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Hindi Alphabet, 46 Letters, Pronunciation. An Extensive Guide

Hindi is the mother tongue of India. Although Hindi is an easy language to learn, it is not easy to remember. It’s quite complicated compared to other languages. The Hindi alphabet is called Hindi Varnamala. Hindi letters are pronounced the same way they are written in. To fully understand any language it is always important to learn the alphabet, today we are going to focus on learning the Hindi alphabet.

Hindi Alphabet for Kids
Hindi Alphabet for Kids

Hindi is also classified as consonants and vowels. The official Hindi alphabet has 46 letters divided into 11 vowels and 35 consonants. On the other hand, the traditional Hindi alphabet has 46 letters including 13 vowels and 33 consonants. The horizontal line placed on top of letters plays an important role in Hindi. Words formed by different letters are connected by this line.

24 out of the 36 consonants have a vertical right stroke. It is used to refer to a full stop. A dot above 24 out of the 36 consonants use a vertical right stroke. It is used to represent a full stop. A dot above letters works for nasal sounds. Some of the Hindi letters have the same phonetic transcription as the English letters, however, they have a different pronunciation. In this article we are going to focus on all Hindi letters pronunciation with some history of the language as well.

How Many Letters Are in Hindi Alphabet?

The Hindi alphabet has 45 letters according to pronunciation. There are 10 vowels and 35 consonants. There are 52 letters based on writing. It has 13 vowels, 35 consonants, 4 combined consonants, and 2 binary consonants.

The Hindi alphabet according to pronunciation and the Hindi alphabet according to writing has 7 characters difference. These characters’ difference is represented by 3 extra vowels and 4 combined consonants. Hindi vowels are given the name Hindi Swar (स्वर) and Hindi consonants are given the name Hindi Vyanjan (व्यंजन).

vowels are also popular as Vowels (स्वर) in Hindi, pronounced ‘Swine’ as ‘SW’. Let’s have a look at the list of the 13 Hindi vowels and their equivalents in English:

Hindi VowelsEnglish Vowels

Hindi Vowels for Kids
Hindi Vowels for Kids
Hindi Vowels for Kids
Hindi Vowels for Kids

Hindi Consonants are called Hindi Vyannjana. Let’s have a look at the list of the Hindi alphabet:

व्यंजन Vyanjan

Let’s have a look at the chart for the Hindi alphabet:

Hindi Consonants for kids

Hindi Alphabet Pronunciation

Here’s a list of the Hindi alphabet beside the pronunciation and English Example:

Hindi AlphabetEnglish SoundPronunciation Example
aas in apple
aaas in cat
eas in elephant
iias in Wii
eias in bean
eias in mean
aias in fate
ias in victory
oas in Rome
oias in coin
oiias in oil
uuas in moon
ouas in house
uas in umbrella
Bas in ball
Bhaas in Bob Hansen
Caas in Camel
Chhaas in Rich Hansen
Daas in Dam
Dhaas in Edward Hansen
Faas in fan
फ़Fias in Finland
Gaas in gap
Ghaas in Ghana
ग़Ghias in Ghistapo
Haas in hat
Jaas in Jam
Jhaas in jhawani 
Kaas in Kashmir
Khaas in Khan
ख़Khias in blac
Las in life
Lias in lips
Lias in military
Liias in Lima
Liias in Bradley
Maas in man
Naas in Namibia
N’aas in Stan Alan
Niaas in Niagara
Naeas in Nigeria
Nias in Nicaragua
omsas in Tom’s book
Paas in Panama
क़Qias in King
Raas in ran
Rias in ring
Rias in risk
Rias in Brie
Saas in Sam
Shaas in Shanghai
Shhaas in wash hand
Taas in Tamara
T’aas in Matt Alan
Thaas in Thailand
Thaas in Thailand
T’haas in Thailand
Thhaas in Keith Hansen
ड़ugDhaas in drug down
ढ़ugDhhaas in hugged hand
Vaas in vast
Yaas in yard
य़Yias in year
ज़Zaas in Zambia

What is the Origin of the Hindi Language?

The Hindi Language is the Primary Official Language of the Republic of India since January 26, 1965. The Hindi language is among the 22 Official Languages available in India. The Hindi language developed over many centuries. Hindi was derived from the Khariboli dialect. The first time the Hindi language was used in writing was during the 4th century AD.

Hindi was inspired by Persian and Arabic languages. Hindi turned into a national language during the colonial period once the British colonizers needed a fixed language among government officials. Later on, The Constitution of India stated Hindi and English as the two languages of communication for the Central Government.

Hindi is a name taken from the Persian word Hind, which means “Land of the Indus River”. Turkish invaders in the early 11th century named the language of the region Hindi, ‘language of the land of the Indus River’. As mentioned already in this article, Hindi is spoken in countries outside India, such as in Mauritius, Fiji, Suriname, Guyana, Trinidad & Tobago and Nepal – which drive its popularity.

There is no fixed number of Hindi Language Dialects, still, as per Census of India 2001, there are 49 dialects of Hindi. let’s check the list of some other dialects:

            Some of the Hindi Language Dialects
1.  HaryanviHaryana
2. SargujiyaChhattisgarh
3. ChhattisgarhiChhattisgarh
4. AwadhiUttar Pradesh
5. BhojpuriUttar Pradesh
6. KanaujiUttar Pradesh
7. BagheliMadhya Pradesh
8. MalviMadhya Pradesh
9. KangriHimachal Pradesh.
10. BundeliMadhya Pradesh
11. GarhwaliUttaranchal
12. KumaoniUttaranchal
13. Marwari / MerwariRajasthan, Haryana some parts of Gujarat.
14. LambadiMaharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh
15. HarautiRajasthan
16. GodwariRajasthan
16. GodwariRajasthan
17. BagriRajasthan
18. Magadhi / MagahiBihar
19. PahariSikkim, West Bengal,  Nepal,  Pakistan, Tibet, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir
20. MewatiRajasthan and Pakistan; Punjab and Sindh, Mewat region of Haryana 

How to Say Hindi Words in English?

Although 1.2 billion people can speak Hindi, they can’t recognize the Hindi alphabet. These alphabets are also called Hindi Aksharmala or Varnamala in the Hindi language. The smallest units of the Hindi Language are Letters, which means Akshar in Hindi. A mixture of these letters forms words. A mixture of these words forms a sentence.

Let’s have a look at the list of Hindi alphabets in words with their equivalent in English along with pictures to get the meaning:

Hindi AlphabetsPronunciation of Hindi Alphabets in EnglishHindi Alphabets and WordsHindi Words in EnglishImages of Hindi Alphabets’ Words
uउल्लूowlHindi Varnamala
aiएकOneHindi Varnamala
aeऐनकSpecsHindi Varnamala
oओखलokhalHindi Varnamala
auऔरतWoman/LadyHindi Varnamala
अंanअंगूरGrapesHindi Varnamala
अ:ahप्रातः कालMorningHindi Varnamala
hriऋषिSaintHindi Varnamala
KकबूतरPigeonHindi Varnamala
KhखरगोशRabbitHindi Varnamala
GगमलाFlowerpotHindi Varnamala
Ghघड़ीWatchHindi Varnamala
Chचम्मचSpoonHindi Varnamala
ChhछतरीUmbrellaHindi Varnamala
JजहाजShipHindi Varnamala
JhझरनाWaterfallHindi Varnamala
TटमाटरTomatoesHindi Varnamala
ThठेलाTrolleyHindi Varnamala
DडमरूDamruHindi Varnamala
Dhढक्कनLidHindi Varnamala
TaतवाTawaHindi Varnamala
ThथैलीBagHindi Varnamala
DदवाMedicineHindi Varnamala
DhधनुषBowHindi Varnamala
NनलTapHindi Varnamala
PपतंगKiteHindi Varnamala
PhफलFruitHindi Varnamala
Bबत्तखDuckHindi Varnamala
BhभालूBearHindi Varnamala
Mमकड़ीSpiderHindi Varnamala
Yयज्ञYajnaHindi Varnamala
RरथRathHindi Varnamala
Lलट्टूLattoHindi Varnamala
VवटTreeHindi Varnamala
ShशलजमTurnipHindi Varnamala
Shषट्कोणHexagonHindi Varnamala
SसाडीSareeHindi Varnamala
HहलPlowHindi Varnamala
क्षKshक्षत्रियKshatriyaHindi Varnamala
त्रTraत्रिशूलProngHindi Varnamala
ज्ञGyanज्ञान KnowledgeHindi Varnamala

What is Hindi Matra?

Hindi matras are also known as vowel signs. Every Hindi vowel has its own specific signs.

Hindi Vowels and their Signs (Matra)

Vowels(Svar)sign/matraMode of writing
( ◌ी )क्+ईकी
( ◌ु)क्+उकु
( ◌े)क्+एके
अ:( : ) (Visarga)क्+अ:कः


Hindi Matra Name and location:

Martra Namesign/matraWhere is it used?Consonant Shapes formed
AA(-T)क्+आ =का
Iिक्+इ = कि
II( ◌ी )क्+ई = की
U( ◌ु)क्+उ = कु
UU(◌ू)क्+ऊ = कू
VOCALIC R(◌ृ)क्+ऋ = कृ
E( ◌े)क्+ए =के
CANDRA E( ॅ )क्+ॅ= कॅ
AI(◌ै)क्+ऐ = कै
O(◌ो)क्+ओ = को
CANDRA O( ॉ )क्+औ = कौ
AU(-◌ौ)क्+अं =कं

Hindi Vs Bengali Alphabets

Hindi, as well as Bengali, are spoken languages in India. Bengali is the primary language of Bangladesh and India. Hindi is the official language of India. It is also called Hindustani. 13 countries can speak Bengali. Although, six countries only can speak Hindi.

Bengali is divided into five major dialect Bengali is divided into five major dialect groups. There are almost 23 different dialects. On the other hand, Hindi is also divided into a lot of kinds. Hindi dialects are approximately 22 languages. Bengali and Hindi languages have different scripts. They are both different in writing.

The Bengali language has two written groups: Sadhubhasa and Cholitobhasha. While Hindi has only one type of writing which is called Devanagari. In India, Hindi is considered the first spoken language while Bengali is the second one.

Let’s have a look at the list of the Hindi to Bengali alphabets:


Hindi Vs Punjabi Alphabets:

Hindi is the standard language in India while Punjabi is one of the 22 spoken languages in India. Hindi and Punjabi have two different scripts. Hindi is written in Devanagri script. Punjabi is written in Gurumukhi script. 

The number of Hindi speakers all over the world is 341 million whereas the number of Punjabi speakers all around the world is 102 million. The exact number of the Hindi alphabet is 45 while the number of the Punjabi alphabet is 35.

Let’s check the list of the Punjabi alphabet:

ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) Gurmukhi (Punjabi) EnglishPronunciation Example
ਓੂੜਾOo’rhaao’ as in root
ਐੜਾAi’rhaaa’ as in cat
ਈੜੀEe’rheee’ as in egg
ਸੱਸਾsas’saas’ as in see
ਹਾਹਾhaa’haah’ as in home
ਕੱਕਾKak’kaak’ as in Kate, kite, kit
ਖੱਖਾkhakh’khaa‘kh’ as in khan, khaki
ਗੱਗਾgag’gaag’ as in gold
ਘੱਘਾghag’ghaa‘gh’ as in aghast, ghost
ਙੰਙਾNgan’ngaa‘ng’ as in ring
ਚੱਚਾchach’chaach’ as in chat
ਛੱਛਾchhachh’chhaach’ as in cheddar more like ch/sh robustly aspirated
ਜੱਜਾjaj’jaaj’ as in Japan
ਝੱਝਾjhaj’jhaapronounced as harder stressed ‘j’ as in jolt more robustly aspirated
ਞੰਞਾNjan’njaaThere is no English equivalent of this sound
ਟੈਂਕਾtain’kaat’ as in Tip
ਠੱਠਾthath’thaa‘th’ harder th as in river Thames
ਡੱਡਾddad’daad’ as in daddy
ਢੱਢਾdhad’daadd’ as in daddy
ਣਾਣਾnhaa’nhaaPronounced like English ‘n’ with tip of tongue upwards touching palette of mouth
ਤੱਤਾtat’taat’ softer unaspirated t as in Tim
ਥੱਥਾthath’thaa‘th’ as in Thailand
ਦੱਦਾdad’daath’ softer th as in ‘then’
ਧੱਧਾdhad’daa‘th’ stressed th seventh
ਨੱਨਾnan’naan’ as in name
ਪੱਪਾpap’paap’ as in papa
ਫੱਫਾphaph’phaa‘ph’ as in philosopher
ਬੱਬਾbab’baab’ as in baby
ਭੱਭਾbhab’baathere is no English equivalent of this sound more like bha combined together
ਮੱਮਾmam’maam’ as in mother
ਯੱਯਾyay’yaay’ as in yellow
ਰਾਰਾra’raar’ as in run
ਲੱਲਾlal’laal’ as in lake
ਵੱਵਾvav’vaav’ as in Victor
ੜਾੜਾrhar’rhaa‘rr’ hard double r
ਸ਼ਸ਼ੱਸ਼ਾshash’shaash’ as in shade
ਖ਼ਖ਼ੱਖ਼ਾkha’khaa‘kh’ as in khan or as ‘ch’ As in the Scottish Loch
ਗ਼ਗ਼ੱਗ਼ਾgag’gaag’ as in good
ਜ਼ਜ਼ੱਜ਼ਾZaz’zaaz’ as in zebra
ਫ਼ਫ਼ੱਫ਼ਾfaf’faa‘ph’ as in philosopher
ਲ਼ਲ਼ੱਲ਼ਾlal’laal’ as in land
Vowel Sign (broken circle represents a alphabet)pronunciationName of vowelexample
invisible is with every consonantaਮੁਕਤਾ muktāਸ sa
āਕੰਨਾ kannāਸਾ sā
ਿIਸਿਹਾਰੀ sihārīਸਿ si
īਬਿਹਾਰੀ bihārīਸੀ sī
uਔਂਕੜ auṅkaṛਸੁ su
ūਦੁਲੈਂਕੜ dulaiṅkaṛਸੂ sū
ēਲਾਂਵਾਂ lāṃvāṃਸੇ sē
aiਦੁਲਾਂਵਾਂ dulāṃvāṃਸੈ sai
ōਹੋੜਾ hōṛāਸੋ sō
auਕਨੌੜਾ kanauṛāਸੌ sau
Nasal signs
 ਬਿੰਦੀ bindīIt’s sound is same as ‘n’ in land, sand
 ਟਿੱਪੀ ṭippīIts sound is same as ‘n’ in punch, lunch
 ਅਧਕ adhakdouble sound to the particular consonant that it is assigned to

Urdu Language Alphabets in Hindi

Urdu alphabets have 52 letters and Hindi Alphabets contain 44 letters. Urdu is written from Right-To-Left, Horizontal, while Hindi is written from  Left-To-Right, Horizontal. Urdu has 10 vowels and 40 consonants. Hindi has 11 vowels and 33 consonants. 

