuff that survives even burning. So, do not even attempt burning them.

Strange enough Oleander has also been used as a medicine. Specifically, traditional medicine to treat haemorrhoids, ulcers, and other symptoms. Still, if you have no experience handling poisonous plants, we do not recommend you come anywhere near Oleanders.    


Aconitum is also known as aconite, monkshood, wolfsbane, leopard’s bane, mouse bane, women’s bane, devil’s helmet, queen of poisons, or blue rocket. This plant is dangerous and you should keep your distance at all costs.

It contains a strong, fast-acting poison that causes severe side effects such as nausea, vomiting, breathing problems, hearing problems, and death eventually. Even when applied to the skin, it is very unsafe.

It can be absorbed through the skin and causes respiratory problems and cardiac problems. So do not handle or pick this plant, unless you are wearing gloves. Especially, the roots. A 2 mg dosage of aconite can and will cause death within 4 hours.

Castor Oil

Castor oil may have many benefits that make you die to use it and apply it. In reality, it is banned. What a bummer. However, it is for your own sake that it is banned. Or else, you would be truly literally dying because of using it.

Castor oil contains Lectin which is a highly potent toxin produced in the seeds of the castor oil plant. 22 micrograms per kilogram are the lethal dosage for mice. We are not saying you should kill mice. No, do not kill them. Just set them free in the wild, back where they belong.

It is just an example for reference. As we emphasized, ricin is a naturally found poison that is found in castor beans. If they are chewed and swallowed, the released ricin can cause injury. Ricin can be made from the waste material that is leftover from processing castor beans.


Here is another deadly plant that we should add to the list of the ‘do not come near. All parts of the plant are poisonous. The large palmate leaves, the cream flecks, the veins, and the stem that is very distinctive with dark-green- to black and white markings.


Abrus is another plant in the flowering plants in the pea family. It is highly toxic. The highly toxic seed of that species is used to make jewellery. It does have medicinal properties just like many other poisonous plants do.

You can create the antidote by using the poison, but when dealing with this plant, we advise you to not come near it as long as you are not cautious while using it. It can be used to treat tetanus or prevent rabies.

The leaves are used to treat and cure fever, cough, and cold. It may even be used to treat scratches, wounds, and sores caused by dogs, cats, or mice. It is also used as an ingredient in curing Leucoderma.


Drosera or as it is generally known as sundews are plants that capture and digest insects by using their stalked mucilaginous glands that cover their leaf surfaces. In normal cases, a sundew plant is not toxic.

However, do not exceed the prescribed dose. That is our recommendation. Doing so may result in side effects that start from irritating the lining of the digestive tract and that can cause stomach pain or gastritis.

However, just as we are mentioning its side effect, we should also mention its medicinal properties as well. Sundew or Drosera if you may, is used to treat asthma, coughs, lung infections, and stomach ulcers.


Cicuta is commonly known as water hemlock. It is very poisonous. It is considered one of North America’s most toxic plants. It can lead to severe poisoning and death. Even though it is quite poisonous, it still has a few medicinal properties.

It can be used to treat migraine headaches, painful menstruation, and worms in the intestine. Some people also use it as a traditional treatment for swelling and redness by applying it directly to the skin or the infected area.

Atropa Belladonna

Atropa Belladonna is also known as the deadly nightshade. It is very poisonous. Its roots, leaves, and fruits. All of it is extremely poisonous. It is even considered to be illegal. It is a drug that is obtained from the plant ‘Atropine’ and it can even be a medicinal herb. It can mostly be found in Native America.

Taxus Baccata

Taxus Baccata is native to Western, Central, Southern Europe, Northwest Africa, Northern Iran, and Southwest Asia. It is also known as the English Yew. The tree on which the English Yew grows is known as the yew tree.

Some may know it as the tree of death. It is one of the trees that the Druids held sacred in pre- Christian times. Drooping branches of old yew trees can root and form new trunks where they touched the ground.

So, yew came to symbolize death and resurrection in Celtic culture. We get the resurrection part, but why death? Well, to answer your question. Yew is simply put, is another deadly plant. It may look cute and all and the colour is sweet, but believe us when we tell you to keep away.

The English Yew or Taxus baccata is a poison that causes cardiac arrhythmias and it can even result in death from cardiogenic shock. So, yeah, as we said earlier. Keep away from this deadly cute plant.

Hippomane Mancinelli

Hippomane Mancinelli is another greenish flowering tree that you should not attempt getting close to. In other words, when you encounter one, turn the opposite way and start walking. Do not turn back or touch it.

It is one more deadly tree. That has been known as the tree of death as well. It is known as the deadliest tree ever known. Touching it is enough to get your body worked up and it affects a person almost instantly.

If touched, it irritates the skin because of the irritants that are found in the manchineel sap. That sap produces inflammation and painful blisters on the skin as if you got burned. Not only the sap or plant, but even the bark of the tree itself is toxic.

Do not burn it! You will not be getting rid of it. You will be only making matters worse. A burning manchineel bark has always been known to cause irritation and blindness. That is because of the airborne poison ash present and found in it.

We only scratched the surface of the iceberg of the dangers of Manchineel. The burn is not that of hot pepper or super-hot pepper. It is much worse and believes me when I say much worse. The manchineel fruit will cause intense burning and severe swelling of the throat.

That is assuming you tried to eat it. That is not even the end of it. The area surrounding your mouth may and probably will get all blistered and inflamed.  It will most definitely even cause severe digestive problems that is assuming it reached the stomach with its burning sap.

However, such a dangerous plant requires tropical conditions to survive and thrive. It can be found in tropical southern North America to northern South America. The manchineel excretes an extremely toxic white sap.

If your curiosity takes over and you attempt touching the plant’s leaves or branches or if you even touch it by mistake, it is very well-known that you will suffer from skin irritation, and blisters, and it may even close off your airways if you inhale the fumes from the sap.

A normal hefty shrub can grow up to 50 feet tall. It produces toxic timber that has a long Caribbean carpenter. Even though people came to know the dangers that the manchineel fruit may and will most certainly cause, they still used it in making furniture.

They carefully cut the wood and then, dry it in the sun to neutralize its poisonous sap. Then, finally, they use it to make furniture as they may use any other normal wood. The Manchineel tree is native to the Caribbean, Florida, Bahamas, Mexico, and Central and South America. 

The tree can be found on coastal beaches and in brackish swamps where it grows among other mangroves. Some people call them the death apples in paradise. People who attempted eating it noted that they felt a peppery taste in their mouths.

Followed by a tearing sensation. Finally, there was a tightening in their throats until they could barely swallow. The manchineel tree is so poisonous. Even the Guinness Book of World Records has recorded it to be one of the most dangerous trees in the world in 2011.

It is the most dangerous tree in the world. That poisonous sap is in every part of that plant. In its bark, leaves, and even fruit. You should not try and remove the manchineel tree on your own. Especially, after all, that we have been saying.

Even the fire will not help. The burning tree as we previously said and mentioned numerously will produce smoke that will contain the toxins and you will not be able to get rid of it without help. So, please contact someone who can.

As for what it exactly looks like, it is an evergreen tree. It has a reddish-grey bark. There are small greenish-yellow flowers and bright shiny green leaves. The leaves are simply alternate and very finely serrated or if you may say toothed. The leaves are about 2- 4 inches long.

The spikes of the small greenish flowers are followed by fruits that are similar in their appearance to an apple. I hope this shows you how dangerous this plant can be and that you have decided to not ever under any conditions touch it, not even ‘accidentally’.

Datura Stramonium

Datura Stramonium is also known as Jimsonweed, thorn apple, devil’s snare, or devil’s trumpet. It is related to the nightshade family. The origin of the plant is in Central America. However, it has been introduced in many world regions.

As you may have already guessed, it is one more poisonous plant. However, its poison affects the brain more than any other part of the body. It does not kill it or make you crazy. Well, it does make you a little crazy. Simply, causing hallucinations.

That is why it is known as a hallucinogenic plant. It is found in urban and rural areas. It does not only affect the brain. It is still a poisonous plant as we said. Its poison varies and can be highly unpredictable.

Even if this plant was usually used to cure many human ailments, like ulcers, wounds, inflammation, rheumatism, gout, sciatica, bruises, swelling, fever, asthma, bronchitis, and toothache, it is still poisonous.

It is one of the oldest plants that have been used throughout history. It is quite an invasive species that has spread throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The poison varies throughout the plant parts. The seeds and flowers are poisonous. In addition to that, it has so many side effects.

Those may include respiratory depression, arrhythmias, fever, delirium, hallucinations, anticholinergic syndrome, psychosis, and even death if in the case it was taken internally. It can cause mental side effects on the brain of amnesia, confusion, psychosis, and hallucinations.

Those will lead to emotional expression that will eventually follow. If the person takes too much, but not enough to kill them as an overdose, they will experience a feeling that is similar to a hangover as the drug itself metabolizes.

White Snake Root

The White Snake Root is also known as Ageratina altissima, richweed, and white sanicle. It is native to eastern and central North America. It is a sporadically toxic plant. It causes trembles in livestock and milk sickness in humans that drink the tainted milk.

It can cause tremetol poisoning. It is not edible under any conditions. The leaves and stem of the white snakeroot contain tremetol. That is a poison to both animals and humans. It is an accumulative toxin. This means that it will take time to build up to toxic levels.

Root tea is used to treat ague, kidney stones, and fever. As for the root poultice, it is used to treat snake bites. The smoke from the burning green leaves is used to revive the people who have fallen unconscious.

There is no cure to treat white snakeroot toxicity. If your horse ate some by mistake, the veterinarian can offer them supportive therapies that are essentially needed till the toxin is completely flushed out of its system.

That is in the case that there was a chance of survival and not death which is also one available option. The white snakeroot poison comes from the ingestion of the plant itself. So, keep your furry friend, including your dog, away as you keep away as well.

Nepenthes Tunicata 

The Nepenthes Tunicata is known as a tropical pitcher that is native to the Philippines. It is very well known in the islands of Dinagat, Leyte, and Mindanao. It is an endangered plant. It grows at the elevation of 0- 1500 m above sea level.

It is a carnivorous plant. This plant is not that poisonous and most pitcher plants are not poisonous. I know what you are thinking. Why is it on the list? Well, it is thought to be deadly because it eats insects and no it does not eat humans.

It is used to treat digestive disorders and constipation. It is also considered a cure for smallpox and it even prevents scar formation. Also, there will not be any danger if you approach this plant, but remember to be cautious.

Lily of The Valley

Lily of The Valley. This adorable-looking plant is so tempting to touch. Well, do not touch it, inhale its scent, or even eat it, not even by accident. This plant is deadly. Not only does it look sweet and innocent, but it leads to fatal outcomes.

This flower may symbolize purity, youth, sincerity, and discretion, but it will surely kill you. People believe it symbolizes happiness and joy. It is even considered an important gesture to give someone you love a bunch of lilies of the valley on the 1st of May.

However, before you do that, let us tell you just how dangerous this innocent plant is. That put aside, this plant is known to be an invasive plant that tends to form large colonies that threaten other native plants.

So, it is not only dangerous for humans but also for other plants. Lily of the valley is extremely poisonous and can cause severe dermatitis if touched. So, sure go ahead and give that ‘someone’ a bunch and hope for the best.

Lily of the valley is used to handle and prevent heart problems. That may include heart failure and irregular heartbeats. It is also widely used to treat urinary tract infections and kidney stones. It is even used during weak contractions in labour or with epilepsy. Sometimes it is used to prevent fluid retention and strokes, that result in paralysis. It can even treat eye infections and leprosy.

It is quite the medicine. Still, it can be very poisonous when ingestion takes place. The leaves, flowers, or even roots. All of them are poisonous. They all contain cardiac glycosides and gastrointestinal irritants.

Those are most likely responsible for a variety of cardiac arrhythmias and can lead to fatal consequences. So, yeah it is beautiful and graceful looking; has lots of benefits and can cure many symptoms; still, it is a deadly poison.


The last poison, I mean to say, the plant we are talking about in our deadly section is Tobacco. Yes, that plant exists within a cigarette. We will review its benefits, effects, and origin. It affects us in different ways, but one thing for sure is that it is poisonous in the long run.

Tobacco leaves are applied on cuts and wounds to stop the bleeding and as an antiseptic. The ground tobacco leaves are used as a snuff for medicinal and ritualistic purposes. The tobacco is sometimes smoked and blown into the ear to treat earaches.

Tobacco is used in the production of many stuff. Such as cigarettes and cigars. Some people smoke raw loose tobacco in a pipe. Tobacco affects us in many different ways. However, there is a clear reason we put it on the list of our deadly plants.

That is because Tobacco is poison in many ways. It may cause cancer, breathing problems, chronic respiratory conditions, heart disease, stroke, blood circulation problems, diabetes, infections, dental problems, hearing loss, and even vision loss.

That being said, let us tell you more about the types of tobacco. There is no safe form of tobacco. So, it all screams danger. Tobacco contains nicotine. No matter what form tobacco may take, it will still contain this poisonous material.

Nicotine causes addiction and eventually heart problems. There are about seven types of well-known tobacco. Those are Chew- see Smokeless Tobacco, Cigars, Cigarillos, and Little Cigars, Dip- see Smokeless Tobacco, Electronic cigarette or E-Cigarette.

There is also Hookah, Kreteks, and Pipe. All of those are the types of Tobacco products that people are most familiar with. Originally, Native Americans used it in religious ceremonies and for medicinal purposes.

It was used as a cure for all remedies. Dressing wounds, reducing pain, or toothaches. You name it and tobacco is used to cure it. In the late 15th century, Christopher Columbus was said to be given tobacco as a gift from the Native Americans.

You can certainly guess what happened next. Tobacco was always thought of as a medicinal plant. It was claimed to have antiseptic, sedative, emetic, and purgative properties. That came in useful in relieving pain.

In other words, it is not tobacco’s fault. It has always been a herbal medicinal plant. Some people invented a harmful usage for it. That is smoking. Smoking does help with avoiding obesity, but it is certainly not your best option.

We do not trade something for another. Every part of our bodies is important and precious. So, we cannot destroy our lungs using tobacco, in exchange for staying thin. It causes lung cancer. The lungs are the organ responsible for taking care of your respiratory cycle.

Smoking causes heart disease, strokes, asthma, diabetes, and so much more. Tobacco may be poisonous, but it is how we chose to use it that will determine the outcome. This plant, just like any other was used as medicine.

Flowers’ Facts on the go

  1. Catnip contains a compound called nepetalactone
  2. Nepetalactone is what cats love and makes them eat the leaves of the plant
  3. Catnip gives cats an euphoric high effect
  4. Morning Glories bloom only in the morning
  5. Flowers were popular girls’ names in the Victorian times
  6. You can make a flower necklace by weaving sunflowers or daisies together
  7. Vincent Van Gogh loved sunflowers
  8. Vincent Van Gogh completed 11 paintings capturing sunflowers
  9. Sunflowers produce toxic substances to plants near them causing them to die slowly
  10. Mimosa Punica is known as a sensitive plant

Rare Flowers

Some flowers are pretty rare to find. They are pretty, tasty, fragrant, deadly, poisonous, and some are even rare. Let us explore some of the rarest flowers in the world. So, next time you see one of those, you should take a picture!

We will name a few rare flowers, mention the reasons that led to them being rare, and then will name about four unusual flowers you probably never heard of. So, buckle up it will be a fun ride.

Ghost Orchid

It is certainly no ghost, but it is the ghost orchid. Let us tell you some more about the ghost orchid, my friend. It is a very rare plant that is on the endangered species list. It is native to Southwest Florida and Cuba.

The ghost orchid is believed to be extremely rare to the point that it is estimated that there are only 100 or so plants that still exist. They are very secretive about the locations of those few orchids. Do not worry. We already tried finding out.

Sadly, we had no luck. Maybe you would have better luck searching more into it. Who knows? Maybe you would find out something we did not mention or discuss ghost orchids. As to why their locations are kept secret, well it is simply to avoid poachers from taking them from their natural environment.

The ghost orchid is also known as Dendrophylax lindenii. It has quite a distinctive feature when it comes to appearance. This may be the reason that led to its naming as the ghost orchid. It is an endangered plant species and does not flower reliably.

Corpse Lily

The corpse lily is our second endangered plant on the list. It is also known as Rafflesia arnoldii, the corpse flower, giant Padma. It is special for producing the largest individual flower on Earth. It has a strong and unpleasant odour.

It smells as if it is a corpse. This is partially why it was named the corpse flower. However, we need to make sure you know that this corpse lily does smell and stink the odour of decaying flesh. It is quite rare.

It is a flower that is native to the rainforests of Sumatra and Borneo. Some even know it as the monster flower. It is also known as the Titan Arum. Yup! The one we kept mentioning in our facts. You probably noticed.

To attract pollinators it produces a rotting- meat scent. Again, that is probably the reason it earned the name the corpse flower. Why is it so rare you ask? Well, it is because it takes about seven to ten years for a single flower of the corpse flower to muster up enough energy that may be considered enough to begin its bloom cycle.

It is said that the Garden began collecting Titan Arums in 2003. It was a part of the worldwide conservation effort to preserve this specific species. The flower of the corpse lily emits a foul odour that draws carrion beetles and flies into the centre bowl where the pollen is located.

As the insects fly away from the flower, they have pollen all over them. It may cling onto their feet or bodies. That way they spread the pollen. Minimus is known as the only corpse flower plant in the Philippines that is known to inhabit a montane forest ecosystem.

Specifically, in PCWFR which is on Luzon Island. The three known populations of the plant are each about fewer than 50 mature individuals. Those were observed to be flowering between May and June.

Parrot’s Beak

Parrot’s beak, lotus vine, or as some may know it lotus berthelotii is a flower that looks similar to a parrot’s beak. This is obviously why it is known as a parrot’s beak. It is known as quite the great plant. It fills the need for silver, soft-foliaged plants.

However, sadly, the flower part is short-lived. It depends on how fast the temperature rises and where you live. This beautiful plant thrives in full sun and well-drained soil. It may also tolerate some shade on hot summer days or in hot areas.

However, you should be considerate of how much water you provide the plant with because too little water or too much water may and usually does cause foliage to drop. This plant thrives even more and performs best with evenly divided moistures.

However, remember to allow the top of the soil to mostly dry out before re-watering. This plant is also known as the trailing lotus. It is native to the Canary Islands. The Canary Islands are that of Spain.

This plant is also known as the pelican beak and some may know it as the coral gem. It has beautiful colours and even more a beautiful shape. It is quite the mesmerizing scenery. You cannot help but admire it.

Yellow & Purple Lady Slippers

Lady’s- slipper orchid is also known as Cypripedium Calceolus. It is native to Europe and Asia. It can live up to be twenty years old or even more. However, it is quite rare and endangered.

That is why it is illegal to pick them up because the plant takes many years to grow from seed to maturity. That is why they set special rules to ensure its survival. This beautiful flower is also known as the moccasin flower.

It is one of North America’s own much admired and often misunderstood wild native orchids.

This plant became increasingly rare. Due to the over collecting and habitat reduction. It has a tall, leafy stem. That bears 1 or 2 white- petals with flowers that are a brilliant pink pouch.

Sometimes it is yellow. It blooms in late June and into July. It may look like a lady’s slipper which is maybe the reason behind its naming as the lady’s slipper. Most flowers are named after their appearance.

Kadupul Flower

The kadupul flower is also known as the queen of the night. Some may know it as the princess of the night. It is known as the Dutchman’s pipe cactus. Its scientific name is epiphyllum oxypetalum.

It belongs to the species of cactus. It rarely blooms. However, when it does bloom, it only does at night. Then, its flowers wilt before dawn. The kadupul flower is the most expensive in the world.

That is actually because it has never been bought and therefore it is priceless. This little tricky elusive plant is a cactus and it only grows in Sri Lanka. It is known commonly as the ghost flower. It usually blooms only once a year, always at night, and dies before dawn.

Sea Poison Tree

The sea poison tree is also known as the fish poison tree and box fruit tree. Its scientific name is Barrington Asiatica. It is native to the mangrove habitats from the islands of the Indian Ocean in west tropical Asia and islands of the western Pacific Ocean.

All parts of the tree are pretty poisonous. The active poisons include saponins. Box fruits are potent enough to be used as fish poison. The seeds are grounded into a powder that is then used to stun or kill the fish for easy capture.

It suffocates the fish while the flesh is unaffected. That is partially why it is known as the Fish Poison tree. The fruits are used as a fish poison. The heated leaves are used in the Philippines to treat the stomach and rheumatism. Not only that but also the seeds are used to get rid of tapeworms. 


Campion is also known as the red Campion. Its scientific name is silene dioica. Some may even know it as the red catchfly. It is native to central, western, and northern Europe. It is locally found in southern Europe.

It was also introduced in Iceland, Canada, the US, and Argentina. Campions are distributed throughout the world. Several of those are ornamental rock- gardens or border plants. They look really pretty.

Snapdragon’s Skull

Some of the flowers we mentioned are quite rare and others are unique. We are not only mentioning the rare flowers, but also the distinctive ones. That does not by any means, mean that the ones we are mentioning are special or the best because all of the flowers are beautiful.

Every flower is special and distinct. The flowers we are mentioning in this article are either chosen randomly or as best- related to the topic of the section. We just wanted to clarify this before we continue with our special flowers.

The snapdragon skull is officially the most metal flower to exist. When they die, they resemble human skulls. However, when they die, they look like shrivelled little brown skulls all dangling from a stem.

The dragon part of the name is a mere visual metaphor. It appears to have a skull. We know what you are thinking. Super cool! Well, it did not stop only at that, but also the ancient cultures held the snapdragon as a special plant.

They used to believe that it possessed supernatural powers. Those flowers were thought to offer protection from deceit, curses, and witchcraft that is if you plant them in your garden. They are spring or summer flowers.

Happy Alien

The happy alien plant is also scientifically known as calceolaria uniflora. It was given this name because of its unearthly shape. Originally, this flower was discovered by Charles Darwin. It grows in cold climates.

Mostly, it is found near the Sothern tip of South America which is close to Antarctica. Happy alien flowers grow typically near or on rocks. That is due to their distinctively short roots. It is one of the weirdest flowers out there.

Monkey Face Orchid

Just like the name entitles, it is a monkey face-shaped orchid. It is quite special and awesome. So, let us learn some more about it together. It is also known as Dracula time. Some may even know it as monkey-like Dracula.

Its arrangement of columns, petals, and lip strongly resemble a monkey’s face. It can be found on the sides of the high mountains which are probably found in southeastern Ecuador and Peru. At the elevation of about 1000 to 2000 meters.

It is a popular but rare all-time favourite among orchid collectors. That is because it has a distinctively unique monkey or baboon face in its flower. Monkeyface orchids are quite finicky. Yes, and it can be challenging to grow them.

They require very specific living conditions. It does not make it one of the best options to start as a beginner gardener. And no, you cannot grow it by merely fertilizing it with bananas. It needs a bit more than that.

Bat Plant

The bat plant or as some may know it the white bat- the flower is native to the tropical and subtropical rainforests of Central Asia. It was first described by the English botanist John Bellenden Ker Gawler in 1812.

Its scientific name is tacca integrifolia. It is also a plant that can be quite tricky to grow. You have to regularly ensure that your soil is well-draining and composted. You need to provide regular water. Especially, in the hot months, but allow them to dry out.

Especially, in winter and cold times. You have to fertilize it regularly and lightly during its growing season. Black bat plants need high humidity to grow and thrive. It is quite an exotic plant. It has flowers that look quite similar to a bat in flight.

It is deep purple with ruffled wings, and long, hanging filaments. They may appear in spring and may last until early autumn. They can grow up to 2 or 3 feet tall. The bat plant’s appearance is probably what earned it its name.