The levels in the Urdu language are 4. It requires 44 weeks to learn the Urdu language. While the Hindi levels are 4. It requires 44 weeks to learn the Hindi language. 

Let’s check the list of the Urdu Vs Hindi alphabet and the equivalent in English:

ɑ: aا‬ 
ṭ ʈ ٹ
cht͡ʃ چ
h, ɦح
kh xخ‬
th ذ‬
zh ʒژ‬
sh ʃ ش‬
‬t tط‬
țh țhظजोय
Eɑː, eːع‬
gh ɣ غ
f ‬ فफ़
q ‬ق
ɡ گ‬
ŋ ن‬
ṉ n ◌̃ں‬याँ

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Let’s check the list of Arabic Alphabet in Hindi, Pronunciation And Equivalent In English

Arabic LetterEnglish SoundHindi LetterArabic Pronunciation

Gujarati Alphabet In Hindi

Gujarati is one of the 22 spoken languages in India. 46 million people speak Gujarati in India. The Gujarātī script was derived from the Devanāgarī script. Gujarātī is a syllabic alphabet in that consonants all have an inherent vowel. 

Vowels can be written as independent letters, or by using a variety of diacritical marks.These marks are written above, below, before or after the consonant they belong to. Consonants in Gujarati and Hindi are similar except few consonants. 

Here’s a list of the Gujarati alphabet:

Hindi ScriptGujarati ScriptRoman Script
અ                                                     अ                                                                                               a                                       
આ  aa
ઇ    i
  ઈ ee
ઉ   u
ઊ ऊ oo
એ e
ઐ ऐ  ai
ઓ o
औ au
અઃ  अः  aH
ક ka
  ख kha
घ gha
ङ nga
ચ cha
જ ज  ja
ઞ ञ nya
ડ Da
ढ Dha
ण Na
त  ta
थ  tha
દ  da
ન na
प pa
फ pha
ब ba
ભ भ  bha
મ म ma
ય  य  ya
र ra
ल la
વ व va
શ sha
સ Sa 
હ ha
ક્ષ  क्षkSha
જ્ઞ ज्ञ  Gya

Hindi vs Telugu Alphabets

Hindi alphabets contain 44 letters and Telugu Alphabets contain 60 letters. Both Hindi and Telugu are written from Left-To-Right, Horizontal. Hindi consists of 11 vowels and 33 consonants while Telugu consists of 19 vowels and 41 consonants. Hindi language is 4 levels and it takes 44 weeks while Telugu is 3 levels and it takes 44 weeks to be learnt.

Here is a list of the Hindi alphabet vs the Telugu alphabet:

Telugu AlphabetEnglish SoundPronunciation Example
kas in kill
cas in car
as in tomb
tas in task
pas in pool
yas in you
śas in sweet
khas in Scottish Loch
chas in charm
ṭhas in that
thas in think
phas in stop her
ras in rooster
as in sold
gas in game
jas in pleasure
as in door
das in day
bas in baby
las in life
sas in sweet
ghas in Ghana
jhas in Bridge hop
ḍhas in speed hump
dhas in speed hump
bhas in bulb holder
vas in vast
as in rainbow
as in noon
ñas in New York
as in nice
nas in night
mas in map
as in life
has in home
Vowels (when independent)With క (k)Sound


Assamese Vs Hindi Alphabets

The Assamese script has 41 consonants and 11 vowels. It is similar to the Devnagari script. Most of the Assamese Alphabets written same as Bengali. The Assamese Alphabets are divided into two groups 1. স্বৰবৰ্ণ. (Swarborno) 2. Byonjonborno(ব্যঞ্জনবৰ্ণ). 

স্বৰবৰ্ণ (Swarborno) represents the 8 main vowel sounds of Assamese, along with a number of vowel diphthongs. Byanjanbarna ব্যঞ্জন বৰ্ণ Represents the consonant letters in the Assamese alphabet. 

Here is al list of the Assamese Vowels:

LetterName of letterVowel sign with [kɔ] (ক)Name of vowel signTransliteration
oক (none)(none)ko
অ or অʼóক (none) or কʼurdho-comma
hroswo iকিhôrswôikarki
dirgho iকীdirghoikarki
hroswo uকুhroswoukarku
dirgho uকূdirghoukarku
eকেekarkê and ke

Here’s a list of the Assamese consonants:

LetterName of LetterTransliteration
prothom sos
ditio sos
borgiya zoz
murdhoinno tot
murdhoinno thoth
murdhoinno dod
murdhoinno dhodh
murdhoinnya non
dontia tot
dontia thoth
dontia dod
dontia dhodh
dontia non
phoph and f
bhobh and vh
ontostho zoz
taloibbo xox and s
murdhoinno xox and s
dontia xox and s
ক্ষkhyokhy, kkh
ড়dore ror
ঢ়dhore rorh
য়ontostho yôy

Hindi Kannada Alphabet

Kannada language is one of the 22 languages used in India. Kannada alphabet consist of 49 letters. There are 14 vowels and 35 consonants. The letters are classified into three categories: ಸ್ವರ svara (vowels), ವ್ಯಂಜನ vyañjana (consonants), and ಯೋಗವಾಹಕ yōgavāhaka (semi consonants).

Here is a list of the Kannada alphabet Vs Hindi alphabet:

ಅ nonenone
ಆ ಾ ā
ಇ ಿi  
ಈ ī
ೆ e
ೇ ēएॅ
auanusvara: ಅಂ (aṁ)visarga: ಅಃ (aḥ) अं

Here is a list of consonants:

KannadaHindi Transliteration
क k
ಖ kh
ಗ g
ಘ gh
ಙ n
ಚ ch
ಛ chh
ಝ jh
ಟ t
ಠ th
ಡ d
ಢ dh
ಣ n
ತ त t
ಥ th
ದ d
ಧ ध dh
ನ n
ಪ p
ಬ b
ಭ bh
ಮ m
ಯ y
ರ r
ಱ ಲl
ವ v
ಶ sh
ಷ sh
ಸ s
ಹ h
ಳ l
ೞ ḻal

Hindi Malayalam Alphabets 

Malayalam language is one of the 22 spoken language in India. It consists of 15 vowels and 41 consonants. Malayalam consonants  are called `vyanjan (व्यंजन). 

Vowels and diphthongs are marked in two ways. The first one is an independent vowel, which is used at the beginning of a syllable. The second one is dependent vowel, which is used when the vowel follows a consonant.

Here is a list of the alphabet with the pronunciation:

LetterVowel signVowel with [p]Unicode nameIPANote
 (pa)Aashort ‘a’
പാ(pā)AAlong ‘a’
ിപി(pi)Iishort ‘i’
പീ(pī)IIlong ‘i’
പു(pu)Uushort ‘u’
പൂ(pu)UUlong ‘u’
പൃ(pr̥)VOCALIC R 
   VOCALIC L obsolete/rarely used
പെ(pe)Eeshort ‘e’
പേ(pē)Elong ‘e’
പൊ(po)Ooshort ‘o’
പോ(pō)OOlong ‘o’
MalayalamUnicode NameTransliterationIPA
NGAn̄ or ngŋ
NYAñ or nyɲ
TTAṭ or ttʈ
TTHAṭh or tthʈh
DDAḍ or ddɖ
DDHAḍh or ddhɖɦ
NNAṇ or nnɳ
SHAś or shɕ
SSAṣ or ssʃ
LLAḷ or llɭ
LLLAḻ or lllɹ
RRAṟ or rr

Persian Hindi Alphabet

Persian is a member of the Western Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. Hindi alphabets contain 44 letters and Persian Alphabets contain 32 letters. The writing direction of both Hindi and Persian is Left-To-Right, Horizontal.

Persian is spoken by about 110 million people. Persian has six vowel sounds and two diphthongs: â (/ɒː/), a (/æ/), e (/e/), I (/iː/), o (/o/), u (/uː/), ey (/ej/) and ow (/ow/). ح (he) is also known as ی جیمی (ye-jimi), and ﻩ (he) is also known as ی دوچش (ye-docešma). 

Here is a list of some words in Persian and Hindi:

man(adult male)mardaadamee
man(human being)ensAnaadamee
fat (n.)charbivasa
hairmu (mo)kesh
swimsheno kardantairana
fly (v.)paridanudana
walkrAh raftanchalana
liedurogh goftanjhooth bolana

Hindi Alphabet in Sinhala

Sinhalese alphabets contain 54 letters and Hindi Alphabets contain 44 letters. Sinhala has 18 vowels and 36 consonants. The writing direction for both languages is Left-To-Right, Horizontal.

Here is a list of Sinhala Vowels:

vowelHindiSinhala IPAAmerican English IPA
/a/ʌ or ə

Here is a list of Sinhala consonants:

/k/kc in picnic /pʰɪknɪk/.
/k/ (/kʰ/)kh (digraph)Modern: c in picnic /pʰɪknɪk/.Ancient: c in cat cat /kʰæt/.
/ɡ/gg in game /ɡeɪm/.
/ɡ/ (/ɡʰ/)gh (digraph)Modern: g in game /ɡeɪm/.Ancient: no English equivalent. g with a puff of air immediately afterwards.
/ŋ/ng (digraph)ng in sing /sɪŋ/.
/ᵑɡ/ngSimilar to, but not exactly the same as, ng in stronger /stɹɒŋɡə/ where the g has a “hard” sound.
/t͡ʃ/cch in itch /ɪt͡ʃ/.
/t͡ʃ/ (/t͡ʃʰ/)ch (digraph)Modern: ch in itch /ɪt͡ʃ/.Ancient: ch in chin /t͡ʃʰɪn/.
/d͡ʒ/jj in jug /d͡ʒʌɡ/.
/d͡ʒ/ (/d͡ʒʰ/)jh (digraph)Modern: j in jug /d͡ʒʌɡ/.Ancient: no English equivalent. j with a puff of air immediately afterwards.
/ɲ/gn (digraph)ñ in señor (Spanish) /seˈɲoɾ/.
/ᶮd͡ʒ/njSimilar to, but not exactly the same as, ng in orange /ˈɒɹɪnd͡ʒ/.
/ʈ/tSimilar to, but not exactly the same as, t in pat /pʰæt/.
/ʈ/ (/ʈʰ/)th (digraph)Modern: Similar to, but not exactly the same as, t in pat /pʰæt/.Ancient: Similar to, but not exactly the same as, t in tack /tʰæk/.
/ɖ/dSimilar to, but not exactly the same as, d in disc /dɪsk/.
/ɖ/ (/ɖʰ/)dh (digraph)Modern: Similar to, but not exactly the same as, d in disc /dɪsk/.Ancient: no English equivalent. Similar to d with a puff of air immediately afterwards.
/n/nn in net /nɛt/.
/ᶯɖ/ndSimilar to, but not exactly the same as, nd in and /ænd/.
/t̪/th (digraph)द No exact equivalent in English. Somewhat similar to th in teeth /tiːθ/.
/t̪/ (/t̪ʰ/)th (digraph)ढ  Modern: No exact equivalent in English. Somewhat similar to th in teeth /tiːθ/.Ancient: No exact equivalent in English. Somewhat similar to th in thin /θʰɪn/.
/d̪/dन No exact equivalent in English. Somewhat similar to th in this /ðɪs/.
/d̪/ (/d̪ʰ/)th (digraph)प Modern: No exact equivalent in English. Somewhat similar to th in this /ðɪs/.Ancient: No exact equivalent in English. Somewhat similar to th in this /ðɪs/ with a puff of air immediately afterwards.
/n/nn in net /nɛt/.
/ⁿd̪/nth (trigraph)No exact equivalent in English. Somewhat similar to n th in when this /wɛnðɪs/.
/p/pp in tap /tæp/.
/p/ (/pʰ/)ph (digraph)Modern: p in tap /tæp/.Ancient: Similar to p in pen /pʰɛn/.
/b/bb in big /bɪɡ/.
/b/ (/bʰ/)bh (digraph)Modern: b in big /bɪɡ/.Ancient: no English equivalent. b with a puff of air immediately afterwards.
/m/mm in mat /mæt/.
/ᵐb/mb (digraph)Similar to, but not exactly the same as, mb in amber /æmbə(ɹ)/.
/j/yy in yet /jɛt/.
/r/rSimilar to r in red /ɹɛd/.
/l/ll in list /lɪst/.
/v~ʋ~w/v, wv in vivid /ˈvɪvɪd/, w in water /ˈwɔːtə(ɹ)/.
/ʃ/sh (digraph)sh in ship /ʃɪp/.
/ʃ/ (/ʂ/)sh (digraph)Modern: sh in ship /ʃɪp/.Ancient: no English equivalent. Somewhat similar to sh in ship /ʃɪp/.
/s/sस s in set /sɛt/.
/h/hh in hat /hæt/.
/l/ll in list /lɪst/.
/f/ff in fin /fɪn/.