Moth Orchid

Moth orchids are a mere nickname for the enchanting phalaenopsis Blume. Phalaenopsis comes from the Latin word ‘phal’ which means moth. No, it is no coincidence. The plant looks like a moth which is probably why it was given that name.

It was named after Carl Ludwig Blume. Based on its resemblance to a moth in appearance. It is a plant that is native to southeastern Asia and parts of Australia. They are commonly grown indoors. They can grow as big as 6 to 12 inches.

Quick Flowers’ Facts

  1. Mimosa Punica closes its petals off when touched
  2. Dandelions are believed to represent three celestial bodies
  3. The yellow flower of the dandelions represents the sun
  4. The ball of pollen of the dandelions represents the moon
  5. The white seeds of dandelions represent the stars
  6. The English name of dandelion flowers is originally French
  7. Dandelions refer to the French sent de lion which means lion teeth
  8. Dandelions were named after the lion’s teeth because of the shape of their leaves
  9. Colombia has the most orchid species in the world
  10. Colombia has about 2,010 species of orchids

How to Grow a Flower?

Now that we know all about flowers, we are nearly experts. Let us tell you how to plant and take care of a few flowers in the comfort of your home. It is quite easy. All you need to do is to follow the following simple steps that explain how to grow each of the following flowers.


We will learn how to grow a sunflower together step by step. To grow sunflowers, you need a sunny, sheltered spot and good soil. You will also need plenty of well-rotted manure or garden compost before planting if you can, that is.

Protect the young plants from slugs and snails. Yes, slugs and snails are friends, but sunflowers are our babies that need protection. Water your sunflowers regularly. You may need to stake them. That is in case they are in an exposed position.

There are various varieties of sunflowers. Each one of those will grow at a different rate from the other. However, the average time that is estimated for our sunflowers to grow is about 80 to 120 days. That is for the plant to mature and develop seeds.


On the other hand, we can also try growing marigolds. Tagetes marigold can be grown from the seed. They are bought as seedlings and planted to grow. They can be bought as seedlings (Plug plants) or garden-ready plants.

Plant them in beds or pots. It does not matter. The important thing is to plant them. Make sure that you do so after all risk of frost has been eliminated. Put them in good soil and a sunny spot. Make sure to water them during dry spells.

Remove the dead heads to extend the flowering. Make sure to feed it constantly. That is in case you have grown it in pots. Marigolds love the sun. They do tolerate some shade, but the more sun, the better.


The third on the list is begonias. You should grow begonias in peat-free, multi-purpose compost that is dappled in plenty of sunshine. Maybe partial shade. Only plant begonias outside. That is in May. However, you should make sure no more frosts are happening.

Watch the forecast. Water them regularly. Feed them weekly. Use high-potash fertilizer. Maybe tomato feed to feed them. They are ideal for containers and are easy to care for. Their blooming is one sign of summer.


Frost has passed and you are sure. Then, it is probably time to plant out snapdragons. Early autumn sowings will produce in about early May. Sow the seeds thinly on the surface of the compost. Water and seal in a propagator. Maybe a plastic bag.

Transfer the seeds when they are large enough to pot and grow in a sheltered spot. They are easy to grow, do not fear. Make sure you grow them in well-drained garden soil. In southern California, people sow their snapdragon seeds in fall or winter for spring blooming.


Growing Daffodils needs extra care and love. Pick a spot in your garden that has well-draining soil and gets full sun or partial shade. Plant the daffodil bulbs about 3- 6 deep and 4- 5 apart. Place them on the ground with their pointy ends up.

Water them well once and wait for spring. However, after the daffodils bloom, do not cut off the foliage. Daffodil bulbs are best planted in September or November. Especially, in well-drained soil. They will most definitely grow well in sun or part shade.

Fun Flowery Facts

  1. Puya raimondii is the largest flower in the world
  2. The largest flower in the world can grow up to 50 feet high
  3. Puya raimondii is also known as the Queen of the Andes
  4. The Queen of the Andes is also known as titanka
  5. Titanka bears over 8000 white flowers
  6. Titanka is native to the high Andes of Bolivia and Peru
  7. Roses normally have 5 petals
  8. The only roses that have 4 four petals are from the species called Rosa Sericea
  9. The Bird of Paradise is a flower
  10. The flower of the Bird of Paradise is only white

Flowers and Occasions

Flowers are so full of stories. We cannot get enough of hearing them out. Their adventures are ongoing as we discover more and more. We will discuss a few occasions on which we mostly use flowers in.

Some people use flowers when there is a happy occasion. Others associate flowers with sad occasions and events. The same as a white lily in a funeral. There is also the flower bouquet that the bride holds onto during her wedding to throw off to the next bride-to-be.

Different colours of flowers and different types of flowers are associated with different connotations depending on the culture and occasion. However, we all agree that flowers are pretty and quite mesmerizing at times.

Some flowers may be deadly as we saw in our previous list, but others are rare and are innocently used for decoration. Other flowers may hold different meanings depending on the language of flowers in which country. We will observe the Japanese culture for example. Vases during a Japanese occasion should be regularly shaped and pleasing to the eye.

They may take on the colour of silver or bronze. They may even take on the colour of summer earthenware that is glazed in cool colours of green and white. They may also be set on stands. Flower arrangements that combine pine, bamboo, and flowering plum.

Those are called sho- chikubai. However, when the plum blossoms are not in season, we use Omoto (rhodea), Kiku (chrysanthemums), or ran (orchid) may be used instead. White flowers or naturally coloured flowers are used in funeral and memorial services occasions.

Easy Facts about Flowers

  1. The Corkscrew vine is an oddly shaped flower
  2. Corkscrew resembles nautilus shells
  3. Corkscrew is also known as Cochliasanthus Caracalla
  4. Caracalla means snail and there is a flower species named as such
  5. The global sales for flower bouquets exported were totalled $9 billion in 2018
  6. Bamboo flowers are rare
  7. Some Bamboo species develop flowers after 65 or 120 years
  8. Agave is known as the century plant
  9. Agave spends its life cycle without growing flowers and it grows a single bloom just before it dies
  10. Shenzhen Nongke Orchid is the most expensive flower ever

Concluding our Flowery Journey

We have successfully reached the end of our journey. We managed to grasp the essence of flowers, their history in different countries, and the national flower of each country. We defined what flowers are and the pollinators that are responsible for the spreading of flowers.

We discovered that there are four different pollination techniques that plants use to multiply. Some use wind and water. Others use insects and animals. We learned different facts about plants and flowers during our journey.

We spoke the flowers’ language as we delved into the history of flowers. Each country favours a different flower for a different reason. We learned some of the common types of flowers. We discussed the importance and significance of flowers in our lives.

We even investigated some of the deadliest flowers on Earth. In addition to the other flowers that are quite rare to find. We also learned together how to plant a few of the different types of flowers.

Until we reached the special part of occasions and learned when to give which flower. This journey was fruitful, indeed. Now, we know even more about flowers. We still have so many stories we’d love to share with you, so stay tuned and keep on visiting Learning Mole. Remember, the world is full of wonders!

Learning about nature is as highly enjoyable as it is painfully overwhelming. That is not just because nature is insanely diverse. But also the way all living things are interconnected makes studying them more like trying to untangle a messy skein of yarn.

Take, for example, some similarly looking but differently classified animals, such as rabbits and hares, sea otters and river otters, or red pandas and raccoons. They look almost the same but possess completely unalike characteristics that categorise them as different species. 

So we, as vigorous advocates of knowledge, love to take part in unveiling these different characteristics, to feel that awe at the marvels of our nature and never forget how lucky we are to live on that mighty planet Earth. In this article, we are going to discuss two animals that, despite looking annoyingly alike, are, in fact, notably unique.

So let’s take a closer look at your pet cat‘s big cousins, leopards and jaguars.

Leopards vs jaguars

Looking at your pet cat’s big cousins, the leopard and the jaguar, makes an interesting Find the Differences game!

And why not? Both of them have robust bodies covered with light-yellow, darkly-spotted fur. Their tails are long, ears are small, eyes are intense, and their canine teeth are long and sharp. Both cats also have strong vocal cords that make their roars audible from a long distance.

Yet, apart from the looks, it is easy to guess that leopards and jaguars are apex predators. So they must be carnivores which means they make great hunters. Their skinny legs also suggest they are fast runners and undoubtedly great at climbing.

So how come they have that much in common? 

That is simple, because they are family. To understand the connection between the leopard and the jaguar, we need to review some basic biology facts.

Taxonomic classification 

As you hopefully recall, scientists created the taxonomy hierarchy to organise all extant and extinct organisms to better study them. Generally, every life form we know of so far belongs to either of three domains, Archaea, Bacteria, or Eukarya.

The Archaea and Bacteria domains include all the microorganisms with a single, nucleus-free cell. On the other hand, Eukarya contains all the animals, plants, fungi, and any other organisms that are none of the three but have nuclei in their cells.

After the domain, organisms are further classified into different kingdoms, phyla, classes, orders, families, genera, species and sometimes even subspecies. These last two ranks are the most specific. 

Leopards and jaguars are two different species with the same classification from domain down to genus. They both belong to a family called Felidae, which incorporates all small,

medium-sized, and large cats, whether domestic or wild. The Felidae family is divided into four subfamilies, two of which are extinct. The other two are extant and called Felinae and Pantherinae.

The Felinae subfamily contains 11 genera, all comprising 34 species. In comparison, the Pantherinae subfamily has two genera, Panthera and Neofelis, of seven species.

Leopards, jaguars, along with lions, tigers, and snow leopards make up the Panthera genus of the Pantherinae subfamily. The other genus, Neofelis, contains two other cat species, the clouded leopard and the Sunda clouded leopard—these are different leopard species from the one we have in hand.

Now that we know how closely related leopards and jaguars are and given that they have almost the same looks as well, one cannot help but wonder, why on Earth are they two separate species, not one? Why is one of them not a subspecies of the other?

Well, that is also simple, because they cannot interbreed.

Different species

Scientists mostly decide two species are different based on their ability to interbreed and produce healthy fertile offspring. So they did some experiments to split the dispute over whether or not the two cats should be the same species.

They mated male jaguars with female leopards and male leopards with female jaguars, which produced hybrids called jagupards and leguars, respectively.

What scientists found out when examining those hybrids was interesting. While female hybrids were fertile, males were not. So even though females could produce healthy fertile babies, the fact that males could not breed set a clear difference between the two animals.

As a result, leopards and jaguars were classified as different species.

While this is a significant difference that sets both cats apart, there turned out to be many others that explain how each one of them is beautifully unique.

So let’s explore some of these differences one by one.

1. Leopards live in Africa and Asia, but jaguars are Americans.

One can easily tell whether what they see is a leopard or a jaguar just by learning where each of them lives, for even if they happened to be cousins, they are far from being neighbours.

The leopard is more widely distributed than the jaguar. In fact, it is the only big cat with such a high geographical distribution. It is mainly native to the sub-Saharan region in Africa, the Middle East, Western, Central, and Eastern Asia, India, China, and southern Russia.

However, the leopard population is unequal in all these places. In many countries, there sadly are no more extant individuals. This is known as local extinction. In some places, like the Arabian Peninsula, the population is small yet abundant in others, such as India.

Leopards live in savannas, deserts, grasslands, forests, and mountains.

According to some estimates, about 250,000 leopards are left in the world today. That said, the overall population is declining. In fact, the leopard is listed as vulnerable by the IUCN, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, as it is threatened by habitat loss. Animals listed as vulnerable are highly at risk of extinction.

Jaguars, on the other hand, are native to North, Central, and South Americas. More precisely, they are found in the southwest of the United States, Mexico, and most Central American countries as well as parts of Argentina, Paraguay, and the rainforest of the Amazon River.

In the wild, jaguars live in open forests and fields, tropical and subtropical forests, wetlands, and woodlands.

The jaguar’s global population is around 173,000 individuals, way less than that of the leopard. But like the leopard, the jaguar’s numbers are declining, and the species is listed as near threatened.

2. Leopards have subspecies, but jaguars do not.

Subspecies is the taxonomic rank below species. These are individuals that belong to the same species but live in isolated habitats, which created some minor physical differences.

For instance, the lion has two subspecies; one lives in Africa and the other, the smaller of the two, is native to Asia. Likewise, there are the African elephant and the Asian elephant, whose fan ears are smaller than those of the former.

Leopards have eight different subspecies: the African leopard, the Indian leopard, the Arabian leopard, the Sri Lankan leopard, the Indochinese leopard, and the Javan leopard, which is native to Indonesia. There is also the Amur leopard found in eastern Russia, northern China, and the Koreas and the Persian leopard native to Iran, southern Russia, parts of Turkey and some other countries around. 

On the other hand, at least so far, jaguars have not reported having any subspecies. Although the population is distributed over broad areas in the Americas, individuals do not seem to possess enough physical differences to be classified as subspecies.

3. Leopards’ rosettes are smaller, but the jaguars’ are fewer.

You might think that leopards and jaguars have the same appearance. But if you look closely, you can realise some distinct physical features. For instance, the leopard has a smaller head and looks more like a cheetah. The jaguar’s head is more round resembling that of a tiger.

Although their bodies are covered with a fur coat ranging in colour from whitish in the underparts, pale-yellow on the limbs and golden on the back, it is the spots on that yellow fur that distinguish leopards from jaguars.

These roseshaped or paw-like spots are known as rosettes, whose edges are typically black and their insides are yellow. Every individual of the two species has a unique rosette pattern that is not found in any other.

Rosettes on leopards are small but many. The jaguar’s rosettes are larger but fewer. They also have thicker edges, and their insides are of a darker yellow hue than that of the fur around them. The jaguarian rosettes also have tiny dark spots, like nuclei, on the yellow insides.

Another difference in appearance is caused by a rare condition called melanism. Melanin is the dark pigment that makes the skin, hair, and iris black. So when an animal has a super high percentage of melanin in their cells, they are born black.

This condition can be found in both leopards and jaguars. Yet, the melanistic individuals look a little different. While the black leopard is entirely black, jaguars, in many cases, have their skin ranging from pale brown and dark grey to black. This makes the rosettes a little visible.

4. Leopards are longer, but jaguars are taller and heavier.

Now that a little bit of staring taught us some differences in appearance between the leopard and the jaguar, let’s keep staring to pick up the differences in size as well.

Leopards have thin, muscular bodies, with males being larger than females. They are 65 cm tall, on average, at the shoulders. The entire body length, from nose to tail, is 230 cm, with the tail measuring 84 cm. They also weigh between 35 and 65 kg. 

Leopards living in different countries may record other, mostly bigger, body measurements than the average ones we just mentioned above. The leopard’s eight subspecies also vary in size. The largest is the Persian leopard, while the Arabian leopard is the smallest. The remaining subspecies fall somewhere in between these two.

On the other hand, the jaguar is larger than the leopard. In fact, it comes in third after the lion and the tiger. 

Male jaguars are also larger than females. On average, they stand for 72 cm at the shoulders and measure 1.5 m from nose to tailbone. The tail extends for another 45-75 cm. They also have a mean weight of 76 kg.

Like leopards, some jaguar individuals from different places were found to have exceptional measurements. But generally, jaguars that live in the northern habitats weigh less than those in the south.

5. Male leopards mate at 1.5 years, but male jaguars mature at three years.

Male leopards are mature enough to breed when they turn a year and a half. However, females are not usually ready for marriage before they hit two years old and sometimes two years and a half.

The leopard breeding season differs based on the location. In some places, breeding can happen at any time of the year. In others, it is only confined to a few months. A female leopard stays pregnant for 90 to 105 days, giving birth after that to two to four cubs at a time.

Leopard cubs are born blind, yet their entire bodies are covered with fur. Mothers take full responsibility for their cubs, nursing them for three months before taking them out for hunting. At the age of 1.5 years, cubs usually separate from their mothers and start living independently.

Leopards live between 12 and 17 years in the wild and longer in captivity.

On the other hand, jaguars seem to have a little different reproduction cycle. For instance, female jaguars are mature before males. They can breed at two and a half years old, while males cannot mate unless they hit three or four years old.

On average, a female jaguar stays pregnant for 101 days, then gives birth to two to four cubs. Jaguar cubs are also born blind but furred. Mothers nurse their cubs for three months then introduce them to solid food for three other months before they teach them how to hunt. Jaguar cubs leave their mothers when they are about two years old.

Compared with leopards, jaguars have a shorter life span, living for a maximum of 11 years in the wild.

6. Leopards are solitary, but jaguars may sometimes get together.

Like most cats, leopards are shy, solitary animals. They are territorial, keen on keeping their distances, nervous at any intervention to their home ranges, and aggressive when feeling threatened.

Taking that into account, leopards are not familiar with the concept of family. Males and females only get together to mate. After that, males leave females to care for the young independently.

Leopards are nocturnal or diurnal based on where they live. But whenever they are active, they go out to look for food and rest for the rest of the day. Their activity times were also found to change based on the season, just like we tend to sleep earlier in winter and stay up more in summer.

Jaguars too are solitary and territorial. But in some locations, males were found to form temporary unions whose members cooperate to define their territories. Together, like a little army of their own, they may also invade and take over other territories.

Jaguars in some places are nocturnal and in others are diurnal. That said, they tend to be active whenever their prey is active and around, which makes a lot of sense if you think about it.

7. Leopards have wider jaws, but jaguars have deadlier bites.

Leopards have super jaws which, when open, are wider than that of any other big cat. But the jaguars’ jaws are much more powerful, and their bites are the third deadliest after those of lions and tigers.

Both cats have long canine teeth, measuring four to five cm.

Jaguars are faster than leopards. They run at an average speed of 80 km/h and can reach a maximum of 105 km/h. On the other hand, the leopard’s maximum speed is 58 km/h, which may increase by several additional kilometres if the leopard is hunting on an empty stomach.

Both cats are strong swimmers, with jaguars being faster and better divers.


Here we reach the end of today’s journey in which we explored several differences between the leopard and the jaguar, the two mind-blowingly similar yet still exceptionally unique wild cats.

We started by discussing the leopard’s and the jaguar’s classifications and understood why each is a separate species despite the many common features between them.

Then we moved to list a few things that set them apart, from their geographical distributions and different habitats to their subspecies and variations. We also studied their appearances and learned some traits that distinguish one from the other, such as their rosettes, body lengths and heights. 

After that, we explored their unique reproductive cycles, what types of relationship they have with their partners and peers and which one of the two species is more likely to socialise.

Finally, we demonstrated some of their super skills, such as running, swimming, and biting.

We hope you enjoyed reading this article as much as we loved writing it for you. If you can now tell leopards and jaguars apart, you can also learn some differences between the two similarly looking moon bears and sun bears here or explore how chipmunks differ from squirrels.

Why not subscribe to our LearningMole Library for as little as £1.99 per month to access over 1500 fun educational videos.

Palm trees belong to the monocotyledon family’s flowering plants, and the scientific name is Palmae. It consists of a long, slender stem that is green when the palm is young and turns grey as time passes. Its leaves are called fronds, and its base is smooth and green. Its basic structure consists of needle-shaped, curved leaves with a sharp, hard tip. One palm tree contains 30 to 50 fronds.

As for its flowers, they are either creamy white or yellow, and the same palm tree contains male and female flowers. The female flowers are larger, have three petals and three sepals, are concentrated at the base of the fronds, and are recognised from the male flowers by these characteristics.

As for the male flowers, they are small in size and extend towards the ends. It consists of three petals and a cup divided into three lobes. Most palm trees are between 10 and 15 metres tall; however, some can grow up to 30 metres tall.

There are numerous types of palm trees, all of which differ from one another and are widely distributed around the world. Palm trees live for many years, during which they provide people with delicious fruits of high nutritional value, specifically date palm trees.

The cultivation of palm trees requires full knowledge of how to propagate and cultivate them, irrigation requirements, and the conditions that must be available in the environment in which they are grown to live longer periods.

The Ancient Egyptian civilisation was one of the most important civilisations that relied on dates for the production of food and wine. Research says that the Pharaohs and the people of ancient Egypt planted and exploited another type of their date palm, which is the Doum palm, and Egypt and the Nile Basin are considered the home of this ancient type. Archaeologists in Egypt found a number of dates in the tomb of Tutankhamun in 2007. Pharaohs have always considered palm trees a symbol of long life.

The Italian scientist Eduardo Bacardi, a researcher in agricultural sciences, claims that the original homeland of palm trees is the Arabian Gulf. He based his argument on that by saying that there is a genus of palm trees whose growth flourishes only in subtropical regions where rain is scarce. Its roots require an abundance of moisture and resist salinity to a large extent. These qualities are only available in the region west of India and south of Iran or on the western coast of the Persian Gulf.

Let’s now take a tour around palm trees to discover their world, environment, and characteristics.

How many years does it take a palm tree to bear fruit?

The palm tree needs up to 12 years of age to start producing dates; after the trees reach 36 meters in length, and continue to produce dates until their death, and despite the trees’ ability to withstand heat and drought, they need water in abundant quantities during the flowering season. Fruiting, just as flowers need care against pests to remain healthy, they also need fertiliser that provides them with nutrients.

How many years does a palm tree live?

Palm trees are classified as perennial trees, as they may live for a period ranging between 70-100 years, and this period may increase if the owner of the farm takes care of the palm trees and feeds them with appropriate fertilisers and some types of palms, such as coconut palms, live on average for a period ranging between 80-90 years, but the type The best is the date palm, which produces dates for 100 years, that is, throughout its life. There is a species that lives only 40 years, and it is the relatively short areca palm that is found in homes.

Palm Reproduction

Palm trees usually reproduce in two main ways:

Vegetative propagation

Vegetative propagation or asexual propagation is defined as the germination of palm trees using branches instead of seeds through offshoots and green branches that grow next to the base of palm trees in the form of buds. These offshoots can be exploited to propagate palm trees as follows:

  1. Sterilize a sharp knife or sharp tree scissors by immersing it in rubbing alcohol. These tools should be avoided with chlorine or any bleach because they cause damage to the tree.
  2. Wear gloves and protective eyewear to avoid injury to rough palm leaves.
  3. The appropriate time to cut the tree’s offshoots is spring, as in this season, the offshoots have passed a year and have grown roots.
  4. Cut the outer leaves of the branches, leaving some, then tie the high branches together and start digging the soil around these branches to reach the base.
  5. Carefully cut the branch and separate it from the mother tree without damaging them.
  6. Fill a large pot with soil for palm trees, moisten it with water, and plant the branch in it.
  7. Place the pot in a bright area with temperatures that are between 19 and 20 degrees Celsius at night and 30 degrees Celsius during the day. When it is below 18 degrees Celsius in the winter, it is advisable to move the pot to a warm location indoors.
  8. The container needs to be well-draining, and after watering the branch, wait for its soil to dry before watering it once more.
  9. After two years, the branch can be moved to be planted in the ground soil.


Palm trees can be germinated using seeds by following these steps:

  1. Buy palm seeds from specialized places for selling seeds or from flowering palm trees, and it is preferable that they be modern so that they grow faster.
  2. Put the seeds in a container full of water to test the viable ones. Those seeds that float are not good because they lack the internal parts necessary for reproduction, while the seeds that settle at the bottom of the container are considered good, and there is a large percentage of the success of their cultivation.
  3. Put good seeds in a small pot containing a small amount of soil, then cover them with a thin layer of soil to facilitate their growth, as the seeds are not viable if planted in deep soil.
  4. Keep the soil pot in a warm and moist place. It can be placed on the bathroom window near the steam. It can also be placed on top of the refrigerator or on a sunny windowsill to keep warm.
  5. Wait for about 70 days for the young plant to emerge from the seed. This period may sometimes extend to about six months, depending on the quality of the seeds and their environment.
  6. Transferring the plant to a warm place, the temperature of which is not less than 18 or 19 degrees Celsius, and it receives ample sunlight for long periods of time daily.
  7. Transferring the plant to outdoor soil at the beginning of spring, after it has grown at least four leaves to resist external conditions and keep the soil always moist.
  8. Start fertilizing palm trees in small quantities, using a liquid fertilizer intended for palm trees after the plant grows at a good rate.
  9. After the date palm grows, its female flowers will need to be pollinated by the male flowers, which insects and wind play a major role in that, as pollen grains are transferred from the female flowers to the male ones to complete the stage of sexual reproduction and fruit growth, and this process is repeated throughout the life cycle of the palm continuously.

Palm Growth Stages

The palm tree goes through several stages from the beginning of its growth, through the production of fruits, and ending with its death, and the following few lines show the palm life cycle:

  1. Germination stage: It is the stage of root growth from the seed, the plant splitting the soil from the seed above the surface of the soil, and the growth of the first leaf on it.
  2. Vertical growth stage: the plant follows the sun’s rays and grows vertically upwards; new leaves appear from the top, and old leaves fall off the bottom of the trunk.
  3. Cylindrical growth stage: in which the palm tree’s trunk grows widthwise and continuously expands from the bottom. The tree erects from the top, producing a cylindrical stem, which its division distinguishes into several parts in the same horizontal plane.
  4. Flowering stage: After the palm tree grows up, it begins to bloom in the warm seasons, and the palm flowers appear small and clustered on each other. These trees may bloom annually or once during their entire life cycle.
  5. Fruiting stage: The female palm flowers need to be pollinated with pollen from the male trees in order for these flowers to contract and turn into fruits, and bees or bats usually play an essential role in the pollen transfer process, and the fruits (dates) grow on palm trees in clumps or large groups They are ready to be harvested after they are fully ripe, and this process is repeated throughout the life cycle of the palm tree, which extends for years.
  6. Annihilation stage: in which the stem of the palm tree begins to wither or dry from the bottom, and the fronds and cylindrical scales in its stem stop growing, and this indicates the beginning of the death of the palm tree, and it may also die of natural causes such as disasters and strong winds.

Types of Palm Trees

There are numerous varieties of palm trees; the most significant are explained below:

  1. Date palm: It is the most well-known variety of palm. Fruits that are delectable, healthy, and common are produced in the Middle East. These trees reach a height of around 30 metres, and their leaves can grow to a length of between three and five metres. They can survive difficult environmental circumstances like drought, a lack of water, and high temperatures.
  2. Zombie palm: These trees are famous in Hispaniola, specifically in the dry hilly areas, as they grow to relatively few heights of up to 3 meters, and smaller branches always grow next to them, and they produce white, circular fruits, and they are characterised as being able to withstand drought.
  3. Windmill palm: The Chinese windmill palm’s scientific name is Trachycarpus. The original habitats of this type are Japan, China, Myanmar, and India. It is an evergreen species of about 30 meters in height and a width ranging from 2 to 4 meters. What distinguishes this type of palm tree most is that it tolerates extreme cold and contains disease-resistant genes. And agricultural pests, and you don’t need much effort to care for them.
  4. King palm: It was named by this name for its elegant appearance, its eye-catching bright green leaves, its attractive spring flowers, its slender multi-coloured trunk, and its leaves wrapped around each other. This type of palm grows in California and is distinguished for not requiring intensive care for its growth.
  5. Triangle palm: These trees grow in the Mediterranean rainforests because they need a warm and humid environment to grow and reach a height of about 15 meters. They can be grown in California and Hawaii.

How to grow palm trees?

Here are the steps for palm cultivation:

  1. Place the young palm plant in soil rich in minerals and nutrients.
  2. The palm plant can be fertilised with the correct nutrients that palm trees require after it has been in the ground for three to four months.
  3. For five to six months, water the little palm plant twice per week; if the soil is sandy, the irrigation schedule can be raised to three times per week.
  4. The plant has to be watered once a month in the winter and twice a month in the summer seasons after six months of growth.
  5. Pruning palm trees and getting rid of brown and yellow branches because these leaves consume nutrients from the soil and prevent them from reaching the tree to complete its growth.
  6. Avoid cutting the branches near the original trunk of the palm tree. It is preferable to leave a small part of these branches in order to avoid wounding the trunk of the palm tree.

What are the uses of the palm tree?

A palm tree has many uses, as the wood resulting from its trunk is used in carpentry and construction. In addition to the following:

  1. It is also used for the purpose of heating in the winter as firewood, as well as fertilizer for plants and trees.
  2. Its wood is used in the manufacture of cardboard and paper.
  3. The flowers of this tree are used to make pollen water, which has many uses and is commonly used in the Arab Gulf countries.
  4. It is used for decorative purposes in streets and gardens and for shading land areas from sunlight.
  5. It is considered one of the ornamental trees that crowd the streets of some cities.
  6. Its leaves are used to build the roofs of some houses.
  7. It is used in the manufacture of chairs and papers.
  8. Its trunks are used in the preparation of some building materials.
  9. Its roots are involved in fuel generation and fertiliser manufacturing.
  10. Palm leaves are used in the manufacture of some women’s supplies, such as bags and cosmetics.

Benefits of palm tree fruit

The benefits of the palm tree are not limited to the previous aspects but rather extend to the following:

  1. It is considered an integrated food that contains a high percentage of most nutrients, minerals, and vitamins that the body needs on a daily basis to be able to perform its vital operations and to maintain the health of its internal and external organs.
  2. It contains protein and calcium that help grow and strengthen the body.
  3. It contains iron, which prevents anaemia.
  4. Its fruits are used to help relieve the digestive system, especially the problem of constipation, and are also useful for haemorrhoids and cases of colon irritation.
  5. It greatly reduces the possibility of food poisoning.
  6. It is useful to help treat skin problems, especially allergies and is also used to help treat high-pressure problems.
  7. Interferes in the manufacture of both sucrose and molasses.
  8. It is beneficial for pregnant women, especially in the last weeks of pregnancy, because it facilitates the process of childbirth, reduces the pain associated with it, and reduces miscarriage possibilities.
  9. It is useful for those who suffer from obesity and are overweight.
  10. It maintains cholesterol within its normal levels, as it contains pectin, which is responsible for regulating cholesterol levels.
  11. It protects from colon cancer.
  12. It prevents haemorrhoids, as it helps to get rid of chronic constipation that causes it, as it contains fast-digesting sugars and fibre.
  13. It protects the teeth and prevents them from decay, as it contains fluorine, which is responsible for the health and safety of the gums.
  14. The body gets rid of its toxins and prevents their accumulation in it, as it contains sodium and potassium that help diuresis.
  15. It prevents and treats anaemia, as it contains iron and copper, which are responsible for building and forming haemoglobin in the blood.
  16. It increases sexual ability and desire, as it is rich in boron and vitamin A.
  17. It is scientifically proven useful in strengthening the liver.
  18. It reduces skin infections and bleeding and increases its smoothness and freshness.
  19. It eliminates worms.
  20. It relieves colitis and treats irritation.
  21. It relieves and treats stomach acidity, as it contains chlorine, potassium and sodium.
  22. It relieves headaches, pain, nausea, and dizziness.
  23. It treats food poisoning problems.
  24. It facilitates childbirth and relieves pain.

Palm trees are widely spread worldwide, and there are many different types, each with characteristics that distinguish them from others. Palm trees live for many years, providing people with delicious fruits of high nutritional value, precisely date palm trees. Cultivating palm trees requires complete knowledge of how to propagate and cultivate them, irrigation requirements, and the conditions that must be available in the environment where they are grown to live more extended periods.

If you found this article interesting, you may also like reading about StonesHealing StonesWood Facts, and Facts about Rocks.

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Bees are beautiful creatures with little wings and alternating black and yellow colours. They have their kingdom, where they live in hives and have their queen bee rule them. It is one of the world’s communities led by female leaders. Although humans benefit a lot from bees, they can still have deadly stings from which one should be protected. 

These tiny flying insects only exist to mate and produce honey in magnificent amounts. Raw honey is that thick liquid that bees continuously produce for humans to use and take advantage of. It has tremendous benefits that can boost your overall health. While it is significant for young children to eat, it shouldn’t be given to toddlers. 

Here is all you would love to know about this deliciously healthy, thick liquid: 

How Do Bees Make Honey?

Before we get into the process of raw honey making, it is essential to learn about the body parts of a bee, so you know where the honey comes from. Bees are little insects, and despite their tiny sizes, they have more organs than the eye can see. Their bodies are divided into three parts: the head, the thorax, and the abdomen. 

The Body of the Bee

The head has five eyes on them, two large ones at the sides, and they use them to distinguish colours and shapes around them. Their other three eyes are on top of the head, and they use them to navigate the environment. Bees also have long tongues that work as straws to help them carry liquids from one place to another, along with four wings, two on their backs and two on the forepart.

They also have two antennas for sensing their surroundings. Here come the most exciting parts; despite their small size, bees have two stomachs. They use it for eating their food, while the other one is used for storing water and the nectar collected from flowers, which are the primary source of making honey. 

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Honey Making

Bees are naturally busy creatures that keep buzzing around non-stop. A colony of bees consists of 60,000 bees. Each colony can go to millions upon millions of flowers each day. They use dancing and buzzing noises to communicate with one another. And working as a team, they inform each other of the best flowers to go over using the waggle dance. 

When they choose the perfect flower, they take out their long tongues and suck nectar from the nectary organ of a flower. They store the nectar in one of their stomachs and carry it back to their hives. On their way home, the nectar inside their abdomen breaks into a simpler sugar.

The bees that carry the honey from the flower to the hive is known as worker honeybee. It then passes the nectar liquid to a smaller bee, known as a house bee. These little bees enter their colony and put the nectar into the hexagon cells. They dry the nectar using their wings and then cover it with a lid. And that is how the honey is made. 

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Difference Between Raw Honey and Molasses

A lot of people believe that honey and molasses are the same things. They both have a liquid form, are naturally occurring, and have almost similar tastes. However, they’re two different things. Honey, as we thoroughly explained, is a natural product of bees. On the other hand, molasses is a product extracted from sugar cane plants and sugar beet. 

It has a dark brown colour and sweet taste, yet it has a much thicker texture than honey. Like honey, molasses has a lot of great benefits. It contains many nutrients, including vitamin b6, iron, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and antioxidants. All of which significantly boost your overall health and support your immune system. 

10 Great Benefits to Reap From Raw Honey

Raw honey can be eaten straight from the jar or used as an additional ingredient to some drinks or food. Your body will thank you no matter what you choose to do with honey. It has tremendous advantages for your body and overall health, given being high in nutrients. Here are some of the magical benefits of honey that you can reap from either eating or using it regularly:

1. Used As A Natural Sweetener

Raw honey can be a great alternative to sugar. This works perfectly for those who have diabetes because it doesn’t raise sugar levels in the blood. It’s also an excellent option for people trying to shed extra pounds. Honey will sweeten your food or drinks with much fewer calories than sugar and a higher nutritional value.

2. Treats Persistent Coughs

When someone catches a severe cold, doctors advise having a tablespoon of raw honey daily. It’s famous for being a perfect cure for coughs that don’t seem to go away. Honey is suitable for adults and children alike. So, the next time you find yourself forcefully coughing, take a couple of honey teaspoons before heading to bed.

3. Soothe Stomach Problems

Honey is known for being gentle on the stomach. It treats any disorders and banishes aches if existing by relieving excess gas. Another symptom that you can take honey for is diarrhoea. Studies confirm that honey is full of antibacterial properties that make diarrhoea short-lived. It’s also beneficial for digestive problems.

4. Has Healing Properties

Honey seems to have magical properties. Not only does it have a sweet taste and treat coughs and stomach disorders, but it’s also perfect for wounds. Honey is rich in antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties; they help in healing open wounds and treating burns. It serves as a gentle agent on your skin when it’s injured.

5. Boosts Immunity

Studies have shown that honey is vital for stimulating the immunity system, increasing your body’s ability to fight infections and viruses. Medical professionals always advise using honey as an effective remedy for many diseases. It doesn’t treat the ailment directly, but it gives your body the strength to fight back and restore your health faster.

6. Protects from Cancer

This point is complementary to the previous one. One of the best ways to fight cancer cells is by having a robust immunity system, which honey can provide. Honey is also beneficial for cancer patients, as it enhances the recovery of damaged tissues and cells, making the body stronger at fighting cancer cells.

7. Increases Energy

We always get our energy from different sources of carbohydrates. Carbs are the primary fuel of energy that the body uses to function optimally. Interestingly, honey is deemed a healthy source of carbohydrates. It can be used as a quick energy booster in the morning or even before your workout. You can add it to your breakfast smoothie or have it raw. 

8. Improves Brain Functions

With all of the honey’s outstanding properties, it’s fair to know that it plays a vital role in enhancing the brain’s functions. Honey is full of valuable nutrients, including Omega 3, which is famous for improving memory. This nutrient helps flow more blood to your brain, making it function better. It also helps in reducing the risks of getting Alzheimer’s or dementia. 

9. Moisturises Skin

Raw honey is an essential ingredient in creating high-profile cosmetic brands. It’s a top product in the cosmetic industry, given its great benefits for hair, skin, and nails. Honey is a deep moisturiser, hydrating the skin and making it much smoother. Women who regularly use raw honey for their skin tend to have flawlessly radiant skin. 

10. Good for Your Hair

Again, raw honey has hydrating properties, which also work for the hair. It deeply hydrates the hair, making it look more potent and healthier. Moreover, it also helps in soothing the scalp, which helps in getting rid of itchy dandruff. Using raw honey on your hair can boost its shine and promote growth. 

5 Exhilarating Facts to Know About Honey

Honey dramatically benefits one’s overall health, so making it part of your daily routine is essential. Besides its significant advantages, there are also some great facts you’ll be interested to know about honey. Here is some exciting information about this magical delicacy:

  • Honey is the only product of insects that humans can consume with no problems.
  • Raw honey comes in different colours. It can be yellow or orange, with that brown hue, and it can also be white. 
  • Most foods go bad after some time; however, raw honey can live up to thousands of years if stored well.
  • Honey comprises two main contents, water and sugar, with percentages of 20% and 80%, respectively.
  • The United States have a Honey Month, which is September. They aim to market for beekeepers and promote the usage of this terrific product. 

Now that you have learned enough about the perfection of raw honey, you should consider adding it to your food to grow healthier and more robust. 

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When we hear the word lizard, most of us think of Pascal, Rapunzel’s tiny colour-shifting pet from Disney’s 2010 animated film, Tangled. Pascal was goofy but super cute. He had a surprisingly long tongue which he could stick out and an even longer tail that he could roll up.

In real life, lizards are just as majestic. They possess a super large set of incredible traits. But only a few of these traits are known, and many of them are even mistaken. For instance, many lizards are indeed small, but some species are as long as three metres. Most lizards have four legs, but a large proportion is limbless, looking like snakes.

So in today’s journey, we are exploring the world of lizards through 10 unusual but remarkably outstanding facts about them.

So let’s hop into it.

(1) There is a significant number of lizards

As you may remember from our previous articles on animals, all living things are classified using the taxonomy hierarchy. This classification consists of eight ranks. The broadest rank is the domain, which includes all extant and extinct organisms. On the flip side, the species is the narrowest rank, the most specific one. Every single organism is a distinguished species.

There are six other ranks between the domain and the species. They are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, and genus from the broadest.

The class Reptilia includes all the reptiles that have existed on Earth. Reptiles are cold-blooded animals with four short limbs or no limbs at all. Like birds, they lay eggs. But unlike birds, their bodies are covered with thick scales. Turtles, crocodiles, snakes, alligators, dinosaurs, and lizards, are all reptiles.

Scientists could surely define over 7,000 species of lizards. Could you imagine that? That large number of lizards suggests a great deal of diversity. So to ease the process of studying them, scientists have further classified all of them into various suborders, families, subfamilies, and genera.

(2) Lizards are older than dinosaurs

According to the carbon testing of their fossils, lizards are estimated to have appeared on Earth around 260 million years ago. Given that dinosaurs, the world’s most giant reptiles, appeared 243 million years ago, lizards are technically older than them. In other words, both reptiles co-existed for over a hundred million years.

This period of Earth’s geological history is known as the Triassic period. It started 252 million years ago and ended 51 million years later. Dinosaurs went extinct, hypothetically, because of a giant asteroid impact that vanished most life forms on our dear planet. However, lizards survived and continued to exist.

Lizards are cold-blooded animals. Cold-blooded animals cannot control their internal body temperatures based on how different the temperature of the environment gets. Put simply, lizards’ bodies cannot produce heat. So to stay warm, they need to be in a warm environment or at least rely on warm surroundings.

That said, lizards can still adapt to any weather as long as it is not freezing cold. They love to live in the tropics. In addition, they can easily survive in the desert, where temperatures get super high. Therefore, they live everywhere on Earth except for the north and south poles.

(3) Lizards come in all sizes, shapes, and colours

The first thing that best represents the diversity of lizards is their size. Despite the common belief that all lizards are as small as Rapunzel’s Pascal, many lizards are way smaller than that, and others are much, much bigger.

For instance, the world’s smallest lizard is the Jaragua lizard, native to the British Virgin Islands in the Caribbean Sea. It is so tiny that it can fit on top of your index finger. This dwarf reptile measures only 16 mm, on average, from nose to tail and weighs only 0.13 g— it is hard to imagine this lizard has any bones at all.

On the other hand, the Komodo dragon is the largest lizard currently living on Earth, more specifically on a few Indonesian islands. It is as long as 3 metres (at the maximum) and can weigh up to 70 kg.

Like all reptiles, lizards’ bodies are covered with tough, thick skin known as scales. All of them have their scales overlapping in unique patterns. Sometimes, those patterns display different hues of the same colour, most commonly green and brown. Other times, patterns dazzle in different but incredibly matching colours, such as blue, orange, grey, or black.

(4) Lizards are predators, and many of them are prey as well

Animals are either predators, prey, or both. Apex predators are those that feed on other animals, but no other animal feeds on them. Some animals are just prey. They are as peaceful as not to attack others. Still, they are some other predators’ favourite food. Other animals are both predators and prey.

The Komodo dragon is an apex predator, like lions, wolves, and polar bears, thanks to its relatively large size. On the other hand, most other lizards are both predators and prey. They eat insects and rodents. But they are also food for some birds, and sometimes even snakes, their cousins.

That said, lizards catch prey in a very distinct way, known as the sit-and-wait way. Like spiders, once lizards spot prey, they just sit there in death-like silence and wait until it gets so close. Then all of a sudden, they make their inescapable attack.

(5) Lizards eat all kinds of food

It is mainly known that lizards eat insects. Well, that is true for just a certain percentage of them, most of which are of small sizes. Species like the leopard gecko, the bearded dragon, the garden skink, and the anole feed on spiders, bugs, and caterpillars. Insect-eating lizards are known as insectivores. 

On the other hand, some other species of lizards are carnivores or meat-eaters. Their prey changes, however, based on the lizard’s size. But they generally feed on rodents, frogs, fish, and birds too.

The Komodo dragon, the biggest extant lizard we mentioned earlier, prefers larger prey and typically hunts mammals, such as goats and pigs. Yet, its most favourite prey happens to be the water buffalo.

Other lizards eat plants only, so they are known as herbivores. They eat vegetables such as peppers, carrots, sweet potatoes, beans, and peas. In addition, they feed on greens, including collard greens, lettuce, kale, escarole, and mustard greens. Some lizards eat meat and plants, and others, like bees and birds, suck the nectar out of flowers.

(6) Many lizards are limbless

Another uncommon fact about lizards is that not all of them have legs. In fact, around 2000 lizard species are limbless. At some point during their evolution, their legs shrank and almost disappeared while their bodies prolonged. This made them look so much like snakes while they are not.

Many things can help tell limbless lizards from snakes. For instance, limbless lizards have eyelids and external ear openings, while snakes do not. In addition, they have long tails, and their tongues are not forked like those of snakes. Lastly, the scales of limbless lizards are utterly different from any snake’s scales.

Native to Southern Europe and Central Asia, the largest legless lizard is the Pallas’s glass lizard—what a cool name. It can reach a length of 135 cm long, but it weighs as low as 200 grams on average and 400 grams at the maximum. Besides, this Pallas’s glass lizard does possess teen-tiny back legs that are only 2 mm long, too short to be called legs anyways.

On the other hand, the Collared delma is the world’s smallest legless lizard which lives in Australia. Interestingly, this lizard has a tail that is longer than its entire body. While it measures 60 mm, on average, from nose to tail bone, the tail itself ranges between 103 to 126 mm. Speaking of weight, this lizard is as heavy as 1.36 kg on average.

Put differently, the smallest limbless lizard is shorter but way heavier than the largest limbless one.

(7) Legged lizards move distinctly

Four-legged lizards walk in a funny diagonal but undoubtedly distinct way. They lift an opposite arm and leg, bending from side to side. Chameleons, those small colour-shifting lizards, can move back and forth boringly and slowly, like in slow motion.

Some lizards can also run. The Komodo dragon, for instance, can run at 20 km/h. At the same time, the sidewinder, which is a limbless lizard, has a maximum running (or, should we say, crawling?) of 29 km/hr.

Besides, the gecko, anole, and chameleon lizards have adhesive pads under their feet. So they can climb walls and stick upside-down to ceilings without falling. Other lizards have strong claws, which make them perfect tree climbers.

(8) Many lizards have magical abilities

Every animal has a set of behaviours which they use to adapt to the environment, thrive, interact with their peers, and protect themselves from danger. When it comes to lizards, the list of abilities is longer than Rapunzel’s hair but definitely just as magical.

For instance, some lizard species, like the mourning gecko, can regrow their tails if they lose them in some tragic accident or fight. Other gecko lizards use their long tongues to lick their eyeballs to clean them and keep them moisturised.

The bright green Chameleon lizard can move each eye in any direction, completely independent from the other. In addition, it can change its colours to camouflage with the environment. It does this either to protect itself from predators or to hunt prey. 

Interestingly, the scales covering Chameleon’s body take different colours. For instance, the stripes can be orange with blue dots, while the rest of the body can change to a mixture of blue, purple, pink and orange colours.

The Draco lizard can fly. Yes, you read it correctly. It has skin between its ribs which, when extended, enable it to fly or glide. That is why the Draco lizard is oftentimes called the flying dragon. On the other hand, the horned lizard can shoot acidic blood from its eyes to defend itself when threatened. There are also horns on its head and sides to stop other predators, primarily snakes, from swallowing it.

Many lizards can swim and dive too. They use their long tails to move in the water. When swimming, they keep their noses out in the air to breathe. But when they dive, they take a deep breath to stay underwater for up to a few minutes.

That said, some lizard species, like the anole lizard, can breathe underwater. By filling its snout with air, it can breathe normally while diving. Some diving lizards can stay underwater for up to 17 minutes!

Some lizard species, estimated to be 10, were also found to produce venom. They shoot it or bite to inject it. However, their venoms are different from those produced by snakes. This is another defence mechanism venomous lizards use during times of danger or when hunting.

An animal (or human) shot by a lizard’s venom will experience bleeding, low blood pressure, and other symptoms that get them weary enough for the lizard to escape. Sometimes, lizards’ venoms may cause victims to pass out.

Aside from everything we mentioned so far, which is still so cool, no feature is more mind-blowing than self-cloning. The whiptail lizards, native to New Mexico and Arizona, USA, are an all-female species. There are no male individuals whatsoever. So these female lizards developed the ability to reproduce by themselves without the need for a male, just like cloning.

As a result, the newborn whiptail lizards are all females too.

The female Komodo dragon lizard, the most giant living lizard we mentioned a lot earlier, also possesses this self-cloning ability. It can even activate or deactivate it based on the circumstances.

For instance, when male Komodo dragons are around, females mate with them and breed. But when males are scarce or completely absent, females turn on their self-cloning and have baby Komodo dragons, females, of course, all by themselves.

(9) Many lizards make great pets

Keeping pets has been a human practice for most of their lives on Earth. The joy interacting with other creatures brings about is so unique. It was found to reduce stress, elevate mood, and increase happiness. That is why keeping pets is especially great for lonely people.