Some Useful Everyday Hindi Phrases:

Sentence in EnglishHindi Pronunciation
How are you? (formal)Aap kaise hain?
How are you? (informal)Kya haal hai? /Kaise ho?/sab theek?
I’m fine. You?Main theek hoon. Tum?
What is your name? (formal)Aapka naam kya hai?
What is your name? (informal)Tumhara naam kya hai?
My name is PeterMera naam Peter hai.
Thank youDhanyavad
SorryMaaf kijiye
Excuse meSuniye
See you!Phir milenge
See you tomorrowKal milenge
Let’s go!Chalo
GreatBahut accha
OkayTheek hai
Where are the restrooms?Shauchalay kahan hai?
How much does this cost?Ye kitne ka hai?
How much?Kitna?
Hurry up!Jaldi karo
I’m hungryMujhe bhookh lagi hai
I’m thirstyMujhe pyaas lagi hai
I don’t like thisMujhe pasand nahi hai
I like thisMujhe pasand hai
Good byealvida
Good morningSuprabhaat
Good eveningShubh sundhyaa
welcomeaaiye and padhariye
Nice to meet you Ap se milkar kushi hui
What’s new?Kyaa chal rahaa hai?
Nothing muchZyaada kuch nahi
Formal youAap
Informal youTum
Intimate youtu
MRSri Srimati.
How much is this?Ye kitane ka hai.
I like thisMujhe pasand hai.
I don’t like this Mujhe pasand nahi hai.
To the rightdae
To the leftbae
In the middlebic me, bico bic
triantren, relgari
subwaysabwe, bhumigat paidal par path
Bus stopbas stap
I’m feeling wellMujhe theek nhi lg rha.
Can you help me?Kya aap meri madad kar sakte hain?
Do you speak English?Kya ap angrezi bolte/bolti (m/f) hai?
I don’t speak HindiMujhe hindi nahi ati hair
I can’t speak HindiMai Hindi nai bol sakta hu.
I don’t understandMai samjha/samhi nahi.
Talk more slowelyDhire dhire boliye.
What does it mean?[…]  ka artha/matlab kya hai?
How do you say it?[…] kaise kahate hai?
pilotviman chalak

The Most Famous Hindi Songs for Kids

  •  Lakdi Ki Kathi. Vanita Mishra, Gauri Bapat, Gurpreet Kaur. …
  •  Ichak Dana Beechak Dana. Shankar-Jaikishan, Lata Mangeshkar, …
  •  Tera Mujhse Hai Nata Koi (Duet) …
  •  Sa Re Ke Sa Re. …
  •  Dadi Amma Dadi Amma Maan Jao. …
  •  Nanha Munna Rahi Hoon. …
  •  Nani Teri Morni Ko. …
  • lakdi ki kaati.avi
  • Chanda Hai Tu – Sharmila Tagore & Rajesh Khanna – Classic Hindi Song – Aradhana
  • Aao Tumhen Chand Pe Le Jayen – Sunil Dutt – Asha Parekh – Zakhmee – Lata Mangeshkar 
  • Taare Zameen Par – Bum Bum Bole – Bollywood Greek Fans
  • Nanha Munna Rahi Hoon (Full Song) – Son Of India
  • Kali Re Kali Re Tu Toh Kali Hai – Superhit Children Hindi Song – Minoo
  •  lala lala lori doodh ki katori

Hindi Songs in Alphabetical Order


  • Aa Laut Ke Aja Mere Meet – Notes Corrected
  • Aaja Sanam Madhur Chandni Mein
  • Aane Wala Pal Jane Wala Hai
  • Aankh Marey O Ladki Aankh Mare
  • Aankhon Mein Teri Ajab Si Adaayein Hain
  • Aao Bachcho Tumhe Dikhaye Jhanki Hindustan Ki
  • Aapke Pyaar Mein Hum Savarne Lage
  • Aapki Nazro Ne Samjha Pyar Ke Kabil Mujhe
  • Aarti Kunj Bihari Ki
  • Aate Jate Khoobsurat Awara Sadkon Pe
  • Abhi Mujh Mein Kahin – Agneepath
  • Achyutam Keshavam Krishna Damodaram
  • Adha Hai Chandrama Raat Aadhi
  • Ae Dil Hai Mushkil – Title Track – Tu Safar Mera
  • Ae Watan Ae Watan Humko Teri Kasam
  • Agar Tum Mil Jao
  • Agar Tum Saath Ho – Pal Bhar Thahar Jaao
  • Aisa Des Hai Mera – Dharti Sunehri Ambar Neela
  • Aisi Lagi Lagan, Meera Ho Gayi Magan
  • Ajeeb Dastan Hai Yeh
  • Akele Hain To Kya Gum Hai


  • Baa Baa Black Sheep. Have You Any Wool?
  • Badan Pe Sitare Lapete Huye
  • Bade Achhe Lagte Hai – Updated
  • Badi Der Bhai Nandlala
  • Baharon Phool Barsao – Piano Notes
  • Bahut Pyar Karte Hai Tumko Sanam
  • Banwari Re Jeene Ka Sahara
  • Behti Hawa Sa Tha Woh
  • Bekhayali – Kabir Singh (2019)
  • Bhagwan Hai Kahan Re Tu
  • Birthday Song – Happy Birthday to You
  • Genda Phool – Badshah – Boro Loker Beti Lo
  • Hai Preet Jahan Ki Reet Sada – Bharat Ka Rehne Wala Hoon
  • Panghat – Bahut Kathin Hai Dagar Panghat Ki – Roohi (2021)


  • Casio Keyboards List
  • Chahun Main Ya Naa – Tu Hi Ye Mujhko Bata De
  • Chal Akela Chal Akela Tera Mela
  • Chalte Chalte Mere Yeh Geet
  • Chalte Chalte Yunhi Koi Mil Gaya Tha – Pakeezah
  • Chalte Chalte Yunhi Ruk Jata Hoon Main
  • Chalti Hai Kya 9 Se 12 – Keyboard Notes
  • Chand Mera Dil Chandni Ho Tum
  • Chand Si Mehbooba Ho Meri
  • Chand Sifarish Jo Karta Hamari
  • Chandi Jaisa Rang Hai Tera, Sone Jaise Baal
  • Chhoti Chhoti Gaiya Chhote Chhote Gwal
  • Chookar Mere Man Ko, Kiya Tune Kya Isharaa – (Notes Corrected)
  • Christmas Song – Jingle Bells
  • Chura Ke Dil Mera Goriya Chali
  • Chura Liya Hai Tumne Jo Dil Ko
  • Children Songs – Nursery Rhymes – Song List


  • Aisa Des Hai Mera – Dharti Sunehri Ambar Neela
  • Aye Watan Tere Liye – Dil Diya Hai Jaan Bhi Denge
  • De Di Hame Azadi – Sabarmati Ke Sant
  • Dekhte Dekhte – Sochta Hoon ke Woh Kitne Masoom
  • Dhoom Machale Dhoom Machale Dhoom
  • Dil Apna Aur Preet Parai
  • Dil Hai Chota Sa Choti Si Asha
  • Dil Hai Ke Manta Nahin
  • Dil Ibadat Kar Raha Hai
  • Dil Ke Jharoke Mein Tujko Bithakar
  • Dil Kya Kare Jab Kisi Se
  • Dil To Bachcha Hai Ji – Rahat Fateh Ali Khan
  • Dil To Pagal Hai, Dil Deewana Hai
  • Do Dil Mil Rahe Hain, Magar Chupke Chupke
  • Do Lafzon Ki Hai Dil Ki Kahani
  • Doston Is Jamane Ko Kya Ho Gaya
  • Patriotic Songs – Deshbhakti Geet – Song List


  • Ehsaan Tera Hoga Mujh Par
  • Ek Ajnabi Haseena Se
  • Ek Din Bik Jayega Mati Ke Mol
  • Ek Haseena Thi Ek Deewana Tha
  • Ek Ladki Bheegi Bhagi Si
  • Ek Pardesi Mera Dil Le Gaya
  • Ek Pyar ka Nagma Hai
  • Jeeta Tha Jiske Liye – Ek Aisi Ladki Thi
  • My Heart Will Go On


  • Galiyan Teri Galiyan
  • Gayatri Mantra – Om Bhur Bhuvah Swaha
  • Geet Gaata Chal O Saathi Gungunata Chal
  • Genda Phool – Badshah – Boro Loker Beti Lo
  • Gerua – Rang De Tu Mohe Geruaa
  • Ghar Se Nikalte Hi – Armaan Malik
  • Gulabi Aankhen Jo Teri Dekhi


  • Hai Apna Dil To Awara
  • Hai Preet Jahan Ki Reet Sada – Bharat Ka Rehne Wala Hoon
  • Hamari Adhuri Kahani
  • Hanuman Chalisa – Version 1
  • Hanuman Chalisa – Version 2
  • Hare Krishna Mantra – Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna
  • Hey Ram Hey Ram
  • Ho Gaya Hai Tujhko To Pyar Sajna – Na Jaane Mere
  • Hothon Se Choo Lo Tum
  • Hum Ko Man Ki Shakti Dena


  • Itni Shakti Hame Dena Data


  • Jaane Jaan Dhoondta Phir Raha
  • Jaane Kahan Gaye Woh Din
  • Jab Koi Baat Bigad Jaye – Updated
  • Jab Se Mera Dil Tera Hua
  • Jag Ghoomeya Thare Jaisa Na Koi
  • Jag Mein Sundar Hain Do Naam
  • Jagat Ke Rang Kya Dekhu – Krishna Bhajan
  • Jahan Daal Daal Par Sone Ki Chidiya
  • Jai Ganesh Deva – Ganesh Aarti
  • Jai Ho – Aaja Aaja Jind Shamiyane Ke Tale
  • Jaise Suraj Ki Garmi Se Jalte Hue Tan Ko
  • Jana Gana Mana – National Anthem
  • Janam Janam Janam Saath Chalna
  • ज़रा सामने तो आओ छलिये – Harmonium Notes
  • Jeena Jeena – Dehleez Pe Mere Dil Ki
  • Jeena Yahan Marna Yahan, Iske Siva Jaana Kahan
  • Jeeta Tha Jiske Liye – Ek Aisi Ladki Thi
  • Jhilmil Sitaron Ka Aangan Hoga
  • Jingle Bell Rock – Keyboard Notes
  • Jyot Se Jyot Jagate Chalo
  • Namo Namo Shankara – Jai Ho Jai Ho Shankara – Kedarnath


  • Kabhi Kabhi Mere Dil Mein Khayal Aata Hai
  • Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham – Meri Saason Mein Tu Hai Samaya
  • Kabhi Ram Banke, Kabhi Shyam Banke
  • Kahin Door Jab Din Dhal Jaye
  • Kal Ho Naa Ho – Har Ghadi Badal Rahi Hai
  • Kar Chale Hum Fida Jan-o Tan Sathiyon
  • Kar Har Maidan Fateh
  • Kaun Hai Jo Sapno Mein Aaya – M. Rafi
  • Keyboard Notes for Old Hindi Songs
  • Kishore Kumar
  • Kisiki Muskurahato Pe Ho Nisar
  • Kuch Kuch Hota Hai – Tum Paas Aaye
  • Kya Hua Tera Wada, Wo Kasam, Wo Irada


  • Lag Ja Gale Ke Phir Ye, Haseen Raat Ho Na Ho
  • Likhe Jo Khat Tujhe


  • Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham – Meri Saason Mein Tu Hai Samaya
  • Madhuban Khushboo Deta Hai
  • Maha Mrityunjaya Mantra – Om Tryambakam Yajamahe
  • Maili Chadar Odh Ke Kaise – Keyboard Notes
  • Main Agar Kahoon – Tumko Paya Hai To
  • Main Shayar To Nahin
  • Man Dole Mera Tan Dole
  • Man Lagyo Mero Yaar Fakiri Mein – Keyboard Notes
  • Mangal Bhavan Amangal Hari – Ramayan Chaupai
  • Mary Had A Little Lamb – Song for Children
  • Mehndi Laga Ke Rakhna
  • Mera Aapki Kripa Se Sab Kaam Ho Raha Hai
  • Mera Bhola Hai Bhandari, Kare Nandi Ki Sawari
  • Mera Dil Bhi Kitna Pagal Hai
  • Mera Dil Ye Pukare Aaja
  • Mera Naam Raju Gharana Anaam – Keyboard Notes
  • Mera Rang De Basanti Chola – Shaheed
  • Mere Desh Ki Dharti Sona Ugle
  • Mere Haath Mein Tera Haath Ho
  • Mere Mehboob Qayamat Hogi
  • Mere Rang Me Rangne Wali
  • Mere Rashke Qamar
  • Mere Samne Wali Khidki Mein
  • Mere Sapno Ki Rani Kab Aayegi Tu
  • Meri Mehbooba – Kisi Roz Tumse Mulakaat Hogi
  • Mile Ho Tum Humko, Bade Naseebon Se
  • Yeh moh moh ke dhaage
  • Musafir Hoon Yaron
  • Muskurane Ki Wajah Tum Ho
  • Phir Bhi Tumko Chaahunga – Main Phir Bhi