Throughout history, humans have kept pets that they could tame or domesticate. Dogs, cats, birds, turtles, and hamsters are the most popular pets. That said, lizards make great pets too.

Well, not all lizards can be pets, for sure, but a few species. Some lizard species that one can keep as pets include the bearded dragon (yes, it has a beard), the blue-tongue skink (not skunk, and, yes, it does have a blue tongue), the chameleon, and the crested gecko.

Those lizards are too small to take up any space at all. They are clean, quiet, and super peaceful. They also do not fear humans and can easily interact with them. Another point that makes them great pets is that they do not require much care. They do not necessarily need to be taken out like dogs, nor do they pointlessly meow all night like cats. Besides, they are daylight creatures, just like most humans. They stay active during the day and rest at night.

(10) Lizards can live up to 50 years

Like everything we mentioned so far about lizards, their lifespans are also diverse, ranging from a few months to 50 years. But the lifespan of every species also differs in the wild, where they are more prone to predation than when kept captive, where they receive care and protection.

The Labord’s chameleon lizard has the shortest lifespan. In the wild, it lives for around 4-5 months only. But in captivity, it can survive for up to 3 years. On the other hand, the Komodo dragon lizard has the longest lifespan, reaching 50 years.


Here we get to the end of today’s adventure in the diverse world of lizards, a world most of us were unfortunately unaware of, but, hopefully, not anymore.

In this article, we discussed 10 different uncommon but still unbelievable facts about lizards. We looked a little into their history on Earth in terms of when they appeared, where they live, and how many species of them there are. We also learned about their sizes, colours, and predatory nature.

Then, we explored the limbless lizards and learned how to differentiate them from snakes. Finally, we discussed the lizards’ magical abilities, how they move around, and what makes excellent pets.

We hope you found this article useful as much as we loved writing it for you. You can still learn more about our beautiful nature by visiting our website’s World Around Us page.

Monkeys are social and active animals that live worldwide and come in different shapes, sizes, and colours. Monkeys are estimated to have more than 260 species, and they are separated into two main categories, the New World category and the Old World category. While Old World monkeys exist in Asia and Africa, New World monkeys are found throughout North and South America.

Their ages range from 10 to 40 years, and in the wild, they can live up to 40 years. Baboons are the longest-lived species of monkeys. There are five different types of baboons, most of whom live in the savanna, and Japanese macaques live from 22 to 27 years.

Monkeys Habitat

Most monkey types live in the tropical rainforests of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, or the savannahs of Africa. Japanese macaques are known to live in parts of Japan where it snows. They have flexible feet like their hands, which helps them navigate through small, elevated branches within the rainforest.

Monkeys Food

The majority of people believe that monkeys only eat bananas as food, but this is a misconception, as they also eat meat and plant foods, as They are carnivores, and most monkeys eat nuts, fruits, seeds, and flowers.
As predators, monkeys feed on many organisms, such as insects, bird eggs, lizards, and spiders. In their role as prey, they are a source of nourishment for a wide range of creatures, including other monkeys, big cats, and snakes, and because of this, they enhance the survival of these organisms.

Monkey Breeding

Gestation periods for monkeys vary according to sex. For example, the gestation period of a rhesus monkey is 160-170 days, and baboons have a gestation period of about 178 days. When monkeys are born, the young ones are mainly cared for by their mothers.
Facts about monkeys
Several surprising facts about monkeys are not publicly circulated, including:
When there is a shortage of food, females stop mating and procreating until conditions change, and also, when conditions are appropriate, females give birth once every two years.
According to NASA, the rhesus monkey was the first alien organism to ascend into space in 1948 when it was launched at White Sands.
When a group of howling monkeys screams, the howl is the sound of their screams, and their howls can be heard from approximately 4.8 km away.
Monkeys smiling or tightening their lips are signs of aggression. They also use yawning and bobbing the head signs of attack as well as shaking the head and shoulders forward.
They express sympathy and reconcile with each other by caring for each other. It is worth mentioning that New World monkeys have a broader jaw that consists of 36 teeth, while Old World monkeys have a slightly narrower jaw of 32 teeth.

What are the differences between modern-world monkeys and old-world monkeys?

New World monkeys can generally swing their tails, and Old World monkeys cannot.
There are some discrepancies in characteristics between Old World and New World monkeys, namely:
The nose:
Most Old World monkeys have small, curved nostrils, while most New World monkeys have round nostrils wide apart.
The cheek bags:
Old World monkeys have cheek pouches, in which food is stored so that it can be chewed later, while New World monkeys do not have cheek pouches.
The spanking:
Old World monkeys have rump pads, while New World monkeys do not.
The tail:
Some New World monkeys have prehensile tails, but Old World monkeys do not have prehensile tails, and the Old World Barbary macaque has no tail.
Being loud creatures, monkeys use a variety of sounds to communicate with one another. They have a specific shout to warn of danger, another to contact a partner, and even to interact with their young. Although communication has been studied for a long time, there are many details about which we still need to learn more.

What is the average lifespan of monkeys?

Monkeys usually live 40 to 50 years in the wild and live a little longer in captivity. The life expectancy of monkeys varies among species. As members of the primate order, they go through stages of development similar to humans. Newborn monkeys are entirely dependent on their mothers until the age of five, when they enter the small set of actions.
The adolescent period of monkeys usually begins at about eight years, and sexual maturity reaches 16 years from this moment on, and they are considered adults and completely independent. Most monkeys die around the age of fifty years if they do not suffer an accident, such as a predator attack or death by a man’s hand.

Monkey Types

Monkeys differ and vary according to their varieties and types. Some of them are huge, large in size, and larger than humans, and some are small, the size of a domestic cat, but they are very similar in their external shape. All monkeys of all kinds live in groups to mate and reproduce and protect the senior group for the young monkeys.


Gorillas are the most immense, violent, and aggressive of all types of monkeys. They are known for their famous movement, beating on their chest when angry or threatened with danger, and gorillas are spread in central and western Africa. There are two types of it; mountain gorillas and gorillas that live in lowland areas. Its length ranges between 1.2–1.8 m, and the weight of an adult gorilla may reach about 220 kg.
The primary habitat of gorilla monkeys is in the tropical forests of Africa near its western lowlands and the coast of Cameroon through the Central African Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Nigeria, the Republic of the Congo, and Angola, as some of them live in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Behaviour and feeding
A set of behaviours characterizes gorilla monkeys, and the most prominent of them are:
Gorillas are known to live in groups of up to 30 individuals, and they have a leader responsible for eating, moving, nesting, etc.
Gorillas communicate with a group of sounds and shouts of no less than 22.
Gorilla behaviour is calm, friendly, and shy, as they do not show aggression unless it feels threatened.
Males compete through fighting, and the male who is defeated kills his infant offspring.
Gorillas live in nests built on the ground or trees using branches and leaves.
Gorillas are herbivores, as they feed on plants with stem sap, eating or eating tree leaves, berries, ferns, fibrous bark, shoots, roots, wild celery, and some types of fruits.
It is the habit of gorillas not to completely strip the land they live of their vegetation to allow nature to grow again, and the food stock is renewed in its living area.
There is no specific season for mating in the gorilla, and the pregnancy period extends to 9 months when the female is vaccinated. When she gives birth to her young, she breastfeeds him for a period ranging from 3 to 4 years, and the pregnancy is repeated in the female gorilla every Four years, and usually one dominant male in the group mates with all the females in it.


Baboons are one of the types of monkeys of the old world, and they are burly and aggressive. Their prominent eyebrows and relatively small eyes give them their distinguished appearance. The male baboon is double the size of the female, in addition to their prominent thick hair in the neck area.
Baboons share with humans 91% of the genetic material. Five different types of baboon monkeys are widely spread. They are the second most common Primates after humans.
Baboons are known to live in tropical regions in Asia and Africa. They are divided into two main parts: Old World monkeys in Asia and Africa and New World monkeys in North and Latin America. One of the main differences between them is that New World monkeys have longer tails that they can use.
The habitat of baboons is confined to central Africa south of the Sahara Desert and in the Arabian Peninsula region, and baboons take their places of living in savannas, grassy plains, and rainy forest habitats. It is also found in the hills along the Red Sea.
Behaviour and feeding
The behaviour of baboons can be described as follows:
Baboons are social animals found in groups of hundreds of members, so individuals protect each other. A dominant male leads them.
Baby baboons play wrestling, chasing, and swinging together.
Baboons prefer to live on the ground but take trees as a place to sleep, eat, and watch.
Baboons depend on plant foods and meat for nutrition, as they eat fruits, seeds, herbs, tree roots, insects, eggs, worms, and small vertebrates. Baboons can also feed on some types of birds, young antelopes, sheep, and some types of mammals.
The baboon breeding season is throughout the year, and males compete for females in the group, and one female may mate with more than one male. The same applies to the male baboon; after the female is vaccinated, her pregnancy lasts about 180 days. Baby baboons depend on suckling for a period ranging from 3 to 4 months.

Mandrill Monkeys

Mandrill monkeys are giant monkeys, distinguished by their noses protruding outwards like dogs’ noses. Their colour is red, and their teeth protrude outward, making them look like deadly predators, and they spread in West Africa, especially Cameroon. They prefer to eat fruits and insects. Some may think that it belongs to the baboons, but it differs from it.
The habitat of the mandrill monkey is southwestern Cameroon, and it is also found in western Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, and southwestern Congo. This monkey tends to live in tropical rainforests, dense and mountainous forests, and dense jungles.
Behaviour and feeding
Mandrills have a set of behaviours, including the following:

  1. Mandrills spend the day on the ground and climb trees to sleep at night.
  2. The mandrill is a social animal, as it lives in groups of up to 50 individuals.
  3. The group of mandrill monkeys is dominated by a male leader, who is usually absent from the group and only returns when there is danger.
  4. The mandrill shakes its legs, shoulders, and head to express a sense of fun.
  5. It yawns as a sign of its inability to implement what is required.
  6. The mandrill monkey feeds on plants, such as fruits, seeds, fungi, and tree roots.
  7. It also deals with insects, snails, worms, frogs, lizards, snakes, and small vertebrates.
  8. Mandrills have bags in their cheeks to store snacks to eat later.

Mating occurs in the Mandrill community from July to October, and mating is repeated every two years. The dominant male in the group often mates with more than one female, and when the female becomes pregnant, her pregnancy lasts six months.

Blue Monkey

Blue monkey is a unique type of monkey, and it is one of the monkeys of the ancient world. It is called blue, but it is not entirely blue. Its colour is olive dotted with black and white, and sometimes of the year. It turns grey to match the surrounding environment.
The region of central, eastern and southern Africa is the primary habitat of the blue monkey, and there are a number of them in the Congo Basin region. The blue monkey prefers to live in rainforest areas to obtain water, food, and shelter.
Behaviour and feeding
The behaviour of the blue monkey can be described as follows:
The blue monkey is a social animal that lives in groups of between 10 and 40 individuals.
Blue monkeys communicate with each other with facial markings and body language.
The blue monkey depends on other animals for its food, especially invertebrates that feed on molluscs and worms. Its diet also includes plants, especially; fruit and tree leaves.
The mating season between blue monkeys extends throughout the year. Mating is repeated annually, in which the female is vaccinated by more than one male, as the female sends signals in body language to the male as a sign of acceptance of mating and the duration of the female pregnancy lasts for five months, after which she breastfeeds her children for a period of six months.


Macaques are one of the most similar monkeys to humans in their external appearance, and the absence of a tail like other monkeys distinguishes this species. Macaques are considered among the most dangerous monkeys to the human race. Where a bite from it leads to the death of a person immediately because most of them carry the herpes B virus, and this virus does not cause any harm to the monkeys that have it, except that it is fatal to humans.
Macaques are divided into two main groups: Old World monkeys in Asia and Africa and New World monkeys in North and Latin America. The main difference between them is that New World monkeys have long tails that they can use.
Macaques are widely found in western Afghanistan and across India to northern Thailand. They lived in ancient times in southern China and Tibet in such harsh weather conditions, and there are some macaques in urban areas in the north of India.
Behaviour and feeding
The behaviour of macaques is described as follows:
Macaques live in large, noisy groups of up to 200 individuals.
Males dominate the group, but females lead it because males do not keep in contact with their groups.
Macaques love swimming in water bodies.
Macaques are carnivores, as they feed on small animals and insects, but their diet also includes many plants such as; Herbs, fruits, and crops. The diet of macaques varies according to the environment in which they live. Monkeys in northern Pakistan may feed on alfalfa throughout the summer and eat pine and oak leaves during the snowy winter.
Mating between macaques varies according to the environment in which they live. If they live in cold regions, the mating season takes place during the fall season, and the duration of the female pregnancy reaches 165 days, after which she gives birth to one baby that she breastfeeds for a whole year.

Japanese Macaques

The Japanese macaques live in the mountainous regions of Japan, and these regions are distinguished by their snowy winter and hot summer weather. These monkeys enjoy the coldness of snow through their continuous play with snow in the form of groups.
Macaques are able to adapt to severe climatic changes. The hot springs close to the Cogen volcano provide the warmth these monkeys need to survive the winter. Old World monkeys are separated into two sections: those located in Asia and Africa. The modern world is on the continent of North and Latin America, and the main difference between them is that New World monkeys have long tails that they can use.
The Japanese macaques live on three islands: Honshu Island, Shikoku Island, and Kyushu Island. It is also found in a few smaller islands, some of which have been moved to the Texas region. Japanese macaques live in subtropical and semi-mountainous forests and broad-leaved temperate deciduous forests. Japanese macaques fluctuate in temperatures between the summer and winter in some areas, ranging from -15 to more than 23 degrees Celsius.
Behaviour and feeding
The Japanese macaques perform several behaviours that distinguish them, including the following:
These monkeys are in groups of 20 to 30, with a male leader.
Support, protection, sharing of food, and warning when feeling danger prevails among Japanese macaques.
Females prefer to spend most of their time on trees, while males are on the ground.
Japanese macaques communicate with each other using six different sounds, which they use for various purposes.
Japanese macaques use different facial expressions to communicate, such as opening mouths to display teeth, raising eyebrows, etc.
Japanese macaques eat meat, such as insects, crabs, and bird eggs, during the cold winter months. They depend heavily on plants for their food, so they eat seeds, fruits, nuts, tree stems and fibrous leaves, and the diet of Japanese macaques usually changes from season to season.
Japanese macaques breed during the mating season, extending from September to April, and mate once a year. The male and the female mate with more than one partner, and when the female becomes pregnant, the average period of her pregnancy lasts for about 171.7 days, after which she gives birth. The female gives birth and breastfeeds it for a period ranging from 6 to 30 months.

Capuchin monkey

It is a monkey belonging to the New World monkeys, lives in trees only, and is active during the day only. It is known as one of the most intelligent monkeys in the New World, so it is used extensively in scientific experiments.
The original home of capuchin monkeys is the new tropical region of Central America. They spread in Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama, along the coast of Colombia and Ecuador. Some live in Argentina, and some in southern regions.
Capuchin monkeys prefer to live in tropical green areas and dry deciduous forests, especially forests in which the vegetation covers canopies up to 1100 m high, but they can adapt to various environments such as; wet, dry forests, etc.
Behaviour and feeding
The capuchin follows several behaviours that can be monitored, including the following:
Capuchin monkeys live in groups of 18 to 20 individuals.
The capuchin uses its tail to grasp things and cling to tree branches.
Capuchin monkeys bark and cough to alert other monkeys to the presence of a predator.
The capuchin uses its teeth and claws to defend itself.
The eating habits of the capuchin monkey vary between plants and meat, as its food consists of 50-80% of fruits and about 10% of other plants, such as nuts, grains, and seeds. It can eat 63 different types of plants, and its diet includes about 30 % Animal food, such as insects, invertebrates, and small vertebrates.
The breeding season of capuchin monkeys is active between January and April. Still, they can mate throughout the year, and the female becomes pregnant once every two years, just as male and female capuchin monkeys breed with more than one partner. The female pregnancy lasts an average of 160 days, then she gives birth to one baby and works for breastfeeding him between 2 to 4 months.

Squirrel monkey

It gained this name due to its resemblance to a squirrel, part of the New World monkeys and can adapt significantly to several different environments. It is divided into two main parts: Old World monkeys in Asia and Africa and Modern World monkeys in North and Latin America, and the main difference between them is that New World monkeys have long tails that they can use.
Squirrel monkeys live in the tropical rainforests in the continent of South America, especially in the riverside forests in Guyana. In the Amazon River Basin, the squirrel monkey’s presence is rare in southeastern Brazil’s coastal forests. They prefer to live in medium forest levels and may be found in limited numbers in forests with upper canopies and in flat lands.
Behaviour and feeding
The behavioural pattern of the squirrel monkey is described as follows:
The squirrel monkey lives in groups of up to 300 individuals, and within each group, there are sub-groups.
Individual groups tend to distance themselves from each other, and they only meet to search for food.
The squirrel monkeys are active around water sources and during the daytime. Squirrel monkeys communicate with each other through 26 different sounds, such as purring, barking, squealing, screaming, etc.
A young squirrel monkey travels on its mother’s back for a year.
The squirrel monkey’s diet is represented by fruits, leaves, and seeds, as it feeds on insects, spiders, and small vertebrates.
The mating season of squirrel monkeys is from September to November, as they choose the heavy rainy season so that water and food are abundant. When the female fertilizes, she becomes pregnant for a period ranging from 160 to 170 days.

Golden Lion monkey

The golden lion monkey is a newly discovered monkey species, and it is distinguished by the fact that when exposed to the sun, it becomes golden in colour, so it is attractive. It has been used in myths and stories, while its normal colour is reddish orange. Its numbers are greatly declining, and it is classified as endangered due to human activities represented by logging and trade in rare animals. Their sizes are small, but they have very long and fluffy tails.
The golden lion monkey is divided into two main parts; Old World monkeys in Asia and Africa and Modern World monkeys in North and Latin America. The main difference between them is that New World monkeys have long tails that they can use.
The original habitat of the golden lion monkey is the coastal rain forests located in the southeastern region of Brazil. These monkeys prefer to live in environments with a very humid climate and in dense forests with many vineyards.
Behaviour and feeding
Among the behavioural patterns of the golden lion monkey are the following:
The golden lion monkey lives in small groups, the number of which does not exceed 2 to 8 individuals, and they are usually from one family.
The monkey stays suspended 10 to 30 meters off the ground.
The golden lion monkey sleeps in tree holes to protect itself from predators.
The golden lion monkey performs several behaviours as a threat, such as opening its mouth, back arching, and squinting.
Golden lion monkeys feed mainly on insects, using their long and slender fingers to search for insects in the cracks of trees. They also eat spiders, snails, eggs, fruits, vegetables, birds and small lizards.
The golden lion monkey reproduces between September and March. Reproduction is repeated twice during one year, and the golden lion monkey takes one mating partner, so the female becomes pregnant for a period ranging between 130-135 days and gives birth to twin babies. The parents cooperate to take care of them, and the mother breastfeeds them for a period of 90 days.

Howler monkey

So named for having the loudest vocalizations among monkeys or even of all animals, they are one of the great New World monkeys. They have long tails that enable them to hunt, pick up things, and see all colours, just like humans.
It is divided into two main parts: Old World monkeys in Asia and Africa and Modern World monkeys in North and Latin America, and the main difference between them is that New World monkeys have long tails that they can use.
Howler monkeys live in the rainforests in central South America, as they are found in the forests across eastern Bolivia, southern Brazil, Paraguay, and northern Argentina. These monkeys tend to live in semi-tropical deciduous forest environments, which are proportioned throughout the year.
Howler monkeys also live in tropical deciduous forests in which savanna-like openings spread, and the climate varies between wet and warm and dry and cold.
Behaviour and feeding
The howler monkey shows some behaviours in its wildlife, including:
Howler monkeys live in large groups, most of whose members are from one family.
All members of one group of howler monkeys emit calls every morning to tell the other neighbouring groups where they are staying as a kind of distinction of their sites.
The howler monkey is a plant-animal, as it feeds mainly on tree leaves, and eats fruits, buds, and flowers, so howler monkeys stay on the trees and get their share of water through the food they eat, but in dry seasons they come down to drink water from lakes. They feed on the grassy plants found in the swamps.
Mating occurs between several females and males of howler monkeys, and the female mates once during the year, carrying it for up to 12 months, and when she gives birth to her young, she works for breastfeeding him for a whole year.

Mandrill Baboon

Mandrill Baboons are similar to baboons found in African regions such as the Congo, Gabon, and Cameroon. They live in large groups, mostly in tropical rainforests. Evidently, they are omnivorous animals as they eat insects and fruits; however, they also eat leaves and stems for fibre.
Mandrill monkeys have reddish to pinkish hair, sometimes ranging to blue or even purple, around their noses and butts. The IUCN included them in the list of vulnerable species. Although conflicts within the group are rare, Mandrill Baboons can be violent, and when they fight, they can be deadly.

Hamadryas Baboon

The Hammadras baboons are a species of Old World monkey. They are primarily found in northern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula’s southern region, particularly Saudi Arabia.
It is also important to note that the Hamdaria family, also known as the sacred baboon, had a crucial part in the ancient Egyptian religion. It is believed that they evolved into carnivores as a result of how difficult it was for them to get food during the long dry seasons in the desert region where they are found.


Orangutans are native to Malaysia and Indonesia, live in Sumatra and Borneo’s rainforests, and belong to the Bongo family. Orangutans are classified into three dominant subspecies; they live most of their time in trees and are known for their reddish-brown hair.
Orangutans live in isolation and don’t prefer socialising in large groups. The only proven social bond they have is only maternal. They basically consume fruits, but it has also been found that they also eat bird eggs, plants, insects, and honey.
It is 30 years old and is one of the most intelligent primates to be listed as endangered due to the loss of their natural homes, illegal trade, and many other issues.

Marmosets Monkey

Marmoset monkeys are classified as the smallest among the New World monkey family members, weighing around 225 grams. Twins are very common in marmoset families. Marmoset monkeys have claws on their toes except for their large toes, which, distinctively, have nails.


The chimpanzee’s feet, hands, and cheeks are hairless, and its black hair is distinctive for its coarse texture. It can grow to a length of 94 cm and weigh 65 kg. Even after they were weaned at age three, the kids and mother remain close.
The majority of monkeys have tails; however, chimpanzees do not, which is how they differ from other ape species.

Finally, most monkeys live in trees, but some live in savannas or mountainous areas. Monkey tribes are on the move to find food, so one location is not home for long. They are very social and active creatures.
Monkey groups are called missions, tribes, troops or vans. Troops work together to take care of the baby monkeys in the group. They also love to play, cuddle and protect each other. The strongest and largest male monkey is the leader of the group. In groups of the genus of monkeys that practice polygamy, the leader mates with several females.

If you enjoyed learning about this fascinating animal, why not check out more fantastic facts about other animals: Koalas, Land AnimalsSharksRaccoonsBaboons, BearsPandasendangered animalsMoose, and Whales.

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Diverse cultures make the world more exciting, for there will always be something different to learn. Every country has its fair share of traditions and customs that make it stand out and unique. Countries in the same region can share some practices, but slight differences will always be. This time, we’re casting light on the raw beauty of Italian culture.

Italian culture is primarily famous for its remarkable cuisine that greatly influenced many parts of the world. Although their food is succulent and worth the hype, they own many more traditions beyond their flavoursome cuisine. These customs will significantly benefit you the next time you make friends with Italian people.

1. Kissing on the Cheek

Italians have their own set of traditions and customs that make them different from their European counterparts. In Italian culture, greeting people is not limited to handshaking. People greet each other by giving two light kisses on each cheek, starting with the left side. It is essential to know that it is not an actual kiss, but it’s more like the two cheeks coming in contact with no lips. 

People still make noises in the air with their lips, yet only the cheeks get to meet one another. However, this means of greeting is usually limited to people you know too well. You don’t greet strangers by kissing them on the cheeks, but a handshake would be enough. Most men usually greet with cheeks kissing with family members only. If a man is greeting a woman who isn’t related to him, he may just give a back pat to show affection.

Although this tradition is embedded in Italian culture, it is also a well-known greeting method in other parts of the world. In Europe, France and Spain are other countries with the cheek-kissing tradition. Other parts of the Arab world also use this method for greeting close friends and family members. 

2. Respect the Elders by Standing

“Respect Your Elderly” is a worldwide tradition that many mothers keep teaching their young children. So, this one is not surprising, for it is shared. However, the difference here is that in Italian tradition, respecting the elders is not limited to not talking back, saying inappropriate words, or even raising your voice. It includes standing up when an elderly enters the room.

People sitting in a room and an older person enters show respect by standing up. It would be best if you didn’t greet the elders while sitting down; it is a sign of disrespect. It would be best if you always shook hands from a standing position. On the other hand, if you’re entering the room with an older person, you should wait until they get in first.

3. No Hats Inside

Have you ever seen a movie where people enter a restaurant and hand off their coats and hats to the waiter? In Italian culture, you should do the same when you enter someone’s house, but you don’t hand them to someone else unless they offer. Hats indoors are a sign of disrespect in Italian culture. 

Wearing a hat means protecting yourself from the harsh sun, rain, or dirt. Thus, when you get indoors, it’s essential to take the hat off to show that you believe the house is clean and not the other way around. The same goes when you enter a church; you never keep the hat on. It also makes eye contact easier, for it’s important to look people in the eyes while you talk to them.

4. Open Doors For Women

In classic films, we have seen men holding doors for women and going after them. They also opened the car doors and let the woman get inside the car before they did. We call this kind a gentleman, and it’s not a common practice among the younger generations now. However, in Italian culture, a man should always open the door for women and elders.

They don’t have to be lovers for this to happen. A gentleman in Italian culture is one who is decent with strangers as well. If a man is getting out of a place with a woman behind him, he shouldn’t let her run for the door and let it smack her. That way, he will be considered disrespectful and rude.

5. Use Bread At the End of Meals

Italians are fond of eating lots of pasta, far more than you think you know. Their food is often soaked in sauces and marinara that are naturally left behind when they finish their meals. This happens in other cultures, but the Italian culture has different ways of leaving empty plates after eating. 

One of the most famous Italian customs is la scarpetta. They use this method to take all the left sauce and pieces of bread to mop up the sauce. The funny thing is that you can spot an Italian from how their plate looks. It’s often empty and clean of sauces and leftovers, thanks to their little bread tradition.

6. No Unannounced Visits

In many countries, visiting your family and friends is okay without sending a message or calling beforehand. However, showing up unannounced is deemed disrespectful in Italian culture. You should always ask the host if they’re available before knocking on their doors, so you don’t disrupt their plans. 

People always plan their social gatherings to fit all attendees’ schedules and plans. However, unannounced visits occur in Italy, but only in the village. In rural areas, unannounced visits are well-perceived and welcomed.

7. Bring Gifts Over Dinner Invitations

Italian culture isn’t one of those cultures where you accept dinner invitations and just show up. It’s deemed rude in Italy to go to someone’s house over dinner or lunch empty-handed. It’s always important to bring flowers or a box of chocolates to show respect for the hosts who took the time to clean their house and prepare a fancy meal for you. 

You can also bring a small gift or souvenir to show gratitude for their efforts. If one shows up empty-handed, they shall send flowers the following day of the dinner gathering. However, the flowers shall never be yellow or red and should only be in odd numbers.

8. Cover Mouth During Yawning

When someone yawns, they should cover their mouth with their hands, according to the rules of Italian culture. This is an act of respect in Italy, and most people do it, although it may not have real significance. Interestingly, people in ancient times also covered their mouths when yawning, but that’s because they believed it was a way to stop your soul from leaving your body. 

Sneezing and coughing are other acts that require covering your mouth. However, this is not only in Italian culture, but it’s a universal thing, which means everyone everywhere should do it. This help in preventing the spread of diseases or infections, especially when someone is sick. It became even more critical after the covid-19 pandemic. However, even if you’re not ill, covering your mouth when sneezing or coughing is a sign of respect.

9. Pray Before Meals

Praying before meals is a universal tradition for all religious communities. It’s a way to thank God and be grateful for providing you with food and health. Most Italians are Roman Catholic, meaning they are considered a religious population. So, saying grace before eating your meal is essential to Italian culture. 

When there are guests over dinner or lunch, it’s essential to respect this brief prayer time, even if they follow a different religion or don’t follow any. At praying time, everybody waits till the host or the one sitting at the head of the table finish saying grace. Then everyone is free to eat once the host announces “Boun appetito.”

10. Never Wrap Gifts in Dark Colours

Gifts play a vital role in Italian culture. Everyone loves receiving a lovely gift, especially if it’s something they’ve always wanted or needed. However, there’s an art in the way you present your offering. 

Colours have significant connotations for Italians. They care about the wrapping colour you use to cover their gifts, and dark colours are poorly received. Italians take offence when you hand a gift in black or dark purple wraps. You should always wrap the gifts in bright, vibrant colours representing joy and happiness.

11. Have Etiquettes For Sitting Down

Italians don’t just enter someone else’s house and sit down wherever they find empty. There are rules for sitting down in Italian culture, which may also be prevalent in other countries. When you’re in a social gathering, you should always wait for the host to seat you. Also, never sit down before the elders. 

On the other hand, if you’re the host, you should always wait for your guests to sit down before sitting down yourself. It’s also essential that you don’t stretch your arms on the table while sitting down. If you’re sitting in a living room, Italians make sure they don’t sit crossing their legs when there’s an elder in the room. 

12. Taking Shoes Off Has Rules Too

Most cultures around the world consider it polite to take your shoes off before getting into someone’s house. However, in Italian culture, things are a bit different. It’s inappropriate to take your shoes off in front of the guests. Also, you shouldn’t take your shoes off unless the hosts ask you to. Otherwise, you should keep your shoes on.

On the other hand, Italians usually never get inside their houses with their shoes on. They usually take them off upon arrival and go for house-only slippers. This way, they prevent the streets’ germs and unknown bacteria from getting inside their clean homes.

13. Alfresco is Essential in Summer

Alfresco may sound like the name of Italian food, but it’s an Italian word that means “outdoors.” In Italy, people love alfresco dining in summer. It’s a significant part of their tradition to spend time in the fresh air, especially during the warm days of summer.

Alfresco doesn’t always have to be about dining; it can include entertaining activities, barbecues, or fun social gatherings. No matter what they decide to do, it has to happen outdoors in the open.

14. Remove Price Tags Off Gifts

There’s a valid reason why many retail shops offer “gift receipts.” These receipts show the purchase date but without the item’s price. In Italian culture, it’s inappropriate to give someone a present with a price tag on it. It implies that you’re trying to show this person that you’ve spent a lot of money on their gift, which can be offensive to them.

The opposite also applies in this case. Some people may take offence if the gift isn’t expensive, thinking you are offering them cheap stuff. So, whether the gift is expensive or not, its price shouldn’t be out for everyone to see. 

15. No Yellow Roses

Italians are fond of flowers. It’s always a grand gesture to send flowers to someone’s house, especially after a lovely dinner invitation. However, the colour of the roses matters a lot. Yellow flowers are ill-perceived. People regard yellow as a symbol of jealousy. Thus, sending someone yellow roses can be offensive and mean that you’re jealous of them. 

White and red are always the most loved. White colour symbolises purity and sensitivity, while red is a symbol of love and passion, that’s why we see red flowers all over Valentine’s Day, right? Thus, it’s essential to know that in Italian culture, it’s not just about the flowers you give but also the colours you choose. 

16. Leaving Without Eating or Drinking Something is Rude

Italians have a lot of etiquette basics, especially when it comes to food. Such traditions are deeply ingrained in their roots and have been taking place since the past. Among the essential practice in Italian culture is the importance of eating or drinking something whenever you visit someone’s house. 

If you get up and leave without drinking or eating whatever the host serves you, you’ll be viewed as a rude person with no manners. Another important rule in Italian culture is never to leave the table after eating. You should wait for someone to be done, especially if you’re the host. However, as a guest, everyone must stay at the table while others finish eating.

17. Don’t Move Freely Around Someone Else’s House

When someone invites you to Italy, you should follow them to whichever room they go to. It’s also essential not to scrutinise their place but to lower your gaze and only look at what they choose to show you. Italian culture treats people’s houses with ultimate respect and privacy.

When the host sits in the living room, you don’t get to roam around their house freely. Even if you intend to use the restroom, asking the host to show you the way is essential. Afterwards, you go straight to the room where you were sitting and don’t roam around easily and comfortably. 

18. Never Touch Food With Your Hands

Italians respect their traditions so much and apply their rule in their daily lives. They even dislike foreigners who come to their country and don’t view their Italian culture highly. Thus, learning how to behave around Italians and not offend their beliefs is essential. One of the most important rules to be aware of in Italy is never to touch food with your hands.

You should always use a fork and a knife. This is not only a rule in Italian culture but also an essential basic in eating etiquette. Even fruits are served in small bites so you can enjoy them with a fork. The same goes for the renowned la scarpetta method; you don’t just grab the bread by hand. Instead, you cut the bread loaf into small bites and use the fork to mop the sauces off the plate. 

19. Only Wine Goes With Meals

In different places around the world, you can always pair your meal with a glass of fresh juice, your favourite cocktail or beer, or even soda. However, all of these beverages don’t pair well with food in Italian culture. The only thing they seem to enjoy pouring over during mealtimes is wine. However, there’s an exception to pizza which you can enjoy with a soda can if you prefer. 

There are more rules to wine when it comes to Italian culture. If someone’s sitting on your right who needs to pour wine, and you happen to have the glass in your hand, don’t pour it. This position will make you pour the drink underhanded, meaning that the back of your hand is facing the table with your palm facing up. Italians view this gesture as bad luck, meaning you wish for this person to choke and die.

20. Always Accept Offers to Pay

When someone offers to pay for your coffee or food, you usually insist that they don’t. However, rejecting such an offer in Italian culture is considered rude and offensive. Italians take it as if you don’t believe this person has enough money to pay. Thus, it would be best if you always accepted when someone offers, and then you pay for both of you the next time. 

Splitting is also not so joint in Italy. Many like to take the honour of paying for their families and friends. They keep exchanging bills one time after another until they’re almost even, but splitting the bill isn’t part of Italian culture, to begin with.

Italy is a beautiful place with great traditions and rich history. It’s one of those places where you can make friends with great people and eat fantastic food. If you want a great travelling experience, learn about Italian culture beforehand, so you can easily blend in.

Bees belong to a family of insects called Hymenoptera, and they produce white honey and beeswax as their food. It is widely assumed that there are more than 20,000 species of bees. It is distributed around different countries and regions of the world, but not in Antarctica.

Bees have large hind legs, their head and thorax are covered with hair, which is the part to which pollen is attached. The size of an adult bee ranges between 2 mm to 4 cm. As for bee behaviour, scientists have found that most types of bees are solitary. A few of them are social.

The bee feeds on nectar, which turns into honey in its digestive system, which provides it with carbohydrates and energy. It also feeds on pollen, which provides it with the rest of the nutrients, including protein. Wasps feed their larvae on animal sources such as insects and spiders, and the other difference between bees and wasps is the lack of forked hair covering the body of the wasp.

It often lives in large, cooperative and coordinated groups. But there are many species that prefer isolation and act alone. It is of all kinds very useful and beneficial to humans in one way or another, and it is also beneficial for flowers as it pollinates them, which leads to their large number. Without it, agricultural production may be affected, so humans must protect bees from extinction.

There are types of it that do not produce honey and have other benefits for sure, but the most important types are those that produce honey, which are called “honey bees”, and they produce quantities of honey that nourishes and treats humans, as well as beeswax that contains many benefits very important.

The social life of bee species

The number of bee species worldwide is more than 20 thousand, as most live alone. In contrast, bees that live a social life constitute less than 8%, and the types that live inside hives do not exceed 3%. This large number is classified. There are nine families of bees, the most famous of which is Apidae, which consists of three groups of social bees: the bumblebee group, the honey bee group, and the stingless bee group.

Kingdom of honey bee

This group includes several types of bees; the most famous among them is the European honey bee. Its scientific name is Apis mellifera, and eight other species endemic to Africa, Europe, and Asia. The honey bee kingdom includes three types; the queen, female workers, and males.

Queen bee

In natural conditions, the honey bee hive includes one queen that is produced from a fertilized egg, just like the workers. The food quality in the larva stage distinguishes it from the rest. Queen bee feeds on an abundant amount of royal jelly. However, the larvae (that will develop into workers) are fed on a mixture of honey and pollen along with a smaller amount of royal jelly.

The queen is distinguished as the only complete female in the hive. She can mate with males to produce two types of eggs: the first is unfertilized eggs that result in males, and the second is fertilized eggs that result in females.

The basic function of the queen is laying eggs, as she is more likely to lay up to 1,500 eggs per day and that is during the peak of her production. Her second function is to secrete the chemicals that help manage and organize the cell, prevent the development of the ovaries of the rest of the females, and prevent them from Breeding new queens.

Female workers

Workers are distinguished by being the honey bee hive’s smallest and most numerous members. The female worker bee can’t mate, reproduce, or lay eggs in normal conditions. However, in certain unusual circumstances, i.e., when the bee kingdom lacks a queen, it lays unfertilized eggs. Then, female workers performing all the necessary tasks for the survival of the cell depends, such as:

  1. Sucking nectar from flowers using its long tongue, collects pollen using the feathery hairs covering its body, and then transfers it to the hive.
  2. Converting nectar into honey.
  3. Wax secretion from special glands in the lower abdomen.
  4. Taking care of the queen and larvae to produce the royal jelly necessary to feed the young and queen larvae.
  5. Covering mature larvae cells so they can safely develop into a pupa.
  6. Guard the hive and attack intruders with their powerful jaws and stinging needles.


The male honey bee is distinguished from the worker by being more prominent and fuller than the worker and queen. At the same time, it depends on the honey stock in the hive for food, or sometimes the female workers may feed them.

This male has large compound eyes at the top of its head to monitor the queen while flying to mate with her; this is the only function he performs. He spends his time eating, resting, and flying to the particular sites where the males gather, waiting to mate with the queens.

Bumble bees

They live in a kingdom similar to honey bees, consisting of one queen and many workers and males. However, the life cycle of the bumblebee kingdom is annual and begins with the appearance of the fertilized queen in the spring, when the queen builds the nest and supplies it.

The wax is produced from the special glands for that. The bee lays the first batch of eggs, fertilized, and during that, male bees protect the nest and defend it, taking care of the eggs that will hatch into larvae. Then workers take care of her after her usual tasks, like collecting food, defending the nest, and caring for the brood.

The bumblebee queen begins at the end of summer and the beginning of autumn by laying unfertilized eggs, which result in males, and at this stage, the female workers begin to raise queens from the fertilized eggs, and when the new queens appear, they leave the nest with the males to mate.

Here the production of female workers stops, and the founding queen and female workers die. Only newly mated queens remain, and with the approach of winter, each queen stores an additional amount of fat in her body and takes a suitable place for her to spend the winter in it, which is often in the soil, in order to protect her cells and organs from freezing, and here are some characteristics that distinguish other bumblebees:

  1. It is adapted to live in areas with cold climates, thanks to the long and thick hair that covers its body.
  2. It builds its nests in rock cavities and among fallen wood.
  3. The kingdom of bumblebees is characterized by a relatively primitive social structure, as it does not have a communication system to guide the rest of the hive members to the locations of food availability.
  4. The novice workers are forced to learn to gather food by trial and error, unlike honey bees, which have a developed communication system that includes dancing through it.
  5. The scout bee can guide the rest of the workers to ascertain the direction and the distance to reach the source of the nectar.

Stingless bees

This name is known as stingless bees because their stingers are smaller in size, and they rarely use them to defend themselves. Non-stingless bees include nearly 300 species, most of which live in tropical and subtropical regions and build their nests in tree cavities and inside rocky crevices. Some come among the essential characteristics of stingless bees:

  1. It is distinguished by its small size, as most of its members are less than 1 cm long, with a few species similar to European honey bees in terms of size.
  2. It forms perennial kingdoms consisting of one queen, many workers and males. The queen and workers are produced from fertilized eggs, while males are made from unfertilized eggs usually laid by female workers.
  3. Stingless bees can communicate with each other by smell and make low-frequency vibrating sounds to guide the rest of the hive to the location of nectar.

Why do bees make honey?

Bees need food like other living organisms, and to obtain their nutritional needs, they collect flower nectar, pollen, and water. Pollen is the main source of protein needed for brood production and the growth of young bees. It also provides the necessary fats, minerals, and vitamins for food.

The bees, while nectar provides the bees with the minerals they need, including calcium, copper, potassium, magnesium, and sodium. The honey that the bees produce from the nectar represents the primary source of carbohydrates needed to provide it with the energy it needs for several things. Such as flying, preserving the kingdom, and carrying out the usual daily activities; without carbohydrates, the bees will die within a few days.

It is worth noting that worker bees need to harvest nectar from millions of flowers to produce approximately 453.5 gm of honey. Despite that, one kingdom produces About 36 kg of honey surplus to its needs every year.

Why do bees store honey?

Bees store honey as a source of food for the kingdom to keep it alive during periods when it can’t obtain flower nectar for several reasons, such as when flowers are not already available. It happens in the temperate and northern regions in the winter between October and March.

They also store honey in periods of drought, such as prevailing in tropical countries, as a result of the inability of bees to get out of the hive to harvest nectar due to low temperatures, precipitation, or other inappropriate weather conditions.

The beekeeper must consider leaving the honey box always full of honey when harvesting honey during the summer, given the importance of storing a sufficient amount of honey to meet the bees’ needs in the event of a crop shortage during the fall season.

Note that the standard size of the honeycomb box can accommodate ten frames of honey. It is worth mentioning that bees can prevent starving in the winter by moving the apiary to an area where there are flowers that produce nectar or by feeding the bees on white sugar or its solution.

Types of honey-producing bees

More than 20 thousand species of bees in the world differ among themselves in shape, size, nesting habits, and life cycle, as less than 8% of bees live in groups that include other individuals of the same kind. In contrast, members of the remaining species live an isolated or solitary life. The percentage of bee species that produce honey is estimated as below 4% of the total number of bees, that is, less than 800 species.

Honey Bee Reproduction

Although there are more than twenty thousand species of bees in the world, only less than 4% of them can produce honey, i.e., less than 800 species. Several types of bees live in isolation; however, the species that prefer to gather in bee communities are less than 8% of the total number of bees in the world. Despite the variation between different species in their life patterns, most have a similar mating mechanism, as male bees are only made for mating with the femail bees.

The honey bee

The queen, the workers, and the males are the three different adult bee species that make up the society. Since the queen is the sole sexually mature female in the beehive, reproduction and egg production are her main responsibilities. The queen also leaves the hive after seven days and flies away. At that time, she mates with 7–15 men that she attracts to her using pheromones from the bee realm.

The male bee highlights the male organ before inserting it into the queen’s stinger chamber and releasing sperm during mating. Because each fertilised egg has slightly different genetic features from the other egg, this results in genetic variety among the offspring, increasing the likelihood that the bee kingdom would succeed.

The queen bee saves between 5 and 6 million sperm in good condition for the following four years, and when her sperm supply runs out, the kingdom starts to raise a new queen. The queen bee uses some of the sperm she acquired to fertilise the eggs directly. It’s important to remember that male bees typically do not mate with the queen of their colony.

Scientists believe that males define their congregational areas in response to a magnetic force that forms in their stomachs six days after their birth and directs them to specific locations. Males focus on what is in these areas only to the point where they will ignore any queen that flies outside of these areas.

What is the mechanism of honey bee sex determination?

The queen bee produces two different types of eggs after mating with males: unfertilized eggs, which produce male bees, and fertilised eggs, which produce females, which will later develop into either a queen or a worker depending on the nutrition she receives while in the caterpillar stage, as it is given to the larvae that will result in her.

The larva that will become a worker is only given a modest amount of royal food for the first three days, while the queen receives abundant amounts of royal jelly during her whole feeding period. She is given a mixture of royal jelly, honey, and pollen the next few days.

What phases of development goes during a honey bee’s life?

The four phases that the honey bee experiences are as follows:

Egg: The honey bee queen typically lays one egg in each cell, which resembles a tiny grain of rice. It starts out straight before bending. On the third day, it hatches, releasing a larva.

Honey bee larva: The honey bee larva is white, glossy, and resembles a letter (C). Up until the time to cover the cells with wax, which occurs approximately five and a half days after the birth of the larva if it is grown to become a worker and six days if it is not, the adult female workers feed the larvae. It is considered a queen, and it takes six and a half days if it is raised to become a male, after which the larva then extends lengthwise within the cell and starts to spin the cocoon.

Pupa: When the larva reaches the pupa stage, the features of the adult bee start to show on it. Before the colour of the entire body changes, the compound eyes’ colour first shifts from white to a brownish-purple hue.

Adult: If it’s a working bee, it leaves the covered hive after twelve days, a queen after seven and a half days, and a male after fourteen and a half days.

Mason bees breeding

While each female constructs her own nest, mason bees are an example of solitary bees. In the spring, the men emerge from the cells two, three, or more days before the females, depending on the weather, and as soon as the female departs, mating takes place immediately.

After several days of mating, the female starts to construct a nest in which to lay eggs. She also gives the eggs food, which is made of a combination of pollen and nectar and is referred to as “bee bread.” The eggs are the size of a pea, and the queen places one in the centre of each cell before constructing a mud wall to surround and protect it.

About a week or so, the bee’s egg begins to hatch, and a larva emerges. After a month or more, the larva starts eating pollen and spinning a cocoon, at which point it enters the pupal stage. It matures into an adult bee at the end of the summer and spends the winter within the nest. The bee emerges from the cocoon and the mud wall as spring arrives. It is important to note that this type of adult bee dies at the conclusion of the nesting season.

Social bee reproduction

The mechanics of social bee mating and reproduction vary depending on the species, including:

  1. Bumblebees: When mating with the queen, male bumblebees exhibit aggressive behaviour; when mating with the queen, male bumblebees aggressively drop the queen to the ground and climb up on her chest.
  2. Carpenter bees: Carpenter bees mate while they are flying through the air, and their mating ritual starts with a wagging dance that often involves 12 males and 3–4 females.
  3. Sweat bees: The male of this species may mate with a female who has already mated. Sweat bees mate similarly to honey bees, with a few differences. For example, the female of this species does not fly during mating because she mates and lays eggs only when necessary to ensure the survival of the kingdom. This species’ male may mate with a female who has already given birth to offspring.

What do we learn from bees?

Bees are among the active animals that humans can benefit from in their lifestyle and way of living, and can be benefited from:

1.      Teamwork

A man usually searches for the lesson in everything. He finds something remarkable when he contemplates the bees and their ability to work in a team without complaining. The rest of the bees double their efforts so that work doesn’t stop and productivity does not decrease.

The public interest of bees is more important than personal interest, and the decision is always taken collectively. So that bees don’t fail to fulfil the duty that the group performs, that they can adapt to all circumstances and coexist with them, and even overcome them, and come out with a positive result from all the daily battles they wage.

2.      Seriousness and diligence at work

The bees are very active and severe creatures in their work, and they are the only ones that strive every day for the sake of benefit and seize every moment of their day. So, a person must create this positive characteristic of bees that each bee has its work, so they are organized in a good way, far from random, as each bee has something to do and there is no place for quarrels between them.