  • Ho Gaya Hai Tujhko To Pyar Sajna – Na Jaane Mere
  • Nagin Dhun – Piano Notes
  • Namo Namo Shankara – Jai Ho Jai Ho Shankara – Kedarnath
  • Nand Ke Anand Bhayo – Janmashtami Bhajan
  • Nanha Munna Rahi Hoon, Desh ka Sipaahi Hoon
  • Navkar Mantra – Namokar Mantra
  • Neele Neele Ambar Par
  • Children Songs – Nursery Rhymes – Song List


  • ओ दुनियाँ के रख वाले – Harmonium Notes
  • O Mere Dil Ke Chain
  • O O Jaane Jaana
  • O Palan Hare Nirgun Aur Nyare
  • O Sathi Re Tere Bina Bhi Kya Jeena
  • Old MacDonald Had A Farm
  • Om Gan Ganpataye Namo Namah – Ganesh Mantra
  • Om Jai Jagdish Hare
  • Om Namah Shivay – Har 


  • Pal Pal Dil Ke Paas
  • Panchi Banu Udti Phiru – Keyboard Notes
  • Panghat – Bahut Kathin Hai Dagar Panghat Ki – Roohi (2021)
  • Pardesi Pardesi Jana Nahi
  • Pehla Nasha Pehla Khumar
  • Phir Bhi Tumko Chaahunga – Main Phir Bhi
  • Phoolon Ke Rang Se, Dil Ki Kalam Se
  • Prem Ratan Dhan Payo
  • Pukarta Chala Hoon Main
  • Pyaar Hua Ikraar Hua Hai – Keyboard Notes
  • Pyar Diwana Hota Hai
  • Patriotic Songs – Deshbhakti Geet – Song List


  • Raghupati Raghav Raja Ram
  • Rahi Manva Dukh Ki Chinta
  • Rang Barse Bheege Chunar Wali
  • Rim Jhim Gire Sawan
  • Roja Janeman Tu Hi Mera Dil
  • Row, Row, Row Your Boat – Song for Children
  • Ruk Ja O Dil Deewane


  • De Di Hame Azadi – Sabarmati Ke Sant
  • Dekhte Dekhte – Sochta Hoon ke Woh Kitne Masoom
  • Sach Keh Raha Hai Deewana Dil
  • Sach Mere Yaar Hai
  • Sairat Zaala Ji
  • Sajan Re Jhoot Mat Bolo
  • Sanam Re, Sanam Re
  • Sandese Aate Hai – Border
  • Sare Jahan Se Achha Hindustan Hamara
  • Shape of You – Ed Sheeran
  • Shiv Aarti – Om Jai Shiv Omkara
  • Shiv Shankar Ko Jisne Puja
  • Shri Banke Bihari Teri Aarti Gaun
  • Shri Ramchandra Kripalu Bhajman
  • Shyam Teri Bansi Pukare Radha Naam
  • Slow Motion – Bharat
  • Soch Na Sake – Tere Liye Duniya Chod Di Hai
  • Sooraj Dooba Hai Yaaron
  • Sukhkarta Dukhharta – Jai Dev Jai Mangal Murti
  • Sunn Raha Hai Na Tu – Apne Karam Ki
  • Swag Se Swagat – Swag Se Karenge Sabka Swagat


  • Ae Dil Hai Mushkil – Title Track – Tu Safar Mera
  • Allah Ke Bande – Toota Toota ek Parinda
  • Chahun Main Ya Naa – Tu Hi Ye Mujhko Bata De
  • Kuch Kuch Hota Hai – Tum Paas Aaye
  • Main Agar Kahoon – Tumko Paya Hai To
  • Shiv Tandav Stotram
  • Tere Jaisa Yaar Kahaa
  • Tere Man Mein Ram, Tan Mein Ram
  • Tere Naam Humne Kiya Hai – Tere Naam
  • Teri Duniya Se Door Chale Hoke Majboor
  • Teri Mitti Mein Mil Jawaan
  • Tora Man Darpan Kehlaye
  • Tu Pyar Ka Sagar Hai
  • Tujh mein Rab Dikhta Hai – Tu Hi To Jannat Meri
  • Tujhe Dekha To Ye Jana Sanam – Notes Corrected
  • Tujhse Naraz Nahi Zindagi
  • Tum Hi Ho – Hum Tere Bin Ab Reh Nahi Sakte
  • Tumko Dekha to Yeh Khayal Aaya
  • Twinkle Twinkle Little Star


  • We Wish You A Merry Christmas
  • Woh Pehli Baar Jab Hum Mile
  • Woh Sham Kuchh Ajeeb Thi


  • Yeh moh moh ke dhaage
  • Yamaha Keyboards – List
  • Yashomati Maiya Se Bole Nandlala
  • Ye Sama, Sama Hai Ye Pyaar Ka
  • Ye Sham Mastani Madhosh Kiye Jaye
  • Yeh Jo Mohabbat Hai
  • Yeh Kahan Aa Gaye Hum
  • You Are My Sunshine, My Only Sunshine


  • Zindagi Pyaar Ka Geet Hai, Isse Har Dil Ko Gaana Padega

Hindi Alphabet Conclusion

Hindi is the mother tongue of India. The Hindi alphabet is called Hindi Varnamala. Hindi letters are pronounced the same exact way they are written. Hindi is also classified as consonants and vowels. The standard Hindi alphabet has 11 vowels and 35 consonants. 

What is Hindi Day?

Hindi Day commemorates the adoption of Hindi as an official language by the Indian Constituent Assembly in 1965. It was actually on 14th September 2949 that a comprise was reached while drafting the Constitution of India on what languages would have an official status in India. The Hindi supporters wanted Hindi to be the main or national language of India – but from the South of the country – English was preferred.

The comprise was that Hindi would be the official language of the countries federal government and English would be an associate language for 15 years – while Hind’s formal lexicon would be developed. Hence 1965 was 15 years after this initial agreement, it was then that the Government of India announced that English would continue to be the de facto formal language of India. Now every year on the 14th September Hindi Diwas or National Hindi Day is celebrated around the world.

Would you like to know more about global Alphabets? Check out these amazing articles to understand the basics of each language:

English Alphabet

Latin Alphabet

Arabic Alphabet

Chinese Alphabet

Greek Alphabet

Great Videos on the Hindi Alphabet

We have selected some of the best videos we could find on the Hindi language – with tips and guides on how to write, speak and these will no doubt help you learn this incredible language.

Hindi Language Video
Hindi Language Video
Hindi Language Video
Hindi Language Video

Hopefully you learnt lots on the Hindi Language today. If you found this article in any way useful – why not share it online.

What Do You Know About The Greek Alphabet? Ancient Vs Modern Greek

History of Greek Alphabet

Greek alphabet is the origin of all modern European alphabets. So, What is the origin of the Greek alphabet? Who first used the Greek alphabet? What is the Greek alphabet? How many letters are there in the Greek alphabet? What are the names of the Greek alphabet?

The Greek alphabet developed through time. Some letters have been added, others have been taken off. The Greeks added more sounds to the alphabet. They invented the vowel sounds as well. There were two main branches of the Greek alphabet.

There are different fonts and writing styles associated with the Greek alphabet. Geek alphabet has lowercase letters and uppercase letters. Greek alphabet were used as numerals in other languages. What is the early evidence for the Greek alphabet? What is the history of the early Greek alphabet?

What Is The Greek Alphabet?

The Greek alphabet is “an alphabet that has been used from ancient times for writing the Greek language, that is of Semitic origin but differs from Semitic alphabets in having characters for the vowels, and that has given rise directly or indirectly to various other alphabets”

What is The Origin of The Greek Alphabet?

Greek alphabet is a writing system that was developed in Greece about during the 8th century BC. It is adapted from the North Semitic alphabet,  the earliest fully developed writing system,  by the Phoenicians, people live in in Lebanon, Syria and Israel of today.

Greek alphabet was not the first writing system that was used to write Greek; the Linear B script was the writing system used to write Greek during Mycenaean times, several centuries before the Greek alphabet.  The Linear B script was lost around c.1100 BC, since that date there was no writing system until they developed the Greek alphabet.

How Was The Greek Alphabet developed?

As mentioned above, the Greek alphabet derived from the Semitic alphabet. the Semitic alphabet didn’t have vowels, so the Greek developed the vowels. The question is: why did they need vowel? Apparently, people can read and write without vowels before. There are different theories about that.

One reason for the Greek to develop vowels was to write down especially epic poetry. They needed a certain meter for the epic poetry called Dactylic Hexameter. So, the Greek reassigned some consonant symbols in the Semitic alphabet to represent vowels. 

They turned four Semitic consonants, Aleph, He, Yod, and Ayin, into symbols for the sounds of the Greek vowels a, e, i, and o. The Semitic Waw became the Greek Digamma. It was eventually lost, but Latin retained as the letter F. 

Then, the Greek added more letters to the alphabet. they generally put them at the end of the alphabet to keep the same order of the Semitic alphabet. So, when they added a u vowel, Upsilon, they placed it at the end. Later, they developed long vowels, called Omega, and still added  at the very end of the alphabet. 

The Greek added more letters to represent the (aspirated labial and velar stops) Phi [now: Φ] and Chi [now: Χ], and (stop sibilant clusters) Psi [now: Ψ] and Xi/Ksi [now: Ξ] to the end of the alphabet. 

2 Main Variations in the Greek Alphabet

Before the 5th century BCE the Greek alphabet could be divided into two main groups: eastern Ionic Greeks, called Ionic alphabet, and western Ionic Greek, called  Chalcidian alphabet. The eastern Ionic used the Χ (Chi) for the ch sound and the Ψ (Psi) for the ps, but Western and mainland Greeks used Χ (Chi) for k+s and Ψ (Psi) for k+h.

Athens  made a decision to standardize all official documents by approving the 24-character Ionic alphabet. This decision was issued in 403/402 B.C. The 24-character Ionic alphabet the dominant Greek form. The Chalcidian alphabet probably developed by time to the Italic alphabet.

Writing Directions of the Greek Alphabet

The writing system adopted from the Phoenicians, Semitic alphabet, was written and read from right to left. This direction of writing was called “retrograde”.  the Greeks first wrote their alphabet the same way as the Semitic alphabet from right to left. 

By time the Greeks developed a system of circling the writing around and back on itself, called boustrophedon or boustrophedon. Sometimes the letters were upside down,  from up/down as well as from left/right. 

Letters that would appear different are Alpha, Beta Β, Gamma Γ, Epsilon Ε, Digamma Ϝ, Iota Ι, Kappa Κ, Lambda Λ, Mu Μ, Nu Ν, Pi π, Rho Ρ, and Sigma Σ. Some of the Greek letters were symmetrical others were not. Vertical symmetry means that the right side of the letter is the reflection of the left side.

Horizontal symmetry means that the bottom of the letter is a reflection of the top. Alpha was sometimes nonsymmetrical not as alpha (A) of the modern language. The letters that the Greeks added to the end of the alphabet were symmetrical.

Here is a list of the Greek alphabet:


Upper Case

Lower Case









































































There was no punctuation in early inscriptions and one word ran into the next.  It is believed that boustrophedon followed the left-to-right form of writing. It was mentioned that the normal direction was followed by the 5th century B.C. 

There were some changes in the shape of the letters. The iota turned into to something  known as an i vowel. the Eta, ἦ, lost its top and bottom rung turning into the letter H of today’s alphabet. The Mu, something like: //, became symmetrical which is today’s M. 

Between 635 and 575, retrograde, writing from right to left, and boustrophedon, circling the writing around and back on itse, stopped. By the middle of the 5th century, the Greek letters we know were almost in place. 

The Greek Alphabet Pronunciation

Words in the Greek language are pronounced the way they are written. there are no magic “e” type letters.  As well, letters are always pronounced the same way, with the exception of a few diphthongs, a double vowel sound that can occur when there are two vowels side by side.

The Greek alphabet has 24 letters, some of them representing sounds that are not part of the English language. To create sounds not included in the alphabet, two letters are combined. For example: the b sound is created by putting together “m” and “p,”. the j sound is created with a combination of “t” and “z,”.

The Greek language does not have a sh or soft ch sound. The sh or the soft ch sound are pronounced properly when they are written using the letter “s”.  Here is a list with the Greek letters, the pronunciation and the sound while speaking:



When speaking,

sounds like






the letter v



the letter y when it comes before e, u, i; otherwise like a soft gargle gh



hard th as in “there”






the letter z






soft th as in “through”






the letter k



the letter l



the letter m



the letter n



the letter x






the letter p


roh, roe

a rolled r



the letter s



the letter t






the letter f



a light gargly ch as in “challah”



ps as in “chips”



somewhere between “awe” and “oh”

Here is a list of some Greek diphthongs: 

ΑΥ, αυ


av or af

ΕΥ, ευ


ev or ef

ΟΥ, ου



ΑΙ, αι



Greek Alphabet Font

AS mentioned earlier, there was no punctuation in the Greek writing. There was a handwriting called the “Epigraphical style” (Hunger). This form of writing falls regularly within the space of two lines with only individual letters (e. g. Nu) rising above or going below these boundaries. The Greeks did not have a cursive hand before the Hellenistic Age. 

There was a Documentary handwriting style. It was the common form of writing. It was developed from the epigraphical style. It tries constantly to combine two, three, or more letters. It employs numerous space saving abbreviations without affecting the meaning. 