The bee focuses on its highest priority, never gets distracted by several tasks, and then finds itself at the end of the day doing nothing of it, and a person should be like the bee in focusing on one job and getting it done in a good way.

3.      Investing energy in helpful work

The bee plans its day with unparalleled intelligence, as it does not waste its energy on any work that may not be of importance or has no benefit; for example, the bee does not expand the hive unless there is a need for that, such as the need for more space due to the increase in the population, or the need to store more food, here all the bees cooperate, in order to accomplish the task in the fastest, simplest and easiest way.

A person must learn from the bee how to plan positively and beneficially invest his energy, away from squandering it in foolish things that do not work. Bees have their energy every day without getting tired or bored.

4.      Flexibility and dealing with changes positively

Change is what man fears most, and he often feels weak about moving from one area to another. Unlike bees who must follow his example, the bee transfers its activity immediately to the new environment within less than an hour and seeks to get to know the new surroundings. You start working quickly away from thinking about the past or nostalgia for old places, and the bee is loyal to work only and not to the area.

5.      Responsibility

Many people feel a high responsibility towards their work and others. Still, they can’t always succeed because of the obstacles, so they must meditate on the life cycle of bees to learn to assume responsibility accurately and correctly.

The bee’s sense of responsibility is innate, stemming from its instinct. It did not acquire it through learning, nor did it lose it with the harsh conditions because it stems from itself.

The bee always seeks to preserve the hive, even if it has to sting those who approach it and seek to tarnish its beauty. However, it dies immediately after the sting. The bee instinctively tries to understand the reason for the delay, and everyone joins together. To fill the gap caused by fatigue, a person should always try to fill the gaps around him, not search for them and try to highlight his success at her expense.

6.      Leadership

The meaning of leadership for bees is terrific, as the leader of the rest of the bees is an assignment leadership, not an honourable leadership, as it does not believe in a specific point of view, nor does it adopt an opinion. Still, instead, it knows what it has of work, and it performs it to the fullest without interfering in the creation of its subjects, as each does what is required of him without Negatively affecting the work of others.

Although the queen bee knows that she is a queen, she still behaves in the hive like a servant, not seeking to gain positions nor to prove herself at the expense of her subjects. Thus, the manager must learn from the queen bee how he can treat his employees or those under his command so that his leadership is in order to reach total success, not personal success.

7.      Time Management

The bee instinctively feels the time, so it does not waste it but instead works hard to gain every moment of its work, effort, and production. Types of flowers, the bee always lives in its presence instead of standing on the ruins.

8.      Efficiency at work

Work efficiency requires good planning and skill in implementation, which is what bees do instinctively, as they spend two-thirds of their time working hard and with high productivity, and they spend the last third resting. In order to recharge their energy, learning from bees does not mean that a person spends his life working; It means doing a good job and then getting plenty of rest.

9.      Charity

Doing good always benefits a person in one way or another, which is what a person must believe in, just like a bee. The bee inhales the nectar from flowers, pollinates them, and then the benefit returns to it later. Where flowers stay longer, and bees take nectar from them over and over.

Although the bee does not pollinate the flower as a reward for it, it did good with its family, so it returned to it again. A person must learn this by doing good and not waiting for a reward from others.

10.  Effective communication with others

Successful work requires the ability to communicate effectively with others so that it is not a reason to discourage them, nor is it always blaming them. As this would create a harmful and unsafe environment for production, the bees do not cut off communication with each other at all, but they always pass new information to each other; for everyone to benefit.

Each bee knows what it is to do, adapts to changes, and even helps its friend adapt to all the conditions it can. All these actions come instinctively, so a person should do that, and he is the one who was endowed with the mind in order to distinguish it from other creatures.

To sum up, bees are very active and severe creatures in their work, and they are the only ones that strive every day for the sake of benefit and seize every moment of their day. So, a person must create this positive characteristic of bees that each bee has its work, so they are organized in a good way, far from random, as each bee has something to do, and there is no place for quarrels between them.

If you enjoyed learning about this fascinating creature, why not check out more fantastic facts about other animals: Koalas, Land AnimalsSharksRaccoonsBaboons, BearsPandasendangered animalsMoose, and Whales?

Baboons are one of the types of monkeys that are easy to identify, as they are characterised by tufts of hair on both sides of the face and hairless bottoms, which are often red. The baboon is considered one of the ancient world’s monkeys, and the baboon’s tail differs from the rest of the monkeys, as it is not used like the hand of the rest of the monkeys.

One of the giant monkeys in the world, which is characterised by its robust structure, belongs to the ancient world, and there are five different species. The average lifespan of a baboon monkey is 30 years in the wild, and what distinguishes the baboon monkey is its nose which resembles a dog’s nose, with strong jaws and sharp teeth to help it defend itself from danger.

These monkeys have relatively short and tangled tails. Both males and females have thick brown or light grey fur. The brow margin of the baboons is wide to protect their eyes. The faces of the female baboons are black. The males have a distinctive mantle of silver hair and a pale pink face. Baboons are highly adaptable animals. Still, their numbers are declining throughout their natural range due to hunting and habitat loss.

They belong to the Old World Monkey, a group of primates found under the Legion of Old World monkeys. It is native to Africa and Asia in tropical rainforests. Old World monkeys include primates such as baboons and macaques.


Baboons are large and robust. It is a native animal in the Horn of Africa and the southwestern fringes of the Arabian Peninsula. These areas provide them with a natural environment characterised by the lack of predators for this type of baboon compared to Central and Southern Africa, where other baboons reside. The sacred baboon was a sacred animal for the ancient Egyptians, and it appeared in different roles in the ancient Egyptian religion, hence the name of the sacred baboon.

Sacred baboons are considered the smallest baboons in the world. They are found in Ethiopia and are found in southern Saudi Arabia, Somalia and Yemen. Males weigh 17 kg, and females weigh 10 kg.

This species is distinguished by the difference in size between the male and female species (males are almost twice the size of the females, which is common among baboons). It is also distinguished by the difference in colouration between adults as the adult male has a silver-white head and back cover that begins to appear from age ten, while the females do not have any cover and are brown in colour. The colour of the face ranges from shades of brown to brick red. This type of monkey spends most of its day on the ground.

These monkeys have large heads with long dog-like muzzles and cheek pouches for storing food. Males are often twice the size of females with sharp claws that help them defend themselves, but their exact length depends on the species they have. Chacma Baboon is the largest, while Baboon Guinea is the smallest species, and baboons have fur with an innocent appearance and also differ in colour.

Baboons are considered the largest species of monkeys. Their length is up to 60 to 86 cm; their tails add about 41 to 58 cm to their length. Their weight ranges between 22 and 37 kg.


Some monkeys live in trees, others live in savanna and mountainous places, and these monkeys are social animals. They like to live in large groups where tasks are divided, and some soldiers protect the members. They also choose their leader, who is often more potent. The eldest of them is the one who marries many of the females in the group.

Baboons are found in specific regions of the world, such as Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, where four baboons live in Savannah: Chakma, Olive, Yellow and Guinea. Other species live in semi-arid habitats; some of them can be found in tropical forests. And the type of Hamadryas lives in the hills bordering the Red Sea, and like other types of monkeys, the baboons spend most of their time on the ground, but they climb trees to eat, sleep, or watch.

Baboons climb tall trees to protect themselves from predators and rest at night. They prefer to live in places close to drinking water. Baboons are strong animals with protruding eyebrows, strong limbs, and long tails.


Baboons are social creatures, and groups of baboons are called herds, where the herd consists of dozens to hundreds of baboons. According to the African Wildlife Foundation, the largest herd of baboons includes about 300. Groups of baboons sleep with each other as they care for and protect each other.

Young baboons play with each other in several games, such as wrestling, chasing, and swinging between the branches. The herd is usually led by male baboons, where the status of males is determined by age and size, while females are only determined by birth order.

As one of the old-world monkeys, it is a burly and aggressive animal. These monkeys are distinguished by the availability of pockets in their mouth to store food in them and their long tail and prominent eyebrows. What determines the male baboon from the female is its double size and the presence of thick hair central in the neck area.

Baboons share 91% of the genetic material with humans, and there are five different types of baboons, and their numbers are widely spread, and they are the second most common primate after humans.

They live in the tropics in the continents of Asia and Africa. They are divided into two main types: old-world monkeys in Asia and Africa and modern world monkeys in North and Latin America, and the main difference between them is that New World monkeys have long tails that they can use.

Food and Prey

Some believe that monkeys only eat bananas, but this is incorrect, as monkeys are animals that eat meat and plants, and some monkeys eat nuts, seeds, flowers, and fruits, in addition to other types of monkeys that eat lizards and insects.

Baboons feed on meat and plants, as they usually eat herbs, fruits, seeds, roots, tree bark, rodents, birds, young antelopes, sheep, and other mammals. They also eat different types of monkeys and maybe a pest by destroying and eating crops near their home.

Baboons are omnivores and are known to eat plants and small animals. Baboons prefer fruits, herbs, seeds, bark and roots. They also eat birds, rodents and small and large mammals, such as antelopes and sheep.


The female baboon shows its readiness to mate when her bottom becomes swollen and red, which is a sign for the male to start mating. The average bottom growth rate of about 16.5 cm has been recorded. After mating, the baboon female’s pregnancy takes about six months, and the female usually gives birth to one baboon in one pregnancy, but there is a record of twin births.

The gestation period for female baboons lasts 187 days compared to other monkeys, such as the chimpanzee, which lasts 237 days. They reach maturity after five years. A baby baboon is called an infant, its weight ranges from about one kilogram, and the infant clings to its mother attached to her breast fur while she moves throughout the day.

Before the baboon reaches the age of two years, it begins to mature and grow every three months until it becomes an adult at the age of six to eight. Male baboons usually leave the herd upon puberty, while females do not. Males can join other groups and leave them again at any time during their lives. Baboons live about 30 years in the wild, and female baboons can reproduce even at an advanced age, unlike a human female.

The appearance of males differs clearly from that of females because males have long hair around the neck and are twice the size of females. Baboons have strong, prominent jaws and large pockets in their cheeks in which they store food.

Baboon Protection

Humans and hunting cheetahs are among the main risks threatening baboons’ lives. Baboons are not at risk of extinction, as they are on the list of animals least vulnerable to extinction except for one type; the Guinea baboons, which was classified among the animals likely to be exposed to extinction. Because of the loss of 20 to 25 per cent of their habitat during the last thirty years due to fishing and agricultural activities carried out by humans.

Baboon Species

Baboons are classified according to colour into six different species:

  1. 1.         Hamadryas baboon.
  2. 2.         Guinea baboon.
  3. 3.         Chacma baboon.
  4. 4.         Kinda baboon.
  5. 5.         Yellow baboon.
  6. 6.         Olive baboon.

Hamadryas baboon

Also called the Sacred baboon is a native animal in the Horn of Africa and the southwestern fringes of the Arabian Peninsula. These areas provide them with a natural environment characterised by the lack of predators for this type of baboon compared to Central and Southern Africa, where other baboons reside. The sacred baboon was a sacred animal for the ancient Egyptians, and it appeared in different roles in the ancient Egyptian religion, hence the name of the sacred baboon.

Sacred baboons are considered the smallest baboons in the world. They are found in Ethiopia and southern Saudi Arabia, Somalia and Yemen. Males weigh 17 kg, and females weigh 10 kg.

This species is distinguished by the difference in size between the male and female species (males are almost twice the size of the females, which is common among baboons). It is also distinguished by the difference in colouration between adults as the adult male has a silver-white head and back cover that begins to appear from age ten, while the females do not have any cover and are brown. As for the faces, the colours range from shades of brown to brick red.

Facts about Baboons

1.            They can talk to some extent and have about ten expressions they use to communicate.

2.            They are 91% genetically similar to humans, according to Amboseli’s research on baboons.

3.            Guinea baboon can yawn in three ways, which it uses to communicate.

4.            When there is a food shortage, females stop mating and procreating until conditions change.

5.            In normal conditions, females give birth once every two years.

6.            When a group of baboons screams, their voices can be heard from a distance of approximately 4.8 km.

7.            Smiling or tightening their lips is a sign of aggression. Also, yawning, bobbing the head, and shaking the head and shoulders forward are signs of attack.

8.            They express sympathy and reconciliation with each other by taking care of each other.

Where do baboons live?

Baboons are found all over the African continent. Still, as their numbers continue to decrease, the extent of their natural spread continues to decline, as they are found in savannahs, rocky deserts, and rainforests. Wide range of habitats while the Guinea baboon is confined to a small area in the west, the yellow baboon usually inhabits the east, and the Chakma baboon is found farther south, over a range that covers the southern tip of Africa.

Baboon Lifestyle

Monkeys are boisterous animals, and to communicate with each other, they give different sounds to warn of danger, to contact a partner, and even to share with their young. Although communication with monkeys has been studied for a long time, there are many details and facts we don’t know yet.

Baboons are social animals, as they live in large and varied groups, and their numbers may reach hundreds. These groups contain both male and female sexes in addition to their young, and strong bonds are linked between them as they lunch and sleep together. During the day, baboons divide themselves into small groups. Each group contains 4 or 5 females and young led by a dominant male who tries to drive away the other males.

Baboons live in groups with the aim of protection. They are constantly looking for dangerous predators, especially in the open, and in the event of a threat to them, they publish a loud sound to prepare. At the same time, the males run to attack, and the females and the young ones hide safely among the trees. The methods of communication between each other include vocal calls, facial expressions, and even signalling.

If you enjoyed learning about this fascinating animal, why not check out more fantastic facts about other animals: Koalas, Land Animals, Sharks, Raccoons, Moon and Sun Bears, Rats, Chickens, Cats, Pandas, Monkeys, endangered animals, waterfowl and Whales.

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Trees belong to the kingdom of plants, distinguished by having a primary stem with woody tissues from which several secondary types and limbs branch off. Trees are an essential part of maintaining the environmental balance. They are generally divided into two main types; deciduous trees, which are trees with falling leaves, and evergreen trees, which are renewable trees at all times of the year and do not entirely lose their leaves.

Trees are considered a natural painting due to their beauty, and they are plants found on the earth’s surface. The sizes and shapes of trees vary according to their types. Trees need constant care by humans in order to grow well.

The world celebrates on 15 January yearly, a day known as The World Tree. Trees are planted and taken care of on this day because of their great benefits. Most trees are distinguished by their green colour, soothing the nerves and the eyes.

Trees are available in considerable numbers in this world. In addition to their beautiful appearance, they provide many benefits to humans, animals, the environment, the atmosphere, health, and society.

They protect the atmosphere from pollution because, unlike humans, they absorb carbon dioxide and make food. Instead, it releases oxygen, the basis for human existence on this earth. A person breathes oxygen, and one tree is sufficient to produce enough oxygen for approximately four people.

Forests and gardens are a habitat for many creatures that together form an integrated biological system and a place of attraction for visitors who enjoy looking at green spaces and using that to improve their health and communication with others.

The following is an explanation of each type separately:

1.     Deciduous Trees

Deciduous trees are usually widespread in temperate and tropical regions, referred to as trees with broad leaves, and are characterised by falling leaves in a specific part of the year. The reason behind leaf fall is the weakness of the photosynthesis process in the winter, whether in polar or temperate regions.

As it requires the growth and survival of its leaves to quantities that exceed the amounts it receives from the light, it weakens and falls. In dry areas such as the tropics and subtropics, the dry period is the reason behind the leaves losing because the trees suffer from the lack of rain, as they need abundant amounts of water to continue. The process is called Getting rid of the leaves and falling off is called the process of isolation Abscission.

Among the most prominent examples of deciduous trees are the following:

  • Oaktree.
  • Maple tree.
  • Bars tree.
  • Maran tree.
  • Willow Tree.
  • Poplar tree.
  • Aspen tree.
  • Beech trees.
  • Walnut tree.
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Maple Tree with Reddish Orange Leaves

2.     Evergreen Trees

Evergreen trees keep their leaves throughout the year and in various seasons, and this type of tree is spread in all regions except for the scorching tropical areas. In contrast, the species that live in hot regions have adaptive methods that protect them from drying out due to water loss; this includes a layer of wax on the surface of the paper.

This type of tree represents the permanent shelter of many living organisms, providing many benefits to humans, such as protection from strong winds, reducing the temperature by covering houses from sunlight, reducing noise, and others. Among the most prominent examples of evergreen trees are the following:

  • Pine tree.
  • Juniper tree.
  • Hemlock tree
  • Sequoia or beach sequoia.
  • Palm.
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Pine Tree

3.     Monocotyledonous trees

Monocotyledon plants follow the class of plants covered with seeds or flowering plants. They are distinguished by the fact that their seeds contain one cotyledon or one embryonic leaf and that their leaves are often with parallel veins, and monocotyledons include the following families:

  • Agavaceae

It includes the following types:

  • Southern cordille tree.
  • Stalk tree.
  • Short-leafed yucca tree.
  • Arecaceae

It includes the following types:

  • Fufel Cacho.
  • coconut tree.
  • Date palm tree.
  • Shuzan palm tree.
  • Poaceae

It includes bamboo.

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Coconut Palm Tree

4.     Dicotyledonous trees

Dicotyledons are the largest group among flowering trees, also known as plants covered with seeds. The plants of this group are distinguished in that their seeds contain two cotyledons or two embryonic leaves. This group includes approximately 200 thousand species of plants of this type. Among these factions are the following:

  • Anacardiaceae

It includes the following types:

  • Cashew tree.
  • Manga tree.
  • Sumac tree
  • Pistachio tree.
  • Sumac varnish tree.

  • Annonaceae

It includes the following types:

  • Cherimoya tree.
  • Indian custard tree.
  • Lobulated azimine tree.
  • Soursop tree or Graviola.

  • Araliaceae

  It includes calopanax trees.

  • Fabaceae

It includes the following species:

  • Acacia tree.
  • Honey carob tree.
  • Retribution tree.
  • Brazil wood tree.

  • Juglandaceae

It includes the following species:

  • Walnut trees.
  • Nut trees.

  • Lauraceae

It includes the following types:

  • Cinnamon tree.
  • Laurel tree.
  • avocado tree.
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Avocado Tree
  • Malvaceae

It includes the following types:

  • Baobab tree.
  • Kaboom tree has five stamens.
  • Cocoa tree.
  • Durian Yogurt Tree.

  • Meliaceae

It includes the following types:

  • Neem tree
  • Azedracht vulgaris tree.

  • Moraceae

It includes the following types:

  • FIG tree.
  • Mulberry tree.

  • Oleaceae

It includes the following types:

  • Olive tree.
  • Myrtle tree.

  • Rosaceae

It includes the following types:

  • Hawthorn tree.
  • Apple tree.
  • Almond tree.
  • Peach-tree.
  • Plum tree.
  • Cherry tree.

  • Rubiaceae

An example is the coffee tree.

  • Rutaceae

It includes the following types:

  • Citrus trees like lemon.
  • Cork trees.

  • Sapindaceae

It includes the following types:

  • Maple tree.
  • Horse chestnut tree.
  • Lychee tree.

  • Sapotaceae

It includes the following types:

  • Argan tree.
  • The gutta-percha tree.
  • Tambalakook tree, or dodo tree.

  • Theaceae

It includes the following types:

  • Gordonia tree.
  • Stewartia tree.

  • Ulmacaeae

It includes the following types:

  • Elm tree.
  • Zelkova tree.

  • Verbenaceae

An example is the large teak tree.

  • Apocynaceae

Examples include trees belonging to Pachypodium.

  • Aquifoliaceae

It includes the following types:

  • Broadleaf holly tree.
  • Chinese holly tree.

  • Fagaceae

It includes the following types:

  • Chestnut trees.
  • Oak trees.
  • Beech trees.

  • Salicaceae

It includes the following types:

  • Poplar tree.
  • Willow Tree.

5. Gymnosperm

Gymnosperm plants are known as plants that do not produce flowers, and their seeds are exposed. Therefore, it is easy to spread with the wind, and there are more than a thousand species of naked-seeded plants, all of which belong to 4 main divisions, as follows:

  • Coniferophyta

This group includes part of the largest, tallest, and oldest trees on the planet, which are evergreen trees whose leaves are needles, and one tree bears female and male cones, and some examples of them are the following:

  • Pine trees.
  • Sequoia trees.
  • Fir trees.
  • Hemlock trees.
  • Cycadophyta

They are evergreen trees with large, feather-like leaves and long stems and differ from conifers in that trees bear only female cones, and others bear only male cones.

  • Ginkgophyta

An example of a deciduous tree with fan-shaped leaves is the Ginkgo biloba tree.

  • Gnetophyta

This group includes some trees and shrubs, but most are woody vines that climb around other plants. An example is the plants of the genus Velvicia.

What are the most beautiful types of trees in the world?

Our world is full of wonders and fascinating nature. Trees are no exception. Here is a list of the most beautiful trees from all over the world:

1.      Japanese Maple trees

Japanese maple trees are tall; they do not grow to more than 8 meters in a hemispherical dome shape. Tree leaves vary in size and shape based on the tree’s genetics. This tree is characterised by different colours, such as pink, purple, burgundy, white, red, and indigo. These trees are found in Japan, North Korea, South Korea and some parts of Russia.

2.      Wisteria

Wisteria is one of the world’s most adored and popular ornamental trees. Wisteria is an aquatic flowering plant that belongs to the pea family. These flowers come in various colours: purple, pink, violet or white. Wisteria is the inspiration for many works of art and paintings in Chinese and Japanese cultures, and it is often presented as good luck trees.

3.      Oak Avenues of Carolina

This type of tree is one of the most distinctive trees worldwide. If you want to see this species, you can go to the northern hemisphere, as it is widespread throughout Asia, the Americas and North Africa.

4.      Dark Hedges in Ireland

It is one of the most impressive trees in Ireland, as it is one of the beech trees, which looks impressive.

5.      Cherry trees

Cherry blossoms or sakura as they are one of the most common, beautiful and well-known trees in Japan. It is the national tree of Japan, which is seen all over the world.

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Cherry Tree

6. Rainbow Eucalyptus trees, Hawaii

Rainbow eucalyptus trees are one of the most unusual trees in the world for their picturesque nature. This tree is distinguished by the colours of the rainbow, as is evident from its name. This species is found in natural habitats.

7. General Sherman

General Sherman is one of the most giant known trees in the world. This tree is located in the Giant Forest National Park of California. These trees rise to great heights on the slopes of the Sierra Nevada in California.

8.      Mangroves

These giant trees are located on vast areas of water bodies. It is characterised by its supporting roots to support the whole tree. Trees survive even in salt water and swamps. This type of tree is found in Florida, Texas and Louisiana in the United States of America and also in some parts of Hawaii.

9. West Indies Mahogany trees

West Indies mahogany is the national tree of the Dominican Republic. It is widely seen in Cuba, India, the Bahamas, and Jamaica. There is a wide disagreement among citizens about the origin of the name of this tree.

10. Adansonia tree

Also known as the baobab tree, the upside-down tree, or the monkey bread tree. These trees are found in the tall, dense tropical forests of Madagascar.

11.  Horse Chestnut trees

Horse chestnut trees are called Conker trees, and the seeds are used to make Conkers toys.

12. Araucaria Araucania trees

Araucaria Araucania trees are picturesque trees whose existence dates back nearly 200 million years, meaning they have been around since the age of the dinosaurs. These trees are found in the central and eastern parts of Chile as well as in Argentina. Araucaria is the national tree of Chile.

13. European Larch

This tree is one of the trees that resembles a Christmas tree, found primarily in the Swiss Alps and the mountains of Central Europe. The leaves of this tree are thin green.

14. Phoenix blood trees, Yemen

Phoenix blood trees, also known as the blood of the two brothers or Dracaena vermilion, because of the red sap it produces. It is one of the common tree species on the islands in the Indian Ocean. Its natural habitat is in Yemen.

Trees and Shrubs

A tree is a woody plant that regularly renews its growth, which means it is perennial, but how do you know the tree’s age? The answer to this question lies in the annual tree rings, where most plants classified as trees contain a single self-supporting trunk with woody tissues. However, in most species, the trunk produces secondary limbs branches are called branches.

For many, the word tree conjures up images of ancient, strong, and majestic structures such as oaks and sequoias, the largest and longest-lived in the world. Although most of the terrestrial biomass is represented by trees, the diversity of life on earth is the primary importance of these seemingly ubiquitous plants.

Their massive trunks and root systems store carbon dioxide, move water, produce oxygen released into the atmosphere, develop soil organic matter primarily from leaves, twigs, branches, roots and rotting fallen trees, and recycle nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, and other essential nutrients.

As for the shrub, it is a woody plant that has several stems and is usually less than 3 meters (10 feet) tall. When it is highly branched and dense, it is called a shrub. However, some shrubs, such as lilacs and honeysuckle, grow under particularly favourable environmental conditions to the size of a tree or even a tiny tree.

Some plant species may take the form of a tree, while others, under different circumstances, may take the form of a shrub, such as sumac, willow, and fir.

What is the difference between trees and shrubs?

  • The tree is more extensive and has only one trunk, while both plants have a woody trunk.
  • In general, the tree is recognised by its unique brown trunk and broader shape. Compared to the shrub, the tree is more prominent in size, reaching a height of 100 meters. It is taller and broader than its counterpart.
  • The shrubs are more petite, exceeding seven metres at most, with several stems at the base, often branched and thinner than the seldom branched trunks of trees.
  • In terms of growth, trees tend to grow higher and their branches farther from the ground, while shrubs can grow in all directions and generally have lower leaves.
  • In the absence of predetermined rules to distinguish all these plants from one another, specific criteria, such as their size and growth, make it possible to distinguish them.

Tree Care Tips

A person should assume responsibility towards the environment around him, including protecting and preserving trees. Here are some crucial tips in this regard:

  • Use insecticides regularly to prevent insects from harming trees.
  • Reducing the cutting of trees for heating and construction purposes and searching for alternative sources.
  • Use fertilisers to strengthen trees without overdoing them. Stop the depletion of lands planted with trees for urban expansion.
  • Trim trees that need this regularly.
  • Remove weeds that grow alongside trees.

Why are trees important?

Trees have many benefits, including:

  • Clear the air: It absorbs odours and polluted gases, such as nitrogen oxides, ammonia, sulfur dioxide, and ozone.
  • Provide oxygen: Mature trees can provide enough oxygen in one year for 18 people.
  • Energy saving: in the summer, it is based on reducing the home’s needs for air conditioning by up to 50%, with an average of three trees in a suitable location, and this also leads to reducing carbon dioxide and other pollution emissions from power plants and reducing global warming.
  • Supply themselves with water: The shade formed by the trees delays the evaporation of water, and thus they benefit from the water without the need to irrigate it again, unlike newly planted trees that need large amounts of water for their growth and they also work to increase the humidity in the atmosphere.
  • Prevent water pollution: During rain, trees prevent the surface runoff of water and allow water to pass directly to the bottom of the trunk underground, which prevents rainwater from carrying pollutants from their places of residence to the surrounding mounds.
  • Prevent soil erosion: The walls of trees help prevent soil from sliding to another place, as it keeps it in place, and it is also from the deposition of sediment due to the surface runoff of water due to storms, which also causes soil erosion.
  • Used in furniture manufacture:  Manufacturers use tree wood in making building materials and furniture because it is inexpensive and firm compared to its weight. Softwood trees such as conifers are used for this.
  • Reduce skin cancer: Human skin cancer; due to exposure to ultraviolet rays. Trees limit their spread and thus provide protection for children while playing in the home garden or school campus.
  • Provide food: Trees are an essential food source for humans, animals and birds.
  • Provide several treatments: Studies have shown that patients exposed to the shade of trees in the morning have a faster recovery speed, and it also helps children when exposed to nature to treat ADHD.
  • Reduce mental fatigue: Trees also create a kind of comfort for humans and thinking, and students can increase the power of thinking while sitting in the shade of trees.
  • Provide several medicines: Trees are used in the production of essential oils and medicines that treat some diseases, in addition to their antiseptic properties.
  • Provide shade and reduce noise: Trees providing shade contribute to the improvement of the water ecosystem because they reduce the temperature of the water and air, thus providing a habitat and food for marine animals, such as turtles, otters, and fish.

Trees are available in abundant numbers in this world. In addition to their beautiful appearance, they provide many benefits to humans, animals, the environment, the atmosphere, health, and society.

If you found this article interesting, you may also like reading about Stones and Healing Stones.

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Frida Kahlo is a famous Mexican painter who was able to challenge her disability when she was infected with polio at a young age. It is not the only disease Frida Kahlo suffers from, as she also had an accident where a car collided with her.

Frida Kahlo de Rivera is a Mexican painter, born in Coyocan, Mexico, on 6 July 1907 as Magdalena Carmen Frida Kahlo y Calderon, and died on 13 July 1954 in Coyocan. She is best known for her brilliantly coloured self-paintings that deal with topics such as identity, the human body, and death. Although she denied this quality, she is often considered a surrealist artist.

Kahlo was also known for her tumultuous relationship with muralist Diego Rivera, marrying in 1929, divorcing in 1939, and remarrying in 1940. One of her famous sayings is, “Why do I need my feet if I have wings to fly?”

Although Frida Kahlo is often very sick, she has a firm will within her that she can challenge her disability and exploit her talent in drawing and embody the most beautiful paintings. In the world.

Frida Kayla Artist
Frida Kayla Artist

Early years

Frida was born to a German father of Hungarian descent and a Mexican mother of Hispanic and Native American descent. She belongs to a simple middle-class family, her father immigrated from Germany, but his origins go back to Mexico. At the beginning of her childhood, Frida immigrated with her family to Mexico when she was only six years old.

During her later artistic career, Frida rediscovered her identity by often portraying her ancestry as twin opposites of the colonial European and indigenous Mexican sides. As a child, Frida suffered a bout of polio that left her with mild claudication, an ailment she endured her entire life.

Frida was close to her father, a professional photographer who often assisted him in his studio, earning her a keen eye for detail. Although she took some lessons in painting, Kahlo was more interested in the sciences and entered the National Preparatory School in Mexico City in 1922 with a desire to eventually study medicine, where she met Rivera, who was working on a mural for the school hall.

Bus accident

Frida Kahlo had a severe bus accident in 1925 that injured her so severely that she had to undergo more than 30 surgeries during her life. Her recovery was really slow, during which Frida taught herself to paint, constantly reading and studying the art of the Old Masters.

This particular accident significantly impacted Frida’s life, as the doctor put many splints on her body, which made her lose her ability to move for a long time. The room so she could see herself.

What Farida’s mother did may not have been intended, but after Frida stared at herself for several long days, she asked her mother for colours and paper to draw. Indeed, Farida drew many paintings for herself, and then she realised how much she loved this feather and the colours.

In a self-portrait in a velvet dress (1926), one of her earliest paintings, Kahlo painted a waist-length regal portrait of herself against a dark background with turbulent yet flowery waves. Although the painting is somewhat abstract, Kahlo’s soft depiction of her face shows her interest in realism, and the steady, steadfast gaze prevalent in her later art is indeed evident.

Her interest in the stylistic artist Il Bronzino was revealed through the exaggeratedly long neck and fingers. After her recovery ended, Kahlo joined the Mexican Communist Party (PCM) to meet Rivera again, showing him some of her work and encouraging her to continue painting.

Farida got out of this problem, realising her love for drawing and her talent, so she completed her studies and got to know other painters who helped her, the most important of them all was Diego Rivera, whom she then married.

Her Marriage to Diego Rivera

After her marriage to Rivera in 1929, Kahlo changed her personal and painting style. She began wearing the traditional Tehuana dress that became her trademark, consisting of a headpiece made of flowers, a loose-fitting jacket, gold ornaments and a long, ruffled skirt. Her painting Frida and Diego Rivera (1931) shows her new dress and her newfound interest in Mexican folk art.

The themes became flatter and more abstract than those she dealt with in her previous work. The prominent Rivera stands to the left holding a palette and brushes (materials he uses in his craft with the guise of a vital artist), while a petite and demure Frida Kahlo appears next to him with her hand in his. In this painting, her complexion seemed darker than in her earlier works, conveying the role she assumed he wanted a “Traditional Mexican Wife”.

Travelling to the United States of America

Kahlo travelled to the United States of America, where she painted this painting while travelling in the USA with Rivera (1930-1933), who received several commissions for murals he painted in several cities. During this time, Frida had two complicated pregnancies that ended prematurely.

After suffering a miscarriage in Detroit and her mother’s death, Frida painted her most harrowing works. In (1932), Kahlo depicted herself bleeding on a hospital bed amidst a barren landscape. In My Birth (1932), she painted a somewhat taboo scene of a woman chlamydial as she gave birth.

Here First Solo Exhibitions

Frida Kahlo and her husband, Rivera, returned to Mexico in 1933, where they lived in a newly constructed house with separate individual spaces connected by a bridge. The house became a gathering place for artists and political activists. The couple hosted several artists, like Leon Trotsky and André Breton, a prominent surrealist who strongly encouraged Kahlo’s work.

Breton wrote the foreword to the Bulletin for her first solo exhibition, describing Frida as a self-taught surrealist. It was staged at the Julien LaVey Gallery in New York in 1938 and was a resounding success. Frida travelled to France the following year to exhibit her work, where she met more surrealist artists, including Marcel Duchamp, the only member she reportedly respected.

The Louvre Museum acquired one of her works (Frame – 1938), making Kahlo the first Mexican artist of the twentieth century to include one of his works in the museum’s collection.

Her Artistic Characteristics and Influences

By the mid-1930s, extramarital affairs abounded, such as Rivera’s relationship with Kahlo’s younger sister and Kahlo’s relations with many men and women, which destroyed their marriage, and the two separated in 1939. In the same year, Kahlo painted several of her most famous works, including two unique ones.

The large canvas (1.74 x 1.73 metres) shows twin figures holding hands, each representing a different side of Frida Kahlo. The character on the left side, dressed in a European-style wedding dress, which is the side that Rivera allegedly rejected, while the figure on the right side, dressed in a Tijuana dress, is the side that Rivera liked best.

It displays the entire heart of a traditional Kahlo, and an artery emerges from it that leads to a miniature portrait of Rivera held in her left hand. Another artery reaches Kahlo’s second heart, which is fully exposed, revealing his anatomy on the inside. The end of the artery is severed, and Kahlo, the European, is holding a surgical instrument in what seems to be an attempt to stop the flow of liquid blood on her white dress.

Kahlo returned to Rivera in 1940, and the couple moved into her childhood home (the Blue House in Coyocan). Kahlo was appointed professor of painting at La Esmeralda 1943, a fine arts school under the Ministry of Education. Kahlo was never in good health, and her health began to deteriorate further, and she often turned to alcohol and drugs to get a little relief. Nevertheless, she continued to produce through the 1940s, creating many self-portraits with different hairstyles, clothes, and icons, always showing herself as having the stern, unwavering gaze for which she is known.

Kahlo underwent many surgeries in the late 1940s and early 1950s, often with extended hospital stays. At the end of her life, she needed help walking. Frida appears in “Self-portrait” with Dr Farrell (1951), sitting in a wheelchair. Failing health led her to attend her first solo exhibition in Mexico in 1953 while lying in bed after she refused to go. She died in La Casa Azul a year later after having a pulmonary embolism.

In 1984 Frida Kahlo’s works were declared part of Mexico’s National Cultural Heritage. Her paintings often featured aspects of Aztec mythology and Mexican folklore. Frida’s life story earned her 6 Academy Award nominations.

Most Notable Works

  1. “Roots”, 1943

In this painting, Frida stated her belief that all of life can be joined into one flow. Frida was portrayed as roots sprouting from it as if it were a window giving birth to a vine, and her blood permeated the vine, reaching the veins, feeding the dry land when she dreamed of being the tree of life.

2. “Self-portrait in a Velvet Dress”, 1926

Frida met the famous Mexican artist Diego Rivera in 1927. She admired his art, and two years later, they married because of the difference in age and size between Frida and Diego, nicknamed the elephant and the dove. But due to her challenging nature and Diego’s infidelities, they divorced in 1939, but they married again in 1940, so the marriage would continue until their death.

She used the painting as a love symbol to regain affection from her lover when their relationship was beginning to change. And she wrote him a letter promising she would be a better person.

3. “The Two Fridas”, 1939

She finished one of her most famous and essential paintings shortly after her divorce from Diego. We see two different personalities of Frida; One is dressed in a traditional Mexican costume with her broken heart, while the other is seated in a modern dress. She was expressing her despair and loneliness after her breakup with Diego, and she drew the hearts of the two characters visually, Frida’s left blood dripping on her white dress as if he would bleed to death. At the same time, the sky was stormy with clouds as a sign of Frida’s inner turmoil.

4. “Self-portrait Dedicated to Leon Trotsky”, 1937

In the famous painting “Between the Curtains” by Frida of Leon Trotsky, on his birthday, clutching a piece of paper as a necklace for their love presents herself elegantly in a long embroidered skirt, fringed shawl, and delicate gold jewellery. Flowers and scrolls of red yarn adorn her hair and makeup subtly, highlighting her features.

Trotsky was a Russian revolutionary leader who fled from Stalin and sought asylum from Diego and Frida. After two years of hiding him in Frida’s blue house, a secret love affair began between them but eventually ended when his wife learned, so they moved out of her blue house, taking the painting with him as a souvenir.

Her Suffering in Paintings

Frida suffered a lot because of her illness and expressed that in her paintings. We review the most prominent of them as follows:

  1. “The Wounded Deer”, 1946

In this painting, she painted her head on the body of a deer, which was mortally wounded by arrows, and made the background of the painting a forest of dead and broken trees, an analogy to Frida’s fear and despair, and behind her is the misty sky, which is illuminated by lightning that looks like hope. Still, she cannot touch the distant sky as far as hope about her.

Frida underwent an operation in New York in 1946, hoping that this operation would free her from the back pain that tormented her, but it failed. The failure of this operation made her feel severe despair and severe depression. In addition to the constant pain in her body, she painted her head on the body of her favourite animal, a deer full of wounds, to express her frustration and inability to change her painful fate.

2. “The Broken Column”, 1944

Pain and suffering are always unique themes in her paintings. In The Broken Pillar, she paints her body pockmarked with pins, replacing her spine with a broken rod, on the verge of collapse. Despite her tears, the look in her eyes shows the challenge and the strength to face the disease.

3. “Self-Portrait with Thorn Necklace and Hummingbird”, 1940

It was known that she was unable to complete the pregnancy safely due to the bus accident, so she loved animals and her sister’s children as her children that she did not have.

Frida Kahlo Museum

Rivera updated La Casa Azul after Frida’s passing away as a dedicated museum to her life. It opened to the public in 1958, a year after Rivera’s death. Her life diaries were published in two volumes; the first was entitled The Diaries of Frida Kahlo, covering the years of her life from 1944–1954, and the second was given the name The Letters of Kahlo in 1995. Despite the fact that Kahlo achieved great success as an artist during her lifetime, her fame after her death increased significantly. By the turn of the twenty-first century, she had reached what some critics have called Fridamania.

Fame After her Death

Frida Kahlo may be one of the most famous artists of the 20th century. The dramatic parts of her life, the injury she suffered after a bus accident, a troubled marriage, dramatic love affairs, and excessive use of alcohol and drugs, have inspired many films and books in the decades since her death.

Frida’s body was cremated, and her ashes were kept in vessels in her “blue” house, where she lived with her husband, Diego, and then her ashes were mixed with his ashes after his death as a result of cancer.

You may also like to read about the Augustan Age, William Wordsworth, and Charles Dickens.

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William Wordsworth (7 April 1770–23 April 1850)

Famous English poet born in Cockermouth. His father, John Wordsworth, was a lawyer interested in study and collection, and for this, he encouraged his children to complete their studies. His mother, Anne, died in his youth, specifically in 1778. After her death, Wordsworth was sent to a grammar school far from his home to complete his education.

His father did not stay long after the death of his wife, he died in 1783, and then John’s sons found themselves in the care of their uncles, who were not happy with that. After Wordsworth graduated from the school, he was sent to Cambridge University to complete his education and graduated there.

Wordsworth went to England and spent there was a short period after which he returned when he felt he needed the money and then published two of his poems that were not well received by the public, namely, Descriptive Sketches and An Evening Walk. He made a volume containing romantic poems called Lyrical Ballads, in which they tried to use ordinary language in poetic form. After a while, their friendship ended due to Coleridge’s drug addiction and behaviour changes.

In 1802, Wordsworth received his share of his father’s inheritance, which was sufficient to marry his childhood friend Mary Hutchinson. Then, William Wordsworth moved with his wife Mary and his sister Dorothy to live in a village located in the county of the Grasmere River, and they lived in short-lived happiness, as two of Wordsworth’s four children died within a year.

Wordsworth’s work is one of the prominent signs in the history of human poetry and one of the founders of the Romantic movement in English poetry at the end of the eighteenth century. He had a progressive vision that made him rebel against the heritage of classical poetry and brought about a real revolution in poetry at the level of form and content, opening more broad horizons for poets in the sincere expression of man. His task was not easy at first, and he endured the neglect of readers and the ruthlessness of critics before gaining universal recognition and becoming Prince of England’s Poets for seven years before his death, and his works became a powerful source of inspiration for generations to come.

Childhood and Early Life

William Wordsworth was the son of John Wordsworth and Anne Cookson. John Wordsworth was a legal agent for James Luther, 1st Earl of Lonsdale, while Anne Cookson was the daughter of a linen weaver. He had three brothers and a sister, Dorothy. He was the closest to his sister, with whom he had an intense, lifelong friendship.

As a child, he attended grammar school near Cockermouth Church and Anne Burkett School in Penrith. After his mother’s death in 1778, he was sent to Hawkshead Grammar School in Lancashire. His father died in 1783. The sudden death of his parents separated him from his beloved sister, who was sent to live with some relatives. It was during his time at Hawkshead Grammar School that young William realized his intense love for poetry.

Early Writings

He was fond of nature since his childhood and was keen to visit places famous for their beauty on foot on holidays, so his poems were crowded with the names of flowers and plants, and he relied on them in the formation of his metaphors and metaphors. This obsession with nature became one of the main features of the Romantic movement, and it took “Learn from Nature” as its slogan.

In 1807 Wordsworth published two volumes of poetry for himself for the second time, which were met with criticism and indifference from some people. Then, he was appointed to a job as a philatelic distributor in Westmorland, which brought him enough money to continue writing poetry. Although his poetry was met with criticism, it gave him wide popularity. However, his lack of success in poetry made him turn to writing, and he published A Guide to the Lake District, in which he proved his popularity.

The publication of the sonnet in the European Journal in 1787 began his career as a poet. While studying at St John’s College, Cambridge, he set out on a tour of Europe. This experience profoundly affected his interests and sympathies in life improved him with the problems of the common man and had a severe effect on his poetry.

He published his poetry collections Evening Walk and Descriptive Drawings in 1793, which furthered his career. Together with the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge, whom he met in 1795, he produced the most critical work of the English Romantic movement, Lyrical Ballads, in 1798.

His Peak

At the peak of his career, he published Poems in Two Volumes in 1807. He published A Guide to the Lakes in 1810, followed by The Promenade in 1814 and Laodamia in 1815. Introduction, generally considered Wordsworth’s masterpiece, was a self-published posthumous poem in 1850. His big work, Lyrical Ballads, published with Samuel Taylor Coleridge in 1798, remains one of his major works to date.

The poems themselves are some of the most influential in Western literature, but the poet’s views, as expressed in the preface to the second edition, have the honour of being the most critical work of the English Romantic movement. Introduction, he had not had a title until the time of Wordsworth’s death. It was the product of a life he had been working on since he was 28 years old. It was named and eventually published by his widow Mary three months after his death.

Wordsworth’s vision turned into a charter for the new movement that relied on the different feelings generated as a result of intense experiences in writing the poem, especially feelings of fear and panic, and not just love, as some imagine. It was a romantic word used in the eighteenth century to describe the beauty of nature, and not the emotional relationship as is the case at the moment, and the first to use it was the German Friedrich Schlegel in 1800 in his book Dialogue about Poetry.

The Romantic Movement

The movement raised the value of the individual over institutions, the value of nature over industrial society, and the imagination over science and philosophy. Of course, the emergence of Romanticism came as a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, which overshadowed the human spirit and obliterated the imagination.

The poets of the Romantic movement were initially viewed suspiciously by English society, seeing their poetry and practice as a challenge to established social values, and critics rose up to attack this new form that did not adhere to the prevailing norms of poetry; Therefore, the literary circles received Wordsworth’s first bureaus at the beginning of the nineteenth century with great coolness, but he continued to write and defend his new vision of what poetry should be.

After many years of perseverance, his poems gradually began to gain attention, and many of his contemporaries saw in them the ability to express the spirit of the age and the human anxiety caused by its sharp fluctuations. Wordsworth has published several books, but his main book, The Introduction, was not published until after his death. It is a massive poem of an epic nature, published in fourteen books, in which he tells his autobiography and his philosophy of life.

He began writing this poem in 1799 as an introduction to a large collection entitled The Hermit, in which he expresses his view of man’s relationship with nature and society, similar to Milton’s famous poem “Paradise Lost”. It includes some details of his personal life. The poem recounts the many trips the poet has already made to Europe, but at the same time, it is used as an expression of man’s journey through life.

The significance of this poem is that it is an attempt to restore the confidence of modern man, Especially after the complete failure of the French Revolution to achieve its goals, in the words of Samuel Coleridge.

His Travels

In 1790, he decided to go on a walking tour of Europe and visited Italy, Switzerland and France, where he stayed for some time, and left them forced due to financial difficulties, in addition to the strained relations between England and France. This visit had a great impact on shaping his vision of the world and poetry, and he met a number of the poles of the revolutionary movement that paved the way for the French Revolution and got acquainted with their ideas on freedom, fraternity and equality among human beings.

His poems and the poems of the movement’s poets were imbued with these ideas. Wordsworth returned to England again and soon published his first book, An Evening Walk and Descriptive Sketches, in 1793, which no one cared about. He was frustrated as a result of the failure of his first poetic collection and the continuing financial difficulties he faced, but he obtained an inheritance in 1795, so he was able to devote himself to continuing to write poetry.

His Legacy

In the same year, he met the great poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge, who many critics see as Wordsworth greatly influenced by his ideas. Together, they wrote Lyrical Songs in 1798, which served as a cornerstone towards the formation of the Romantic movement. In the preface to the third edition, Wordsworth put his conceptions of new poetry that takes nature as a teacher and uses the language of the common man.

He tried to break free from the restrictions of meter and rhyme and from the poetic dictionary of the poets of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. He also put his famous definition of poetry as «A spontaneous flow of intense feelings, the source of sensations, which the poet gathers afterwards in moments of relaxation». This definition was a blow to the logic of classical poetry, which is overworked and lacks imagination.

Interest in his works has increased since 1820, and critics have turned to his first poems, and then he got his proper position because of his poetic legacy. In 1839 he was awarded an honorary doctorate by the University of Durham and received the same honour from the University of Oxford the following year, and the state gave him an annual pension of three hundred pounds sterling.

His students and admirers of his poetry increased dramatically during that period, and in 1843, he was chosen as Prince of England’s Poets, as the culmination of a long effort and unremitting attempts in search of new, more honest and expressive ways of human being, and a real addition to human heritage.

Personal Life

As a student, he toured France and fell in love with a French woman, Annette Fallon, who had a daughter, Caroline. Although he did not marry Annette, he did his best to support his daughter. In 1802, he married his childhood friend Mary Hutchinson. The couple had five children, three of whom preceded their father. His sister Dorothy lived with him all his life. After the death of his daughter Dora in 1847, the devastated father stopped writing poetry entirely.   