There was a Literary handwriting style. The Literary handwriting used for literary texts and books. The literary hand avoids combining letters. It always remained basically a majuscule script running between two lines.

The so-called Hook style was popular in the 1st century b.c. and the 1st century a.d. Many papyri of the 2d and 3d centuries a.d reflects another stylistic form called the Strict style. Eta, Mu, Nu, Pi, and Omega are enlarged. Delta, Kappa, Lambda, and Chi are flattened. 

On the other hand, letters such as Beta, Theta, Epsilon, and Sigma are kept extremely small. Omicron, Sigma, and Omega are frequently written in such small form that they cannot fill the space between the two lines. Apostrophes, and punctuation marks are found in papyri of the Strict style.

The “Biblical style” developed out of the Strict style in the course of the 3d century. The most important characteristic feature of the Biblical style is the way to balance the different sizes of small and broad letters. Narrow letters are avoided except at the ends of lines.

In the Middle Byzantine period the uncial was used beside the newly introduced minuscule. Characteristic features of the liturgical uncial are pointed oval forms of the earlier round letters and a marked contrast between light upstrokes and heavy downstrokes. 

The Coptic style was a unique development of the uncial in the 6th to the 10th centuries. The Copts used the Greek uncial as the literary hand for writing their own literature. It showed unusually large individual letters, a small Alpha, and a deep-saddle form of Mu. 

Book minuscule, calligraphic minuscule, or simply minuscule was the writing style in the Byzantine period. It was developed out of the Byzantine cursive. The transfer of the works of ancient literature from uncial to the new minuscule writing was an important step the history of the transmission of texts. It was done in 9th and 10th centuries.

The minuscule, like the Byzantine cursive, was a four-line system of writing. It showed a way to combine two to ten, or even more, letters into a continuous unit. Some features of this style were writing above the line, a slight slope to the left and a round form popular from the late 10th century.

In the early 15th century the Byzantines tried to go back to the minuscule forms of the 9th to the 12th centuries. By the use of separation of letters and words, punctuation, and free standing accents, the MSS written in the revised style were made much more understandable.

After the invention of printing, the first book set wholly in Greek type was published at Milan in 1476. The cutting of Greek type fonts, difficult as it was at first, reached its maturity by the 1490s. At this time, and far into the 16th century, a reciprocal influence may be noted in MSS and printed books.

Here is a sample of the different fonts of the Greek script

Here is a chart for the Greek alphabet:

Alpha Greek Alphabet

Alpha is the first letter of the Greek alphabet.  The uppercase symbol is Α; while the lowercase symbol is α. Alpha is commonly used in chemistry, engineering, physics, mathematics, and science. 

In the Greek numeral system, the letter represented 1 (one). It presented the first/the beginning. In ancient Greek, alpha was pronounced either short or long “a”. (Ᾱᾱ, Ᾰᾰ). Letters that arose from alpha include the Latin letter A and the Cyrillic letter А.

It is also commonly used in mathematics in algebraic solutions representing quantities such as angles. Also, in mathematics, the letter alpha is used to denote the area underneath a normal curve in statistics to denote significance level when proving null and alternative hypotheses. 

The letter alpha represents different concepts in physics and chemistry, including alpha radiation, angular acceleration, alpha particles, alpha carbon and strength of electromagnetic interaction.  Alpha also stands for thermal expansion coefficient of a compound in physical chemistry.

In Modern Greek, vowel length has been lost, and all instances of alpha simply represent IPA: [a]. In the polytonic orthography of Greek, alpha can occur with several diacritic marks: any of three accent symbols (ά, ὰ, ᾶ), and either of two breathing marks (ἁ, ἀ), as well as combinations of these.

Alpha and Omega are used as a symbol in Christianity. It is declared that “I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End” in the Book of Revelation. Alpha and Omega are the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet ,so this phrase is interpreted to mean that God includes all that can be. 

Beta in Greek Alphabet

Beta is the second letter of the Greek alphabet. The uppercase  symbol is Β, while the lowercase symbol is β. In the Greek numeral system, it has a value of two. Beta is especially used in finance, science, mathematics, statistics and typography.

symbol β is used as the speed parameter in relativity. The lowercase Beta (β) is used to indicate a beta ray or a beta particle which means a high-energy, high-speed electron in physics. There is a hurricane named after Beta. It was  7th major hurricane of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season.

The term Beta is also used in climbing jargon which sometimes gives information about the difficulty of the approach, quality of rock, equipment, as well as the most challenging point in mountaineering.

Gamma Greek Alphabet

Gamma is the third letter of the Greek alphabet. The uppercase symbol is Γ,  while the lowercase symbol is γ. The uppercase Γ is used in mathematics, differential geometry, physics, electrical engineering etc. In the Greek numerals system, it has a value of three. 

The lowercase gamma (γ) is used to indicate gamma radiation in nuclear physics, and the activity coefficient in thermodynamics. The uppercase gamma (Γ) stands for the gamma function in math and the gamma distribution in statistics. The symbol gamma is used to denote shear strain in mechanical engineering as well.

Delta Greek Alphabet

Delta is the fourth letter of the Greek alphabet. The uppercase symbol is Δ, the lowercase symbol is δ. It has the value of four, in the Greek numeral system. The letter D was drawn as a gate or a door at the beginning because it originally meant door in the the Phoenician.

The upper-case delta (Δ) is used to refer to “difference” or “change” in mathematics. The lowercase Delta (δ) is used to show a partial charge in molecular chemistry. Delta symbol used in law too. It meant “defendant”. 

Epsilon Greek Alphabet

Epsilon is the fifth letter of the Greek alphabet. The uppercase symbol is Ε, while the lowercase symbol is ε. It has a value of five in the Greek numeral system. It came from the Phoenician letter hē, which meant window. 

The lowercase epsilon is widely used in astronomy, computer science, chemistry, statistics, continuum mechanics and economics. The lowercase Epsilon (ε) refers to the open-mid front unrounded vowel in the International Phonetic Alphabet. 

The uppercase Epsilon is not used much today because it is the same as the letter E in Latin alphabet. The lowercase Epsilon (ε) is used to show normal strain in mechanical engineering. It is also used to show the Levi-Civita symbol, dual numbers, and the Heaviside step function in math. 

 Zeta in Greek Alphabet

Zeta is the sixth letter of the Greek alphabet. The uppercase symbol is  Ζ, The lowercase symbol is ζ. It has the value of seven in the Greek numeral system. It originally meant weapon in the Phoenician. It came from the letter zayin. But the Greeks renamed the Phoenician letter zayin as Zeta. 

In modern pronunciation, it sounds like “z” as in the word “zoo”. The  lowercase zeta is used in mathematics, fluid and polymer dynamics. The uppercase Zeta (Z) is not used today because it is the same as the Z in Latin alphabet. 

The lowercase zeta (ζ) is used to represent the Riemann zeta function in math. It is used in engineering dynamics, quantum chemistry, physics, industrial materials technology. Tropical Storm Zeta is named after the Greek letter Zeta. 

Eta Greek Alphabet

Eta is the seventh letter of the Greek alphabet. The uppercase symbol is Η, while the lowercase symbol is η. It presents the number eight in the Greek numeral system. It is derived from the the Phoenician letter heth (or ḥēt). The letter Ḥet repeated (חחחחח) is used to show “haha” or LOL in Hebrew.

The uppercase letter eta (Η) is used as a symbol of enthalpy in Chemistry. The lowercase letter η is also used to denote conformal time in Cosmology and efficiency in Telecommunications. It also used to represent viscosity in Rheology, and elasticity in Economics. The star system, Eta Carinae, takes its name from the Greek letter Eta.

The letter eta is used  in many areas such as physics, mathematics, astronomy, statistics, oceanography, atmospheric science, biology, thermodynamics. The lowercase letter eta (η) is also used to represent the quantum efficiency in optics and pseudorapidity in experimental particle physics. It is also used to represent baryon–photon ratio in cosmology.

Theta Greek Alphabet

Theta is the eighth letter of the Greek alphabet. The uppercase symbol is ϴ, while the lowercase symbol is  θ. It has a value of nine, in the Greek numeral system. Theta also referred to death in Greek and Latin epigraphy. It was derived from Phoenician letter Teth (or ṭēt) and it meant wheel.

The uppercase and lowercase letters are used in various areas such as geometry, trigonometry, meteorology, population genetics, econometrics, statistics. The letter theta is used to denote an angle in geometry the same as unknown variable in trigonometry.

It also denotes the voiceless dental fricative in the International Phonetic Alphabet. The lowercase theta (θ) is used to refer to the potential temperature in meteorology and the Watterson estimator in population genetics. the uppercase theta (ϴ) is used to denote the dimension of temperature and dimensionless temperature.

Lota Greek Alphabet

Iota is the ninth letter of the Greek alphabet. The uppercase symbol is Ι, while the lowercase symbol is ι. It represents number ten in the Greek numeral system. The Greek letter is derived from the letter Yodh (or yōd) in Phoenician language. It meant  “hand” in Phoenician language. 

Lota was the foundation to the name of the letter J (jota) in Spanish and Portuguese alphabets. The lowercase iota is used in some programming languages, logic, mathematics, celestial mechanics …etc. 

The uppercase iota (Ι) is used to represent the identity matrix in linear algebra. This Greek letter is used to talk about something very small or tiny in the English language. There is also an expression like “not one iota” which refers to the same meaning “Not even the smallest amount”.

It is also mentioned in Bible (Matthew 5:18): “For truly, I say to you, until heaven and earth pass away, not an iota, not a dot, will pass from the Law until all is accomplished”. As well, the word “jot” which means “not at all”, also comes from the Greek letter iota.

Kappa Greek Alphabet

Kappa is the tenth letter of the Greek alphabet. The uppercase symbol is Κ, while the lowercase symbol is κ. It has the value of 20 in the Greek numeral system. The Greek letter is derived from the Phoenician letter kaph (or kāp). It  meant “palm of a hand” in the Phoenician language. 

Kappa represents the “k” sound in both ancient and modern languages. It is used in areas such in cosmology, physics, thermodynamics, engineering, biology, psychology, pharmacology, and macroeconomics. 

The uppercase kappa is also used in chemistry, mathematics and statistics. The lowercase kappa is used to denote the connectivity of a graph in graph theory or the curvature of a curve in differential geometry. 

The uppercase Kappa is used to denote the denticity of the compound in chemistry. An ordinal which is also a cardinal in math and statistics is also represented by the uppercase Kappa. the lowercase letter kappa represented The multiplication factor in engineering and the compressibility of a compound in thermodynamics. 

The letter Kappa is also used to denote the curvature of the universe in cosmology and the von Kármán constant in physics and engineering. Also, Einstein’s gravitational constant is represented by the lowercase kappa.

Lambda In Greek Alphabet

Lambda is the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet. The uppercase symbol is Λ, while the lowercase symbol is λ.  It has the value of number 30 in the Greek numeral. It is derived from the Phoenician letter lamed (or lāmed). It originally meant “goad”. 

Lambda represents “l” sound in modern English. In physics, the lowercase letter lambda (λ) used to denote the wavelength. In measure theory that is a branch of maths, a lowercase lambda represents the Lebesgue measure. Lambda calculus or λ-calculus is derived from the Greek letter lambda.

The uppercase and lowercase lambda are used in many areas such as neurobiology, criminology, electrochemistry, ecology, electronics engineering, science, solid-state electronics, politics, astrophysics, etc. The symbol of the letter Lambda shows the cosmological constant in cosmology.

Mu Greek Alphabet

Mu is the 12th letter of the Greek alphabet. The uppercase symbol is Μ, while the lowercase symbol is μ. It has the value of 40 in the Greek numeral. It is derived from the Phoenician letter mem (or mēm). The capital Mu (M) is the same as the Latin M.

The lowercase symbol is commonly used in academic fields such as math, physics, pharmacology, engineering, computer science, biology, chemistry etc. The lowercase Mu (μ) is used to denote the population mean in statistics as well as magnetic permeability. It also represents coefficient of friction and micron (micrometer). elementary particles, linear density, and muon in physics are denoted by the lowercase Mu.

The symbol “μ” is also used to represent a measure and integrating factor, Möbius function. Mimalization, and Ramanujan–Soldner constant are denoted by “μ”  in math. There are other uses of this letter in orbital mechanics, music (as Mu major chord), and linguistics. It is not used today because it is identical to Latin M. 

Nu Greek Alphabet

Nu is the 13th letter of the Greek alphabet. The uppercase symbol is Ν, while the  lowercase symbol is ν. it represents the number of 50 in the Greek numerals. It is derived from the Phoenician language nun (or nūn), which was used to mean serpent. 

The uppercase Nu (N)  isn’t used now because it looks like the Latin N. The lowercase nu is used in various areas like statistics, thermodynamics, physics, material science and chemistry. The lowercase letter Nu stands for Polymerase (DNA directed) nu In biology. 

The lower-case letter Nu “ν” is used in the Modal μ-calculus in theoretical computer science. It also represents the degree of freedom in statistics, neutrino, kinematic viscosity, and the frequency of a wave in physics. In chemistry, the letter is used as a symbol for the stoichiometric coefficient. 

XI In Greek Alphabet

Xi or Csi is the 14th letter of the Greek alphabet. The uppercase symbol is Ξ, while the lowercase symbol is ξ. It represents number 60 in the Greek numeral. In both ancient and modern languages, the letter is pronounced as “ksi”. The csi/xi is derived from the Phoenician language sāmek, which meant fish. 

The capital letter (Ξ) is used in statistical mechanics and particle physics. the lowercase xi (ξ) represents the original Riemann Xi function, the damping ratio and the extent of a chemical reaction. The lowercase letter is also used as a symbol for the initial mass function and the correlation function in astronomy.

Omicron In Greek Alphabet

Omicron is the 15th letter of the Greek alphabet. The uppercase symbol is Ο, while the lowercase symbol is ο. It represents number 70 in the Greek numeral. It is derived from the Phoenician letter ayin (ayn or ain), which was shaped like a circle. it meant “eye” in Phoenician language. 

Uppercase and lowercase omicron are used only in mathematics. Omicron is also known as the little O. Omicron is widely used as a symbol of the fifteenth star in a constellation group. Omicron Persei (or ο Persei) is another star system in the constellation of Perseus.

Pi In Greek Alphabet

Pi is the sixteenth letter of the Greek alphabet. The uppercase symbol is  Π, while the lowercase symbol is π. It represents number 80 in the Greek numerals. It is pronounced as “p”. It is derived from the Phoenician letter pē, which meant mouth. 

The capital letter pi is used in mathematics and chemistry. The lowercase letter pi (π) has been used as a symbol for mathematical constant. The lowercase letter pi is used in microeconomics and macroeconomics as well. This symbol is also called Archimedes’ constant or Ludolph’s number. 

In particle physics, pi is used to represent pion or pi meson. In maths, the greek symbol pi (π) is approximately 3.14159265. The lowercase letter pi is used to denote the homotopy group and prime-counting function in mathematics. In science and engineering, the uppercase pi (Π) is used to indicate the viscous stress tensor and the osmotic pressure.

Rho Greek Alphabet

Rho is the 17th letter of the Greek alphabet. The uppercase symbol is Ρ, while the lowercase symbol is ρ. It represents 100 in the Greek numeral. IT is derived from the Phoenician letter rēš. It meant head. The lowercase rho (ρ) is used in economics, mathematics, ecology, molecular biology, computer programming and statistics.

In mathematics, this Greek symbol refers to Dickman’s function, the plastic number, the prime constant. In physics. It is used to represent “density”, “resistivity”. In particle physics, It is also used in “a rho meson” which is a short-lived hadronic particle.

Sigma Greek Alphabet

Sigma is the 18th letter of the Modern Greek alphabet. The uppercase symbol is Σ, while the lowercase symbol is σ. It is used to represent the “s” sound in Ancient and Modern Greek.  It has the value of 200 in the numeral system. It has its roots from the Phoenician letter šīn. It meant tooth.

The uppercase sigma (Σ) means to sum up in mathematics. The lowercase sigma (σ) is used to represent standard deviation in math and statistics. It is used to represent a shielding constant in chemistry and sum of divisors in math. Here is one of the math problems with Sigma:

Sum What?

Sum whatever is after the Sigma:



so we sum n

But What Values of n ?

The values are shown below

and above the Sigma:





it says n goes from 1 to 4,

which is 1, 2, 3 and 4

OK, Let’s Go …

So now we add up 1,2,3 and 4:




 n = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10

Tau Greek Alphabet

Tau is the 19th letter of the Greek alphabet. The uppercase symbol is Τ, while  the lowercase symbols is τ. It has the value of 300 in the Greek numeral. It is derived from the letter tāw in the Phoenician alphabet. It is the last letter of the  Phoenician alphabet. The Roman T and Cyrillic Т are derived from the letter Tau. 

Tau would be equal to two times pi, or about 6.283. it would help learning radians in an easier way. The lowercase letter is used in biology, physics, mathematics, mechanics, topology. In physics, tau (Τ) is used to refer to torque, tauon, and shear stress. 

The lowercase letter tau (τ) is used as a symbol for a specific tax amount in economics. Tau was used to symbolize “life” in ancient times too. The uppercase form of the letter looks like the Latin and English letter T. 

Upsilon Greek Alphabet

Upsilon is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet. The uppercase symbol is Υ, while the lowercase symbol is υ. It has the value of number 400 in Greek numeral. It was derived from wāw in the Phoenician language. It meant “hook”.

V and Y and, much later, U and W are derived from the Greek letter Upsilon. the uppercase is used to represent the upsilon function in mathematics. The lowercase is used as a general variable. In astrology, the same letter is used for the sign of Aries.

Phi Greek Alphabet

Phi is the 21st letter of the Modern Greek alphabet. The uppercase symbol is Φ, while the lowercase symbol is φ. It represents the value of 500 in Greek numerals. The sound changed to “f” some time in the 1st century AD. In English, φ is pronounced like “f” but spelled ‘ph’.

The lowercase letter phi (φ) is used to represent the golden ratio. Besides, the capital letter (Φ) is used in mathematics, statistics, electrical engineering. The lowercase letter phi (φ) is also used to indicate wave functions, the magnetic flux in physics. 

Chi Greek Alphabet

Chi is the 22nd letter of the Greek alphabet. The uppercase symbol is Χ, while the lowercase symbol is χ. It has the value of 600 in the Greek numeral. The letters are generally used in mathematics, statistics, chemistry, engineering. the Roman X and Cyrillic Х are derived from the Greek Chi.

The upper-case letter Χ is used as the symbol for The name of Jesus Christ in Christianity, as in X-mas etc. The lower-case letter χ is used as the symbol for The chi-square distribution in statistics. The electric susceptibility. It also represents The Euler characteristic in algebraic topology. 

Psi Greek Alphabet

Psi is the 23rd letter of the Modern Greek alphabet. The uppercase symbol is Ψ, while the lowercase symbol is ψ. It has the value of 700 in the Greek numeral. It is the sound “ps” as in “lips”.  It is one of the four consonants in the Greek alphabet that produce a double sound. 

Psi is the base for the letter Cyrillic Ѱ. It is used to indicate the polygamma function and the gamma function. It is also used to represent the super golden ratio, and the division polynomials in mathematics. 

Omega Greek Alphabet

Omega is the 24th and last letter of the Greek alphabet. The uppercase symbol is Ω, while the lowercase symbol is ω. It has the value of 800 in the Greek numeral. It represents the long “o” sound, as in “obey”, while Omicron represents the short “o” sound. 

Omega is used to denote the end/the last. in chemistry, it is used as a symbol for oxygen-18. The capital omega (Ω) is used to represent ohm in physics. The uppercase letter is used in the fields of in mathematics, computer science and molecular biology. The lowercase omega (ω) is used in biochemistry, chemistry, physics, maths, computer science, sociology.

The lower case letter omega (ω) stands for the fitness in biology, frequency in the structural dynamics. It is also used to refer to the first uncountable ordinal number in math. The letter omega also appears as a symbol for the phonological word in linguistics.

How to Pronounce Greek Vowel Sounds?

Vowel sounds play an important role in Pronunciation in Greek language. There are The one-letter vowels, they are similar to some sounds in English language. There are double-vowel combinations in Greek. These types of vowel sounds are pronounced as follows:

The one-letter vowels are α, ε, η, ι, ο, ω, υ:

  • α sounds like a, as in the word “ant.”
  • ε sounds like e, as in the word “bed.”
  • η, ι, υ (all of them) sound like ee, as in the word “feet.”
  • ο and ω sound like ο, as in the word “fox.”

There are also double-vowel combinations in Greek: αι, ει, οι, υι, ου:

  • αι sounds exactly like ε, as in the word “bed.”
  • ει, οι, and υι sound exactly like η, ι, υ, as in the word “feet.”
  • ου sounds like οο, as in the word “pool.”

The last and most tricky double-vowel combinations are αυ, ευ, and ηυ:

  • αυ is pronοunced either as “af” or as “av.”
  • ευ is pronοunced either as “ef” or as “ev.”
  • ηυ is pronounced as “if” or as “iv.”


 A diphthong is a combination of two vowel sounds in a single syllable. The Diphthongs are αι, αυ, ει, ευ, οι, ου, ηυ, υι, ᾳ, ῃ, ῳ. They are pronounced as follows:

  • αι as in kite
  • αυ as ou in power
  • ει as in fat
  • υι as in lit
  • οι as in soil
  • ου as in troop
  • ευ as ĕh-oo *
  • ηυ as ĕh-oo *

How To Pronounce Greek Consonant Sounds?

Greek consonants are pronounced the same way as their corresponding English consonants. There are also the double consonant combinations γκ (g), γγ (g), μπ (b), ντ (d), τσ (ts), and τζ (j)

Greek consonants are divided into voiced consonants and unvoiced consonants, depending on whether we need to use our vocal cords or not. The voiced sounds are β, γ, δ, ζ, λ, μ, ν, ρ, along with the double consonant combinations μπ, ντ, γγ, γκ, and τζ.

The voiceless sounds are θ, κ, π, σ, τ, φ, χ, along with  the double consonant combination τσ. The letters ξ and ψ are called “double consonants” in Greek because they represent two consonant sounds each (ξ = κς  and ψ = πς). The letters ξ and ψ are voiceless. 

The Greek consonants are also divided according to  the part of the mouth that is used to produce them. They are divided into 6 groups: 

  • Labial (χειλικά; hiliká) π, β, φ, as well as the double consonant combination μπ.
  • Palatal (ουρανικά; uraniká) κ, γ, χ, as well as γγ and γκ.
  • Dental (οδοντικά; odondiká) τ, δ, θ, as well as ντ, τζ, and τσ.
  • Nasal (ρινικά; riniká) μ and ν.
  • Liquid (υγρά; igrá) λ and ρ.
  • Sibilant (συριστικά; siristiká) σ and ζ.

Stressed or unstressed Syllable in Greek

The word is divided into parts. These parts are called syllables. The word is at least one syllable which is called monosyllabic word, like “can”. A word can be more than one syllable, like “beautiful” 3 syllables. If the syllable is pronounced clearer and louder it is called stressed syllable. Monosyllabic words are not stressed. 

In Greek, only the last three syllables of the word can be stressed. This means that the stressed syllable would be one of the last three regardless how many syllables the word is. There is an accent mark to be placed over the stressed syllable, for example the greek word Αθηνά

If the word is one letter vowel, α, ε, η, ι, ο, υ, ω, the stressed vowel looks  ά, έ, ή, ί, ό, ύ, ώ.  The digraphs have the stress mark placed over the second vowel, καρπούζι (watermelon) and αύριο (tomorrow). As for the diphthongs, if it is stressed, the mark is to be placed over the first vowel.

As it is mentioned above the monosyllabic words are not stresses. However, there are some exceptions to this rule. In Greek, as in English, Some words are spelled exactly the same but they have different meanings, which is called homophones. In Greek, if the words are monosyllabic and homophones; one of them is to be stressed to avoid confusion.

Here is an example: 

  • που – πού

The unstressed που means the conjunction “that” in English. While the stressed πού means the interrogative “where”. 

Short And Long Greek Vowels

As in English language, Greek has short and long vowel sounds. There is a short [o], is referred to by the letter omicron (ο), and a longer [o:], is referred to by the letter omega (ω). Omicron is pronounced as in British English “hot”, whereas omega is pronounced as in “cow”, with the mouth a bit more open than in omicron.

There is a short [e], denoted by the letter epsilon (ε), and a longer [ε:], denoted by the letter eta (η). Epsilon is pronounced as in “net”, whereas eta is pronounced as the first constituent of the glide [εi] in “cake”, but longer. there are another three vowels, [a], [i], and [y], which can be pronounced as either short or long.

 The letter alpha (α) represents either the short [a] as in “farmer”, or a longer [a:]. The letter iota (ι) represents either a short [i] or a longer [i:], as in “heet”. finally, the letter upsilon (υ) represents either a short [y], which is a rounded [i] as in French “une”, or a longer [y:]. Diphthongs are always long, except when the diphthongs αι or οι appear at the very end of nouns, adjectives, verbs, they are short.

AS it is mentioned before, In Greek, the stress can only be placed over any of the last three syllables of the word. There are some rules to know which syllable is to be stressed. Ultima (λήγουσα) means the last syllable in the word. Penult  (παραλήγουσα)is the second-last syllable. Antepenult (προπαραλήγουσα) is the third syllable from the end.

IF the Ultima is a long vowel sound, the antepenult can’t be stressed. Only an acute accent mark is possible on the antepenult. A stressed long penult receives an acute accent mark if the ultima is long. A stressed long penult receives a circumflex if the ultima is short. The grave accent can appear only on the ultima.

Aspiration The Sound [h] in English

Ancient Greek had the sound [h] as in English language, too, at the beginning of some words. In ancient Greek time, there was only uppercase letters. So, the word ΙΠΠΟΣ (“horse”) was written ΗΙΠΠΟΣ. It was so confusing because the same letter, eta, to represent the long vowel [ε:], and there were words that started with the vowel eta, followed by another vowel, as in ΗΕΡΙΟΣ (“in the air”). 

The sound of aspiration (the [h]), however, still existed in the language: as an initial sound in words starting with a vowel or with the consonant rho (ρ, [hr]), and within the so-called aspirated consonants θ [th], φ [ph], and χ [kh]. 

Greek grammarians split up the letter H into two halves, one like this: |- and one like that: -|. They used the first symbol to indicate the aspiration, and the second for the absence of it. yet, it didn’t last this way and was changed.

Greek Numerals

The Ancient Greeks used letters to represent numbers and the physical sciences. The alphabet system allocated a numeric value to individual letters of the Greek alphabet with some additional symbols. The numbers 1, 2, 3, … had not yet been invented, which were later created by the Arabs.

The Greek numerical system represented all integers from 1 to 999 with the Greek letters, along with the help of punctuation marks, which were:

The stress mark ‘ : after the letter

The comma , : before the letter

The dot . : between letters

The diaeresis ¨ : above the letter.