In 1978, a film came to light depicting this unique relationship between William and his sister, called William and Dorothy. Wordsworth also appeared in several fictional films as a character in Mister Christian 1996, The Eyre Affair 2001, The Grave Tattoo 2006, and The Wordsmiths at Gorsemere 2008.

His Death

William Wordsworth died after a short illness on 23 April 1850. His main legacy was to introduce a new attitude towards nature as he introduced images of nature in his work, providing a new view of the relationship between man and the natural world. As a poet, Wordsworth delved into his own feelings as he traced the growth of the poet’s mind in his autobiographical poem The Prelude.

Wordsworth not only created some of the finest poetry of his time but also placed poetry at the centre of human existence, declaring that it is «immortal as the human heart is». In 2020 a collection of postage stamps were issued by the Royal Mail, marking the 250 anniversary of William Wordsworth’s birth.

Samples of Wordsworth’s Most Famous Poems

Here is a selection of the famous poems of William Wordsworth to learn more about his writings and enjoy his delicate style:

1.      I wandered lonely as a cloud

I wandered lonely as a cloud

That floats on high o’er vales and hills,

When all at once I saw a crowd,

A host, of golden daffodils;

Beside the lake, beneath the trees,

Fluttering and dancing in the breeze.

Continuous as the stars that shine

And twinkle on the milky way,

They stretched in never-ending line

Along the margin of a bay:

Ten thousand saw I at a glance,

Tossing their heads in sprightly dance.

2.      London, 1802

Milton! thou shouldst be living at this hour:

England hath need of thee: she is a fen

Of stagnant waters: altar, sword, and pen,

Fireside, the heroic wealth of hall and bower,

Have forfeited their ancient English dower

Of inward happiness. We are selfish men;

Oh! raise us up, return to us again;

And give us manners, virtue, freedom, power.

Thy soul was like a Star, and dwelt apart:

Thou hadst a voice whose sound was like the sea:

Pure as the naked heavens, majestic, free,

So didst thou travel on life’s common way,

In cheerful godliness; and yet thy heart

The lowliest duties on herself did lay.

3.      The Prelude: Book 1: Childhood and School-time

—Was it for this

That one, the fairest of all Rivers, lov’d

To blend his murmurs with my Nurse’s song,

And from his alder shades and rocky falls,

And from his fords and shallows, sent a voice

That flow’d along my dreams? For this, didst Thou,

O Derwent! travelling over the green Plains

Near my ‘sweet Birthplace’, didst thou, beauteous Stream

Make ceaseless music through the night and day

Which with its steady cadence, tempering

Our human waywardness, compos’d my thoughts

To more than infant softness, giving me,

Among the fretful dwellings of mankind,

A knowledge, a dim earnest, of the calm

That nature breathes among the hills and groves.

When, having left his Mountains, to the Towers

Of Cockermouth that beauteous River came,

Behind my Father’s House he pass’d, close by,

Along the margin of our Terrace Walk.

He was a Playmate whom we dearly lov’d.

Oh! many a time have I, a five years’ Child,

A naked Boy, in one delightful Rill,

A little Mill-race sever’d from his stream,

Made one long bathing of a summer’s day,

Bask’d in the sun, and plunged, and bask’d again

Alternate all a summer’s day, or cours’d

Over the sandy fields, leaping through groves

Of yellow grunsel, or when crag and hill,

The woods, and distant Skiddaw’s lofty height,

Were bronz’d with a deep radiance, stood alone

Beneath the sky, as if I had been born

On Indian Plains, and from my mother’s hut

Had run abroad in wantonness, to sport,

A naked Savage, in the thundershower.

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The microwave is adored for its efficiency and simplicity. But when the microwave was created is something you might need to be aware of despite it being a necessary kitchen tool. The truth is that it was developed by accident more than 70 years ago when Percy Spencer, a Raytheon engineer, found his lunch had melted while testing a military-grade magnetron.

History of the microwave oven 

According to the company history of Raytheon, Spencer realized that the chocolate bar in his pocket had melted when he was testing a magnetron. Spencer experimented with different items, including popcorn seeds, and discovered that they all popped. He placed an egg close to the magnetron and watched as it began to vibrate before blowing up. Spencer understood that the meal had come into contact with low-density microwave energy. Then he constructed a metal box and supplied it with microwave radiation. Because microwaves cannot flow through metal, the power entered the box but could not exit. Spencer found microwaves could cook food faster than conventional ovens that utilized heat. In 1945, he submitted a patent application.

In 1947, the first microwave oven used for commercial purposes was tested in a Boston restaurant. Raytheon unveiled the Radarange 1161 later that year. According to Gallawa, it was 5.5 feet (1.7 metres) tall, weighed 750 lbs. (340 kg), and cost $5,000. The magnetron was water-cooled; hence it needed to be connected to a water supply. It took some time for people to overcome their initial resistance, but as technology advanced, microwave oven use became increasingly common, especially in the food business. For example, restaurants might microwave-cooked recipes on demand and store them in the refrigerator to save waste. Other restaurants and food-related companies used microwaves to roast coffee beans, roast peanuts, defrost and cook meat, and even peel oysters.

Microwave heating has also been used in other sectors. According to Gallawa, microwave ovens also dry welding rods, wood, ceramics, paper, leather, tobacco, fabrics, pencils, and flowers.

microwave oven


According to the World Health Organization, microwave ovens use radio waves tuned to a specific frequency of 2,450 megahertz and have a power range of 500 to 1,100 watts. The microwaves are directed at the food as it is placed in a microwave oven. The water molecules absorb the microwaves in the meal, and the resulting vibrations cause heat to be produced, which cooks the food. It is not advisable to use metal containers or utensils in a microwave oven since microwaves can pass through the plastic, glass, and ceramic but not metal.

A magnetron creates microwaves. Two permanent magnets on either side of a vacuum tube make up a magnetron. According to Tech-Faq, the passage of electrons creates magnetic and electric fields, emitting microwave radiation. Microwaves are focused on the oven chamber to heat and cook the food.

Future of microwave oven

Today, many microwave ovens have sensors that turn off when the food is fully cooked. Samsung has created a microwave oven with multiple cooking options. The oven can cook and bake in addition to defrosting meats and warming leftovers. Additionally, it contains a fermentation cycle that may produce yoghurt and fresh dough.

Solid-state RF (radio frequency) energy is used in a microwave oven made by NXP Semiconductors to cook food. The microwave oven regulates the location, timing, and quantity of energy sent into the meal. According to NXP, the outcome has increased consistency, flavour, and nutrition. In addition, the solid-state gadget enables efficient and real-time feedback control of enormous volumes of energy.

Other businesses, like Wayv, manufacture mobile, solid-state RF microwave ovens powered by standard outlets, automobiles, or solar panels. This type, which resembles a thermos, can heat up to 17 fluid ounces (0.5 litres) for about 30 minutes on each charge.

Additionally, capabilities are being added to microwaves so they may connect to mobile devices, like the LG series of smart appliances. These appliances can be remotely turned on from any location using a smartphone or other device.

Are microwave ovens safe?

An example of “electromagnetic” radiation microwaves. This implies that electromagnetic and electrical energy waves move together through space. Radio waves and X-rays are not the same as microwaves. Ionizing radiation, like X-rays, can change atoms and molecules and harm cells. Therefore, body damage from ionizing radiation is possible. However, microwaves’ non-ionizing radiation is not dangerous.

Cancer is not caused by microwave radiation, and there is no concrete evidence to link the two. Likewise, your food is not rendered radioactive by microwave radiation either. You are merely heating your food.

Microwaves only emit non-ionizing radiation while they are turned on and cooking. The food absorbs all the microwaves generated within your oven. The design of microwaves prevents electromagnetic radiation from escaping the oven. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does recommend checking your microwave to see if it has been tampered with or is faulty. Additionally, they advise not standing in front of or right up to your microwave while it is on.

To ensure that radiation emissions don’t represent a danger to the general population, the FDA has established the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH). The total number of safely leaking microwaves over a microwave oven’s lifetime is capped by a regulatory requirement. This is far less than any amount that could endanger you.

Additionally, the impact of microwave energy decreases with distance from the radiation source. Additionally, all ovens come equipped with a standard interlock system that disables the microwave when the door is opened.

The FDA conducts quality control checks and radiation testing on microwave ovens in their facility.

Although radiation from microwave ovens doesn’t cause cancer, if you’re exposed to it, it can nevertheless result in severe burns. Similar to how it cooks food, microwave radiation can also heat bodily tissue. However, only massive doses of microwave radiation can result in severe burns.

Non-ionizing radiation includes radio waves, microwaves, and visible light. UV light is the only non-ionizing radiation that can cause cancer. In conclusion, microwaves are safe and do not harm human health, including cancer development.

You can change your microwave to a newer one if you’re concerned that it’s too old or leaking radiation. For example, it might be time to upgrade if you’ve owned your microwave oven for over ten years. It might be preferable to leave the room while the microwave cooks if you have an older microwave you wish to save. The only purpose of this is to protect you from any potential radiation leaks.

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The word textile generally means woven or knitted cloth. There are similar names for manufactured materials like cloth, textile, or fabric. Textiles are used for everything such as furniture, couches, and mattresses. Shelters such as tents and awnings are also made of textiles. 

Textiles are formed from fibers that can be animal-based, plant-based, or synthetic. This means that they can be made from natural fibers or man-made ones. There is a vast variety of textiles available, each with its use and design.

Textiles are commonly used for clothing. In the household, textiles are used to make towels, sheets, table linens, and carpets. There is a process to create textiles. Textile production is one of the main industries in the world. 

What is a Textile?

Textiles are materials formed from natural or synthetic fibers. They are often produced by weaving or knitting fibers together. Lace, felt, and various other kinds of cloth are considered textiles, too. Each textile is formed from fibers that have been turned into threads or cords and either woven or knitted together. 

There are two basic categories of textiles, natural and manmade. Natural textile is divided into plant-based textile and animal-based textile. They come from cotton, linen, or animal sources such as rabbit fur or even horsehair. Manmade fibers, also known as synthetic, are formed from various chemical compounds.

Animal-based fibers include:

  • Camelids
  • Feathers
  • Furs
  • Silks
  • Wools

Plant-based fibers include:

  • Cotton
  • Flax
  • Hemp
  • Jute
  • Nettle
  • Sisal

Man-made Fibers include: 

  • Acrylic
  • Kevlar
  • Nylon
  • Polyester
  • Rayon
  • Spandex

How is Textile Made?

Textiles all begin as various fibers. Fiber is a thin long hair-like material that has the suitable properties to spin it into a yarn. Fibers can be transformed into textiles through a variety of processes by spinning, Weaving, or the interlacing of fibers with one another. 

The processes can be done by hand or by machine. People often dye the thread before turning it into textiles. They can also dye or print designs on the cloth after it is made. Designs can even be added to a textile by bleaching areas and removing any dye from the threads.

There are three main steps required for fabric production. The first step is yarn, raw materials are turned into yarn and threads. Fibers are collected on a cylindrical tool called a bobbin. Nowadays, most of the spinning is done by the spinning wheel. 

The second step is called weaving. It involves joining these individual threads together to form the fabric. Weaving is made on a machine known as a loom and requires two sets of yarn. The two sets are called warp and weft. 

Warp is the thread that usually runs vertically. The threads usually go horizontally and pass over or under the warp to create the weaving pattern. The loom itself is managed by a computer. 

Here comes the final step, which is processing. Fabric is removed from the loom. Fabric in this stage is called greige. It seems nothing like the crisp white sheets or clothing. Fabric is treated with bleach to purify the color. Then, various chemicals are used to take off the oils or wax.

Here are some samples for textiles:

  • Brocade
  • Burlap
  • Calico
  • Canvas
  • Corduroy
  • Crepe
  • Denim
  • Eyelet
  • Fake fur
  • Felt
  • Flannel
  • Gingham
  • Herringbone
  • Lycra/spandex
  • Muslin
  • Organza
  • Paisley
  • Poplin
  • Polyester
  • Satin
  • Seersucker
  • Taffeta
  • Tartan
  • Terrycloth
  • Velvet

Working Conditions for Mill Workers

Working in a mill is considered a hard job. Workers have to work long hours. They work from 10 to 18 hours per day. They sometimes have to work overtime to meet the deadlines. This job is popular in developing countries.

They work in a deafening noise. There is dust and lint everywhere. They have to work in a high temperature and humidity. Children as well work in mills. They work as cleaners which is a very dangerous job. They have to crawl under the machines to clean.

Textile Art 

Textile art is an art that uses varying materials and fibers to produce decorative, artistic objects. Textile art goes back as far as 500,000 years ago. Domestic culture reflects in the prints of the clothes. As civilizations developed, the materials used to make textiles and art changed.

Let’s have a look at some of the most notable global textiles: 

Batik: Indonesia

Batik is the technique of adding dye-resistant wax to the cloth before the dyeing process to create unique patterns and designs. The methods of traditional batik go back to Egypt, China, India, and Japan but it is the traditional Indonesian batik that is most valued around the world.

Canting is used to draw the pattern on the fabric. Patterns are first drawn with pencils, then with hot wax. First, the wax is added. Then, the dye is added to the wax. It is left to dry. Finally, wax is added to the parts of the fabric to keep the colour. 

Batiks which are made by craftsmen are more expensive than those made by machines. Traditional designs are worn by certain classes or for certain purposes. For example, the bride and the groom wear sido Mukti. 

How to Make a Batik Craft

Supplies needed:

  • White or light-coloured bag
  • Washable white glue
  • Fabric paint
  • Pencil
  • Plastic wrap


1- Get the white bag

2- Sketch the desired design on the fabric

3- Place plastic wrap under the fabric in case the glue seeps through

4- Apply the white glue along the lines of the design

5- Let the glue dry

6- Prepare two or more colours of fabric paint on the palette.

7- Paint the fabric 

8- Let the paint dry

9- Remove the glue by soaking in water or by peeling off the dry glue.

10- Iron the fabric after it dries.

Mola Applique: Panama

The mola is one of Panama’s best-known handicrafts. The layers of glowingly-coloured fabric form animals or geometric shapes, and are used to decorate the blouses of Kuna women. Guna women have been sewing mola blouses since the beginning of the 20th century.

How to Make a Mola Craft:

 Supplies needed:

  • Sheet of paper
  • Pencil 
  • Glue 
  • Sketch
  • Scissors


1- Outline the animal onto the sheet of paper

2- Cut the outline out

3- Trace the figure onto another paper

4- Cut out one of the figures slightly smaller than the first, and glue them together

5- Create layers of shapes to glue onto the figure

6- Glue the figure onto the background

7- Decorate the background with additional geometric shapes

Fair Isle Knits: Scotland

Fair Isle knitting is probably the most commonly recognized knitting technique. It is characterized by particular patterns and specific tools. It is derived from a tiny island in northern Scotland. 

How to knit a fair isle:


– Set of knitting needles

– Skeins of yarn (different colours)


1- Start Your Fair Isle Knitting Swatch: 

2- For the first row of the pattern, knit one stitch in the background color.

3- Leave a tail for weaving in and simply begin knitting

4- Change Back to the First Color

5- Continue on the chart and change colours when needed

6- Check Your Work on Purl Rows

7- Finishing Your Fair Isle Project

Adinkra Cloth: Ghana

Adinkra cloth is the traditional funerary dress of the Asante peoples of Ghana. It is one of the most beautiful patterns to come from Africa. They are made by hand, stamped with traditional symbols. By the time, the Ashanti people used the cloth to express their attitudes toward depicted figures, record historical events, represent popular proverbs, or simply tell a story.

If the cloth is used in funerary time, it must be dyed red, russet brown, or a dark blue-black. Adinkra cloths that remain white or are printed on a brightly colored fabric are designated “Sunday adinkra,” and are not used during funerals, but rather as festive dresses for a variety of special occasions. 

There are many Adinkra symbols and each of them has different meanings. A design with four spiraling forms expanded from the center represents the maxim: “A ram fights with his heart and not his horns,” suggesting that strength of character is more important than the weapons one uses.

How to make an Adinkra

Supplies needed:

Fun foam sheets/ kitchen sponge

Acrylic paint


Large paper

Handouts of real symbols


1- Cut out the design and glue it onto a square of thick cardboard.

2- Paint the sponge stamp or the fun foam sheet with acrylic paint

3- Test the stamp

4- Simply print it on large paper and build up the design

Weaving: Guatemala

The art of weaving is one of the artistic and cultural Mayan traditions which lasts until the present times. In Guatemala, they practiced waist loom, which is a tool made of wood with two ends. 

One of the ends is tied to a tree or any object where the loom is firmly held, while the other end is wrapped around the knitter’s waist, who sits on her knees. In the time being, in Guatemala, it is mainly women who weave and dress in traditional dresses at the waist loom.

How to make Guatemala:

  • 1 cardstock paper 
  • Ruler
  • Colored paper
  • Scissors
  • Ribbon
  • Lamination sheet


  1. Fold the cardstock horizontally in half twice    
  2. Fold each half again in the middle                     
  3. Cut 4 lines horizontally
  4. Unfold the cardstock
  5. Cut the colored papers into strips
  6. Insert the colored strips into the slits using up and down technique
  7. Finally, laminate the cardstock paper to keep the strips in place

Kente Cloth: Ghana

Ghana has a great history of amazing textiles. The word kente means basket. It is a hand-woven cloth originally from the Ashanti Kingdom, in Ghana. It is one of the most remarkable textiles in Africa because of the popularity of colors and patterns.

It was worn by royalty and other highly respected people. Nowadays, it is worn by everyone, especially in special occasions. Men and women use the kente cloth but differently. Men wore the kente as toga while women the fabric as a wrap-around skirt, blouse, and shawl.

Kente colors are symbolic; they represent various ideas and concepts. Here is a list of colors and what they symbolize:

  • Black represents strong spiritual energy
  • Blue represents love, fortune, peacefulness, harmony
  • green represents plants, harvesting, growth, good health
  • Gold represents royalty, wealth, high status, purity
  • Grey reflects healing and cleansing rituals; associated with ash
  • maroon/purple represents mother earth; associated with healing and protection
  • Pink represents the female essence of life; mild, gentle, tender
  • Red represents strong political moods; bloodshed; death
  • Silver represents serenity, purity, joy; associated with the moon
  • White represents purification, healing; festive occasions
  • Yellow represents preciousness, beauty, holiness

How to make a kente:


  • Colored construction paper
  • scissors
  • Glue
  • Paint brushes
  • Thick white paper


  1. Draw stripes and patterns on the white paper
  2. Paint some designs on the construction paper, strips, or zigzag
  3. Cut the strips the long way
  4. Finally, weave, Insert the colored strips into the slits using over and down technique. 

What is E-Textile?

It is an interesting new field of electronics that uses electronics in textiles to add function, decoration, or both. It is also called smart textiles, wearable fashion, efashion, or smart fabrics. 

E-textiles could be embedded with sensors, batteries, LEDs, and hands-free computing devices, depending on the reason. Smart fashion is now popular even among people who don’t have a technical background.

E-textile would be of great use when it is applied as a medical device. Sensors can be embedded to track blood pressure, heart rate, or pulse pressure. Sensors can also be used to give notifications of any abnormal issues. 

E-Textile Projects

How to make a detachable patch:


  • Felt
  • Sewable coin battery holder with 2 positive and 2 negative pins
  • Sewable LED’s
  • Conductive thread
  • Sewing needle
  • Masking tape
  • Clear nail polish
  • Heart design pattern


  1. Trace around the design and cut out the pieces 
  2. Layout your components matching the positive + and negative – symbols with the little plus and minus at each end.
  3. Tape everything down
  4. Use a pen to draw in your circuit from the battery holder to each pin of the components
  5. Sew the circuit
  6. Make the thread tight over the pins and the battery
  7. Remember to remove the tape
  8. Flip the design over and use the nail polish to dab on the knots to keep them in place
  9. Insert the battery and check all of the lights 
  10. Add the cover, sew or glue it
  11. Decorate the cover
  12. Attach the patch to the piece of cloth (t-shirt, dress, denim….etc) or any toy

What Do You Know About Inca Textiles?

Inca civilization was considered the largest pre-Columbian civilization in the Americas. It had a population of between 6-14 million people. Inca weavers were the most skilled weavers in the Americas. 

Inca textiles were considered the most precious gifts. The basic colors used in Inca textiles were black, white, green, yellow, orange, purple, and red. Blue was rarely used. Colors have various significances.

Red represents conquest, rulership, and blood. Green reflects rainforests and agricultural growth. Black symbolizes death. Yellow represents maize or gold. These colors originated from natural dyes that were extracted from plants, minerals, and insects.

They used abstract geometric designs. They sometimes use snakes, birds, sea creatures, and plants. They sometimes have fixed designs for family groups. They also used tassels, brocade, feathers, and beads of precious metal or shell for decoration.

Indian Textile

Indian textile has a vast variety of fabric crafts. There are 29 states and 7 union territories each has its own unique craft. Fabrics like cotton and silk are used in textile. They trade the unique textile with the rest of the world. Here are some of the Indian textile crafts:

Dabu from Rajasthan

Dabu or daboo is an ancient mud resist hand block printing technique from Rajasthan. It is said that it is much like Batik, however, the technique is completely different for both. The process of printing dabu involves multiple stages of printing, washing, and dyeing.

Materials used for daboo printing:

  • Plain fabric
  • Mud
  • Gum
  • lime 
  • waste wheat chaff 
  • fast dyes
  • Printing blocks

Printing process:

  • Washing the plain fabric to get rid of any impurities
  • Hand printing carefully onto the fabric using blocks after dipping into fast dyes
  • Using mud resist 
  • Tapping over specific parts of the design
  • Drying the paste with colored sawdust
  • Drying out the fabric in the sun
  • Plunging the fabric into a bowl of dye
  • Drying the fiber again
  • Washing the fabric to remove any extra dye

Natural dyes are used like grey-brown, blue, and red. Natural dyes are made from fruits and vegetables. Various designs are used originated from nature like fruits and flowers. Geometric shapes are also used.

Indigo from Akola and Bagru

Indigo is one of the favorite Indian textiles for people. The flourishing deep blue dye is derived from inidgofera tinctoria plant. Craftsmen produce a small amount of indigo per day for the sake of quality.

The material used for Indigo printing:

  • Hand-block printing tables
  • A mixture of mud and tree gum
  • Deep blue dye

The process of Indigo printing:

  1. Washing the fabric and soaking it for 36 hours
  2. Drying the fabric to become soft and absorbable
  3. Placing the fabric on the hand block printing tables (or printing the carved hand-blocks after dipping them in a mixture of mud and tree gum)
  4. Dipping the fabric into the deep blue dye

Textile in Construction

Textiles became a part of the construction industry. Textile structures are used in a vast range of constructional applications. Here are some examples of using textile in construction:

  • Whitney Museum of American Art
  • DAR LUZ installation in Eindhoven
  • Tahari Showroom, New York
  • ‘Tubaloon’ textile sculpture for the Kongsberg Jazz Festival
  • Venezuelan pavilion
  • Hyparform vertical sails
  • Swiss pavilion at EXPO Shanghai 2010
  • Loro Parque open-air aviary on Tenerife
  • Architonic Concept Space at imm cologne 2008


The word textile generally means woven or knitted cloth. textiles are used for everything in our life, for example, towels and sheets. They are made up of fibers that can be animal-based, plant-based, or synthetic. There are two basic categories of textiles, natural and manmade. 

Textile Art reflects the cultures and civilizations of the countries. There are various global textiles like Indian, Indonesian, and Ghanian unique textiles. With the spread of technology all over the world, there are new fields of textile that appeared like E-Textile. 

Textile Art also reflects the unique cultures and civilizations of different countries, like India, Indonesia, and Ghana. 

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