The Greek numerals are also known by the names Milesian numerals, Alexandrian numerals, or alphabetic numerals. there were two Greek numerals, the acrophonic or alphabetic numerals. The acrophonic system was used until around 100 BCE and inspired the Roman numeral system. 

Here’s a list of acrophonic numerals:

Acrophonic Numeral

Modern Number

































Starting in the 4th century BC, the acrophonic system was replaced with a quasi-decimal alphabetic system, sometimes called the Ionic numeral system. Each unit (1, 2, …, 9) was assigned a separate letter, each tens (10, 20, …, 90) a separate letter, and each hundreds (100, 200, …, 900) a separate letter.

They extended the 24-letter Greek alphabet to 27-letter Greek alphabet by using three obsolete letters: fau ϝ, (also used are stigma ϛ or, in modern Greek, στ) for 6, qoppa ϟ for 90, and sampi ϡ for 900. To differentiate between  numerals and letters they are followed by the “keraia”, a symbol similar to an acute sign.

This alphabetic system operates on the additive principle in which the numeric values of the letters are added together to form the total. For example: 142 is represented as ρʹμβʹ. Here is a list for the numeral alphabet:

















































































The Greeks also used the myriad to denote 10,000 (Μʹ) and the myriad myriad for one hundred million (ΜΜʹ). Using this alphabetic system, the Greeks did not use place value position like we do, so 653 could be written as χʹνʹγʹsince the χʹ represents 600 regardless of its placement.



Greek numeral






πέντε (peda)



δέκα (deka)



ἧκατόν (hekaton)



χίλιοι (khilioi)



μύριοι (myrioi)

The Greek Alphabet in Math

The Greek alphabet stood for well known constants, variables, functions, and so on. Here is a list of the Greek alphabet used in math:










any angle, reference angle, direction angle (x-axis), significance level (probability of a type I error); sometimes: proportional to



Beta function, Beta distribution


any angle, direction angle (y-axis), probability of a type II error, beta distribution, regression coefficient



Gamma function, Gamma distribution


any angle, direction angle (z-axis), Euler’s constant, gamma distribution



any change in a quantity


Kronecker’s delta, Dirac delta function, infinitesimal change



any positive quantity (especially a very small one)



Riemann zeta function





any angle





curvature of a function



(Physics) Half-life, (physics) wave-length, (differential equations) zeros of a characteristic equation, (linear algebra) eigenvalues, (probability) parameter in the Poisson distribution, Lambda Calculus



(statistics) population mean, (mensuration) SI prefix “micro-“





Riemann Xi Function





product operator, () Coproduct operator


Pi (constant), the ratio between a circle’s diameter and circumference approximately , Prime counting function



Degree of a vertex, radius in spherical coordinates, radius of curvature of a function



summation operator


standard deviation



Torsion of a curve, suggested as a constant representing the ratio between a circle’s radius and circumference, equal to 2π





φ (), angle between z-axis and radius in spherical coordinates



(statistics) Chi-squared test



Polygamma Function



Reasons for using Greek Letters in Math

There are various reasons for different Greek letters to be used for constants in equations. They used letters from the Greek alphabet as symbols to represent various variables. Many letters from the Greek alphabet are used as constants within equations and formulas. 

Π, Θ , as well as α, β, θ are widely used representing the values or constants for a variety of values. They are more distinctive than the normal alphabet in everyday use. they are much easier to recognized from  the language text within mathematical work being written.

Greek Latin Alphabet

The Latin alphabet is certainly the world’s most recognizable form of written language in the Western world. Greek alphabets formed the Etruscan alphabet which is the direct predecessor of the alphabet used by the Romans to write the Latin language. 

The Greeks established their colonies in Today’ Italy, the people who lived there were called The Etruscans. They spread their culture and their language throughout their colonies. They introduced introduced the Euboean alphabet, the alphabet used by the Greeks who lived in Chalcis and Eretria. 

The Etruscans made some changes to the Euboean alphabet. They changed Sigma ”Σ,” to a symbol much closer to today’s English “s”. By time,  the Etruscan alphabet, which is originally derived from the Greek Euboean alphabet, became the father of the Latin alphabet itself.

Greek To English Alphabet

The influence of classical Greek on the English language was indirect. English got affected through Latin and French languages. It is said that more than 150,000 words of English are derived from Greek words. These include common words along with technical and scientific terms.

Some words are usually of Greek origin. For example, Words that starts with ‘ph-‘,  philosophy, physical, photo, are from Greek Origin. Many English words are formed from Greek morpheme, the smallest unit of a word. 

Western culture got affected by the Greek mythology. Some English expression are derived from ancient mythology and beliefs. The ‘Midas touch’ is a common expression derived from Greek mythology which means a near-magical ability to succeed at anything one undertakes. 


Greek alphabet is the origin of all modern European alphabets. It was developed through time. Some letters have been added, others have been taken of. There are different fonts and writing styles associated with the Greek alphabet. The Greek alphabet has 24 letters. Greek alphabet is still used in Maths, science, physics,…etc. 

History of The Latin Alphabet

The Latin alphabet is also called the Roman alphabet. It is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. The Latin, or Roman, alphabet was originally adapted from the Etruscan alphabet during the 7th century. The term Latin script is often used for the entire family of alphabets.

The Latin alphabet is used in various forms by many languages, like Romance languages, Germanic, Celtic, some Slavic languages, Amerindian, Indigenous Australian, Austronesian, Vietnamese, Malay and Indonesian languages. Those languages discard letters from or add letters to the classical Latin alphabet.

The Latin alphabet has been developed through ages. There was The Classical Latin alphabet. Then There were some changes in the medieval times. In ancient Roman times there were two main types of Latin script, capital letters and cursive.

What is The Origin of The Latin Alphabet?

There are different opinions about the origin of the Latin alphabet. Some go with the opinion that the Latin alphabet was borrowed directly from the Greek. Others believe that it was partially borrowed from the Etruscan, a language spoken by the Etruscans in Etruria, Italy until about the 1st century AD.

The Etruscan alphabet developed from a Western variety of the Greek alphabet brought to Italy by Euboean Greek. Cumae, a Greek colony, brought the western variant of the Greek alphabet to the Latins in the 7th century BC in southern Italy. From the Cumae alphabet, the Etruscan alphabet was derived and the Latins finally adopted 21 of the original 26 Etruscan letters.

The Latin alphabet spread from Italy, along with the Latin language, to the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea with the expansion of the Roman Empire. The earliest known inscriptions in the Latin alphabet date from the 6th century BC. It was adapted from the Etruscan alphabet during the 7th century BC. Here is a table to show the ancient Latin alphabet:

Latin was originally written either from right to left, left to right, or alternating between those two directions. By the 5th or 4th century BC it was normally written from left to right.

Development of the Latin Alphabet

The Latins originally adopted 21 of the original 26 Etruscan letters. The sounds /g/ and /k/ were not distinguished in the oldest Latin texts. Before a vowel or between vowels I was pronounced /j/. Elsewhere it was pronounced /i/. The letters k, y, and z used only for writing words of Greek origin.

The letter J, and U and W were added in the Middle Ages. The lower case letters developed in the Middle Ages from New Roman Cursive writing. The old capital Roman letters were only used at that time for formal writings and writing documents.

The rules of capitalization have been changed over time, also rules were different from language to the other. Some languages used capital letters only for the beginning of the paragraph or for the proper nouns, while other languages used them for most of the nouns like the today German language.

The Latin alphabet spread from Italy, along with the Latin language, to the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea with the expansion of the Roman Empire. The eastern half of the Roman Empire, including Greece, Asia Minor, the Levant, and Egypt, continued to use Greek as a common language (lingua franca).

The western half of the Empire spoke Latin. The western Romance languages, including Spanish, French, Catalan, Portuguese and Italian, derived from Latin and continued to use and adapt the Latin alphabet. The Latin alphabet spread to the peoples of northern Europe With the spread of Western Christianity.

As late as 1492, only the languages spoken in western, northern and central Europe  used the Latin alphabet. The Greek alphabet was still in use by Greek-speakers around the eastern Mediterranean. The Arabic alphabet was widespread within Islam, both among Arabs and non-Arab nations.

The Latin alphabet spread to the Americas, Australia, and parts of Asia, Africa, and the Pacific with European colonization, along with the Spanish, Portuguese, English, French, and Dutch languages.

The modern Latin alphabet consists of 52 letters, including both upper and lower case, plus 10 numerals, punctuation marks and a variety of other symbols such as %, @ and &. These are the 26 letters we are familiar with today. Here is a list of the modern Latin alphabet:

In 1928, Turkey adopted the Latin alphabet for the Turkish language. Later on it was displaced. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, several of the newly-independent Turkic-speaking republics adopted the Latin alphabet. In the 1970 s, the People’s Republic of China developed their own alphabet into the Latin alphabet.

Many languages added the basic Latin alphabet with a variety of accented letters.  Its main usage is to change the phonetic value of the letter to which it is added, but it may also be used to modify the pronunciation of a whole word or syllable, or to distinguish between homographs. Here is a list of the accented letters:

By the 1960 s, the International Standards Organisation (ISO) simplified the Latin alphabet in their standard. This action is done based on popular usage. Later standards issued by the ISO, have continued to define the 26 x 2 letters of the English alphabet as the basic Latin alphabet with extensions to handle other letters in other languages.

Greek symbols and Greek-to-Latin alphabet conversion

How to Pronounce The Latin Alphabet?

Here is a list of the Latin alphabet along with the Greek name and English pronunciation:

Old English Latin Alphabet

The Old English Latin alphabet generally consisted of 24 letters, and was used for writing from the 9th to the 12th centuries. Most texts were written in West Saxon, one of the four main dialects. Here is a list of the Old English alphabet:

Roman Numerals

Roman numerals are a system for representing numbers with letters of the Latin, or Roman, alphabet. Several letters from the Latin alphabet are used for the representation of roman numerals. There was a need to create a standardized system that could be used for trade and communications. It was widely used throughout Europe as the standard writing system until the late middle ages.

Modern Roman numerals use seven letters to represent different numbers. These letters are I = 1; V = 5; X = 10; L = 50; C = 100; D = 500; M = 1,000. The numerals can be written as either capital or lowercase letters.  A bar over a numeral multiplies its value by 1,000: for example:

  •  ǐ (1×1000)= 1000,
  • Ĺ(50×1000)= 50,000.

When a numeral is followed by one of equal or lesser value, their values are added together. In other words, if a symbol holding a greater value is placed after another symbol of greater or equal value, it will be added. These are some examples:

  •  II=2
  •  VI(5+1)=6
  • MCI (500+5-+1)= 551

A numeral is never used more than three times in a row. Instead of repeating the numeral a fourth time, the value is expressed by a smaller numeral followed by a larger numeral. In other words, if a symbol of a smaller value is placed before a greater value symbol, it will be subtracted. Here are some examples:

  • IV(5-1)=4
  • VX((10-5)= 5
  • DM (1000-500)=500

The letters I, X, C can be repeated thrice in succession. Additionally, L, V, D cannot be repeated or the number is considered to be invalid.

To convert Arabic numbers to Roman Numerals, we split the numbers into their least expandable form, write their respective Roman letters and add/subtract them. For example, 2523 is converted to MMDXXIII.

Here is the Roman numeral chart:

Latin Alphabet Vs English Alphabet

  • The Latin alphabet has only 23 letters while English has 26.
  • There is no j,w and capital U/small v in the Latin alphabet.
  • The letter c is never soft in the Latin alphabet; it always sounds /k/.
  • The letter g is never soft; it always sounds /g/ as in goal.
  • q never stands alone; it always has a u with it, and the two letters make one sound (qu = kw).
  • The letter s never sounds /z/ in the Latin alphabet.
  • The letter v always sounds /w/ in the Latin alphabet.
  • The letter z sounds /dz/ in the Latin alphabet.
  • th, ph, and ch, sound like  strong t, strong p, and guttural c, but it is acceptable to pronounce them as modern English th, ph, and k, respectively.
  • Vowel letters in the Latin alphabet sound completely different from those in English. They don’t have variations.
  • a always as the a in English ball
  • ä as in aha
  • e always as the e in English bet
  • ë as the English a in cake
  • i always as the i in English bin
  • o always as the o in English coffee
  • ö as the oa in English boat
  • u always as the u in English good
  • ü as the oo in English book
  • y as in the y in English cry but more rounded
  • y like the French u or German ü
  • There are six diphthongs in the Latin alphabet: ae, eu, au, oe, ei and ui.
  • There are two semivowels in the Latin alphabet , i and u/v. When these begin words or occur between two vowels, they have the value of a consonant.
  • In dividing words into syllables in the Latin Alphabet, a consonant after a vowel goes with the following syllable.

How Many Languages Use the Latin Alphabet?

At least 100 languages today use the Roman alphabet as its primary orthography. These languages include all of the languages of Western Europe, which include English, French, German, Spanish, Portuguese, Irish, Dutch, etc.

several languages of the Western Hemisphere such as Quechua and Hawaiian, several Eastern European languages such as Czech, Polish, Croatian, and to some extent Macedonian and Serbian as an alternative script.

several African languages such as Swahili, Afrikaans, and Zulu, and even some Asian languages, particularly Turkish, Vietnamese, Bahasa Malay, Bahasa Indonesia, which have replaced the Chinese and Arabic scripts almost entirely, if not altogether, and Tagalog.

How is the Latin Alphabet Used Today?

As it is mentioned in the preceding paragraphs, around 100 languages use the Latin alphabet in writing. Each language uses a different set of alphabet. Some languages add the to the Latin alphabet, other languages use fewer sets of the Latin alphabet. This is the modern Latin alphabet as used to write English.

Latin Calligraphy Alphabet

The word calligraphy means artistic or stylized handwriting. Latin has different styles of writing. Most calligraphy is done with pen and ink on paper. It didn’t exist before the 15th century. Here are some of these writing styles:

Rustic Capitals

It is one of the stylized handwriting. It was used between the 1st and 9th centuries AD. It was used throughout the Roman Empire for books and occasionally for formal documents. A pen with a broad end is used for this style. The Rustic Capitals consist only of capital letters. Here’s a sample of the Rustic Capital:

Cursive Capitals

It is another stylized Latin handwriting. It was used in the 1st century for most documents. A pen, cut to a narrow point, is used in this style of writing. Some of the letters in this style are used in lowercase letters, small letters, and joined to the following one. Here’s a sample text in cursive capital style:

Uncial, Half Uncial, and Cursive Minuscule

Unical is another style of handwriting. It was used during the 4th and 5th centuries for books and a new business hand. A square-edged pen, perhaps cut at an oblique angle, was used for this handwriting. From the 6th century,  a pen without an oblique seemed to be used. It was not in use in the 12th century.

Half Uncial then started to be in use. IT was less popular than Unical. Letters in this style of handwriting used lower case letters, small letters, except for the N. The distinguishing letter forms in half uncial are a, b, d, g, h, l, m, r, and s.

The  cursive minuscule is the style of handwriting used in the 4th century. A pointed pen is used for this handwriting, but the pen was held more or less straight. It uses basically the same letter forms as half uncial.

Ancient Latin Alphabet Font

There are various fonts of the Latin alphabet. There are some websites that offer free downloadable fonts and free font generators. Here’s some samples for these fonts:

Common Characters Between Latin, Greek and Cyrillic Alphabets

Latin, Greek and Cyrillic share 11 letters. These 11 letters are: A, B, E, H, K, M, O, P, T, X and Y. They could have different pronunciations. It is already mentioned above that the Latin and Cyrillic alphabets are derived from the Greek alphabet, so it is normal to find some letters in the three alphabets.

The following diagram shows these letters. The Circle of the right is for the Greek alphabet. The circle on the left is for the Latin alphabet. The circle at the for the Cyrillic alphabet.

The Latin alphabet is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. It is originally derived from the Greek alphabet. It consists of 23 letters. There are different Latin handwriting styles. Letters of Latin are also used in the Roman numerals. The Latin alphabet has gone through various changes throughout time.

The English Language has 44 English sounds. They can be divided into two main categories: consonants and vowels. A consonant sound is a sound where the airflow is stopped, either partially or completely, when the sound is uttered. 

On the other hand, a vowel sound is a sound where the airflow is unstopped when the sound is produced. The vowel sounds are the rhyme, or shift of our language. Monophthongs and diphthongs are the two categories of vowel sounds. Vowel sounds are also divided into long vowel sounds and short vowel sounds.

In English, a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes y are the vowel letters. The rest of the letters in the alphabet represent consonants such as b, d, g, n, r, s, and t. some consonants produce more than one sound.

What is a Vowel?

A vowel is a speech sound where the mouth is open and the tongue doesn’t touch the top of the mouth, the teeth, etc. so that the flow of air is not limited. It is necessary to know that there is a difference between a vowel sound and a vowel letter in the alphabet.

The English vowel sounds are written with letters in the English alphabet. All English words have vowel letters. They are vowels in English: A, E, I, O, U, and sometimes Y.  Y is “sometimes” a vowel because the letter Y presents both vowel and consonant sounds, like ‘fry’. 

Six vowel letters are used to indicate the 13-15 vowel sounds in English. This means the vowel sounds are more than letters in the English alphabet. Monophthongs and diphthongs are the two main categories of vowel sounds.

Vowels for Kids
Vowels for Kids


A monophthong is simply a vowel. The word mono represents one and phthong represents a sound. This means that monophthong represents one vowel sound in the word. If you notice the position of the tongue, the mouth will stay the same when these words are uttered.

In English – /i:/, /ɪ/, /ʊ/, /u:/, /e/, /ə/, /ɜ:/, /ɔ:/, /æ/, /ʌ/, /ɑ:/ and /ɒ/  are 12 pure vowels or monophthongs. let’s check the list of 12 pure vowel sounds with some examples





heap, leap, feet, seat, read, beat, peak, seek


lift, hit, kit, pick, bill, fill, till, him, pin


Food, Fool, Cool, Cook, look


To, You, New, Who


Bet, Met, Pet, Set, Bend, Lend, Send


The, About, Could, Us


Earl, Pearl, Sir, Worm, worth


Mall, Hall, Shall, Fall, Tall, Wall


hand, Land, Sand, Cat, Mat, Pat, Sat 


But, Up, One, Much


Start, Ask, Large, After


Of, On, From, Not


A diphthong is a mix of two vowel sounds or vowel letters, like the sounds /aɪ/ in pipe /paɪp/ or the letters ou in doubt. The part ‘di’ represents two and the other part represents sounds. Although a diphthong has two different vowel sounds, they stay within the same syllable or unit of sound. 

The best way to know if a word has a diphthong with two vowel sounds, or a monophthong, is to listen to how it sounds when you say it out loud. If the vowel sound changes within the same syllable, it’s most certainly a diphthong.

Let’s check some examples of diphthongs:

long A to long E /eɪ/

long I to long E


long O to long E


long E to Ur


long A to Ur


short A to long U


long O to long U























What is a Diphthong?
What is a Diphthong?


Long and Short Vowel Sounds

The sounds of the letters of the English alphabet can somehow vary. In some cases, it can get tricky. Not all letters produce the same sound in all words. The letters can have different sounds according to how they are used. 

Long and Short Vowels for Kids
Long and Short Vowels for Kids

The most popular sound for each vowel is its “short” sound. The short ă, pronounced /æ/ as in hat. The short ĕ, pronounced /ɛ/ as in bed. The short ĭ, pronounced /ɪ/ as in silk. The short ŏ, pronounced /ɑ/ as in crop. The short ŭ, pronounced /ʌ/ as in mug. 

“Long vowels” are the alphabet sounds when the vowel, “says its name”.  We call them ‘long’ because we hold them barely longer than short sounds. Yet, they are totally different sounds; They are not a longer version of the same sound. 

Long A (ā), pronounced /eɪ/ as in hate or fate. Long E (ē), pronounced /iː/ as in eat or heat. Long I (ī), pronounced /aɪ/ as in kite or night. Long O (ō), pronounced /oʊ/ as in coats, note or coat. Long U (ū), pronounced /juː/ as in cute or /uː/ as in glue.

There are some rules for what sound the vowels make in different examples. 

Vowel Position

Vowel Sound


If a word has only one vowel and ends with a consonant

Vowel makes a short sound

‘a’ in ‘jar’

‘e’ in ‘nest’

‘o’ in ‘not’

‘i’ in ‘kit’

‘u’ in ‘sun’

If a word has two vowels separated by two or more letters

The first vowel makes a short sound

as in ‘apple’

as in ‘octopus’

as in ‘basket’

as in ‘elephant’

as in ‘umbrella’

If  a word ends with the letter ‘e’ (magic ‘e’/ silent ‘e’)

The first vowel makes a long sound

‘hat’ becomes ‘hate’

‘kit’ becomes ‘kite’

‘cub’ becomes ‘cube’ 

as in ‘name’

as in ‘lime’

If  a word has two vowels walking together the first one does 

the talking

The first vowel makes a long sound

The second vowel remains silent

as in ‘pie

as in ‘coat’

as in ‘grain’

as in ‘value

as in ‘meet’

Let’s check the list of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA):




cat, bad, sad, sand, land, hand


calm, palm, father, start, dark (British English)


grass, can’t, half, bath (American English)


god, pot, top, spot (British English only)


but, cut, gun, come, some, glove


get, bed, set, sell, fell, men


pit, bin, fill, will, village, bullet

/i/ or /iː/

he, she, see, keep, family, hyperbole


saw, straw, dawn, fall, call, wall


put, full, good, wood, could, would


you, who, chew, shoe, cool, tool


a, syllable, moment, terrible, felony, papyrus


mister, standard, editor (Am. English only)

/ɜː/, /ɝː/

curve, purge, herd, serve, 


A consonant is a sound that is produced by blocking air from flowing out of the mouth with the teeth, tongue, lips or palate. Consonants may come alone or in clusters but have to be connected to a vowel to form a syllable.

English has 21 consonant letters, for 24 consonant sounds in most English accents:  H, J, K, L, M B, C, D, F, G, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, W, X,  Z and (sometimes Y). The letter ‘y’ produces a consonant sound if at the beginning of a word ‘yellow’ but a vowel sound if at the end of a word ‘sunny’. 

Consonant Digraphs

Digraphs are two letters that produce just one sound. These are the seven basic consonant digraphs; ch, ck, th, sh, ph, ng, wh. Yet, some digraphs have more than one pronunciation.  ‘ghosts’ are some digraphs like ‘wr’ and ‘gn’  because the first letter is not pronounced. Let’s check the list of the digraphs with examples:

What is a Diagraph?
What is a Diagraph?





Makes the sound /t∫/ in Chair , /k/ in chorus and /sh/ in chute


which makes the sound  /k/ sound as in click


which makes the sound /f/ sound as in stuff


which makes the sound /g/ sound as in yoghurt or /f/ as in enough


which makes the /n/ sound as in reign and foreign


which makes the /n/ sound as in know and knot


which makes the /l/ sound as in hall


which makes the /m/ sound as in calm and palm


which makes the /m/ sound as in dumb and thumb


which makes the /ŋ/ sound as in ring and hung


which makes the /f/ sound as in photo, and elephant


which makes the /ʃ/ sound as in splash and sheet


which makes the /s/ sound as in less and grass


which makes the /ʃ/ sound as in assure and issue 


which makes the /θ/ sound as in three and myth


which makes the /ð/ sound as in that and them


which makes the /w/ sound as in where and where


which makes the /r/ sound as in wreck


which makes the /z/ sound as in jazz and buzz


Which makes the sound /ʤ/ as in edge and wedge


which makes the /nʤ/ sound as angel


which makes the /ŋk/ sound as in link

Consonant Blends

A consonant blend occurs when two or more consonants are blended together, yet each sound may be heard in the blend. The most common beginning consonant blends include: pl, pr, sl, sm, sp and st, bl, br, cl, cr, dr, fr, tr, fl, gl, gr. Blends can also appear at the end of words. 

What is a Consonant Blend?
What is a Consonant Blend?

Blends are most of the time categorized into r-blends, such as “br” and “cr”, s-blends, such as “sc” and “sk” and l-blends, such as “bl” and “cl”. There are also blends that include three consonants. Popular three consonant blends include str, spl, and spr.

Let’s check the list of two letters blends




which make the /bl/ sound as in blend and black 


which make the /br/ sound as in bread and brave


which make the /cl/ sound as in clap and clip


which make the /cr/ sound as in crab and crew


which make the /dr/ sound as in drum and drag


which make the /fl/ sound as in flame and flat


which make the /fr/ sound as in fresh and frame


which make the /gl/ sound as in globe


which make the /gr/ sound as in grammar


which make the /nd/ sound as in bend 


which make the /pl/ sound as in please


which make the /pr/ sound as in print and prey


which make the /sl/ sound as in slim and sleep


which make the /sm/ sound as in smash


which make the /sn/ sound as in snail


which make the /sp/ sound as in spare


which make the /st/ sound as in strange


Consonant Diagraphs for Kids
Consonant Diagraphs for Kids


Consonant Clusters

Consonant cluster refers to two or more consonants positioned side by side in a word. They are also called consonant blends. The longest possible cluster in English is three consonant sounds at the beginning. They can be up to four consonants long at the end of the word.

Let’s check the list of consonant clusters examples:

Three-letter blends



which make the /ʃr/ sound as in shrimp


which make the /spl/ sound as in splendid


which make the /spr/ sound as in spread


which make the /sqw/ sound as in squash


which make the /str/ sound as in string


which make the /θr/ sound as in threw


As in twelfths

Consonants charts




Bin, back


Cat, key


Check, cheese


Dog, doll


Fish, fries


Goat, great


Hotel, hat


Bridge. Jigsaw 


Lemon, ballon


Ment, lamb


Nest, pen


King, ring


Plenty, hippo


Rat, wrist


Sad, dress


Shine, splash


Tent, cart


Thin, length


There, father


Vowel, love


Where, well


Yet, yellow


Zero, prize


Measure, television

What Do You Know about Place and Manner of Articulation of Consonants and Vowels?

Manner of Articulation refers to the “how” of making sounds. There are six different ways or manners of articulation. Place of Articulation refers to the ‘where’ of pronunciation. It is the location where sounds are made. Let’s check the below charts that show the manner and place of articulations of consonants and vowels.

Place and Manner of Articulation
Place and Manner of Articulation



Some Fun Activities For Learning Vowels and Consonants

Short Vowel Craft Stick: Learners say a word by turn with a short vowel sound out loud. The other learners catch up with the correct sound stick.

Picture Sorts: Students hold cards with the sounds and have to match pictures to the correct sounds.

Short or Long? The teacher says a word out loud and the students have to know the sound and whether it is short or long.

Bend letters with pipe cleaners: Kids use the pipe cleaners to make consonant sounds.

Find invisible letters with watercolours: Use a white crayon to draw letters on white paper. Provide the kids with watercolour, ask them to paint the paper, and watch the letters appear.


So, Vowels and consonants are the two main categories in the English language. There is no English word that contains more than three consecutive consonants. Each word contains at least one vowel sound. The English language has short vowel sounds and long vowel sounds. The pronunciation of the sounds is produced according to the place and manner of articulation.