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Native American History

People lived in the United States long before the arrival of Christopher Columbus and the Europeans. These people and cultures are called Native Americans. This article is an overview of Native Americans who lived in the United States.

The first people to live in a land are called indigenous peoples. This means they were the original settlers. The Native Americans are the indigenous people and their culture is the original culture of the United States.

Native American culture spread across the United States and that is notable for its wide variety and diversity of lifestyles, regalia, art forms, and beliefs. The culture of indigenous North America is usually defined by the concept of the Pre-Columbian culture area, namely a geographical region where shared cultural traits occur.

 The northwest culture area, for example, shared common traits such as salmon fishing, woodworking, large villages or towns, and a hierarchical social structure. Cultural features, language, clothing, and customs vary enormously from one tribe to another.

Still, there are certain elements that are encountered frequently and shared by many tribes. Early European American scholars described the Native Americans as having a society dominated by clans.

As they live in tribes, each tribe has its own customs, traditions, and culture. However, they share many characteristics and customs among themselves, such as hunting, trading, fighting, and other characteristics that distinguish them.

There are many Native American tribes, as some may say that the number of tribes reached 574, of which, five tribes were distinguished. We will learn about the most important of these tribes through this article.

The tribes were usually divided based on the area they lived in and so were their cultures, such as their religion, customs, and language. Sometimes smaller tribes were part of a bigger tribe. As good as historians can tell, these tribes were fairly peaceful.

That is prior to the arrival of Columbus and the Europeans. There were hundreds of tribes throughout the United States when Columbus first arrived. Many of them are well known, such as the Apache, Cherokee, and the Navajo.

Apache Tribe

Apache Tribe

The Apache was one of the fiercest Native American tribes. No one is sure what the name Apache meant, but is believed to mean either “enemy” or “fighting men.” Over centuries, the Apache fought their way through many hostile tribes, across much of what would become the western United States.

Eventually, they settled in the mountains of southern Arizona and New Mexico. In the early 1700s, the Apache often fought with the Spanish. These battles were often long and very bloody. Finally, a Spanish leader agreed to stop fighting and set aside certain lands in Texas for the Apache.

To show that the battles were over, an Apache chief buried a hatchet. From this gesture, we get the term “bury the hatchet.”In the early 1800s, the Apache were often in conflict with Mexico.

Their hatred of Mexico was so great that when the United States went to war with Mexico in 1846, the Apache offered American troops safe passage through their lands. The calm between the US and the Apache did not last.

A gold rush brought thousands of miners into Apache land. When the Apache leader, MangasColoradas, was attacked and beaten by miners, the Apache viewed it as a betrayal of the treaty they had signed.

Apache, who were quick to defend their land, fought back against the miners. MangasColoradas was eventually killed. The country in which the Apache established themselves was a difficult place to live in.

It is made up of desert and mountains, and a hot, harsh climate. Years of surviving there toughened the Apache. This toughness and their long history of fighting many other tribes earned them a reputation as savage warriors.

They were among the most dangerous tribes that the US Army ever fought! The next chief after MangasColoradas was the famous Apache warrior, Geronimo. Geronimo spent years fighting both Mexicans and Americans.

Geronimo was never actually an Apache chief. Although he was a fierce warrior, his people considered him too impulsive. He was often too vengeful. They admired his skill in battle, but they did not think he had the qualities of a great chief.

In 1886, Geronimo and fewer than fifty Apaches were surrounded by five thousand troops. At this point, Geronimo was the last Native American who was still resisting US troops. Because he had resisted them so fiercely, US troops viewed him as the evilest of Native Americans.

After their surrender, they were taken to prisons in the southeast. Most of them never saw their homeland again. Geronimo, a proud warrior, spent the last years of his life as a celebrity. He wrote his autobiography and appeared at fairs.

Some Facts about Geronimo: He married the daughter of a famous Apache chief. Cochise Geronimo died after being thrown off of a horse. He played outside in the cold all night before he was found and developed pneumonia, which killed him.

His last words were, “I should have never surrendered. I should have fought until I was the last man.”

The Cherokee Nation Flag

Cherokee Nation

The Cherokee were one of the “Five Civilized Tribes,” located in the southeastern United States. By the 1600s, it is believed that the Cherokee controlled roughly 40,000 square miles in the region of the Appalachian Mountains.

They were located in the present-day states of Georgia, eastern Tennessee, and Western Carolina. The Cherokee Nation Flag is orange.

They fought with the British in both the French and Indian War (1754-63) and the American Revolution (1775-1781). Since they fought with the British, the American colonists saw the Cherokee as a threat to their safety.

They continued to view the Cherokee this way for many years. After the American Revolution, the power of the Cherokee declined. They were also forced to give up some of their lands in the Carolinas.

By the 1800s, they adopted many of the ways of the white settlers on the frontier. They were respected for their advanced civilization. They even had their own alphabet! Their alphabet was developed by Sequoyah, a Cherokee leader.

Each symbol represented a syllable. The alphabet was so easy to learn that almost the entire tribe learned to read within a short time! They also wrote their own constitution, basing their government on that of the United States.

They translated the Bible into the Cherokee language. They even started the first Native American newspaper, the Cherokee Phoenix. In the 1820s, gold was discovered on Cherokee land in Georgia.

At the same time, many white settlers were pouring into the Southeastern United States. When word of the discovery got out, many more settlers came into the area. This increased the desire of the government to get the Cherokee land.

A small number of Cherokees signed a treaty with the government which gave up all of their lands in the eastern United States. Most Cherokee people did not approve of the treaty and eventually took their case to the Supreme Court.

Native American

In 1832, the Court ruled in favor of the Cherokee (a remarkable ruling, considering the racism of many Americans at that time!). The Court ruled that the Cherokee nation was “a nation within a nation.”

That meant that the United States government had no claim over Cherokee land. Unfortunately, the state of Georgia and the President, Andrew Jackson, ignored the ruling. Troops were sent into the Southeast to remove the Cherokee, Creek, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Seminole tribes.

These tribes, who had lived in southeastern North America for centuries, were forced out of their homes. The forced march of the southeastern tribes became known as the Trail of Tears. Cold weather, poor food supplies, and bad treatment caused the deaths of about four thousand Native Americans along the way.

Many of the sick and dying were left where they fell because troops refused to stop for them. They were taken to present-day Oklahoma. At the time, it was considered so desolate that it was unfit for anyone other than Native Americans.

A few Cherokee managed to escape to the mountains of North Carolina. But by 1838, nearly all the Cherokee and other southeastern tribes had been removed from their land. The Trail of Tears was one of the most tragic events in American history.

Chickasaw Tribe

The Chickasaw are a relatively small native tribe. They are located in the Southeast United States and were one of the Five Civilized Tribes. Before they were forced away from their homes during the 1830s, most Chickasaw lived in Mississippi.

The Chickasaw were regarded as fierce warriors. This is probably because they were a small Society and were surrounded by Europeans or other tribes who might pose a threat to them. Many people regarded the Chickasaw as the bravest of the Southeastern Indians.

Training for Chickasaw warriors began in childhood. Boys were taught to fight and also to withstand pain without complaining. War chiefs were very respected and had great authority in Chickasaw villages. They also built fortified towns to withstand attacks.

The Chickasaw never lost a major battle or war. The word Chickasaw translates to “rebel.”          I think the name fits! For many years, the Chickasaw fought the French in Mississippi. The French were angry that the Chickasaw traded for weapons with the English in the Carolinas.

The Chickasaw fought the French in two wars; in the 1720s and 1730s. After France was defeated in the French and Indian War, they no longer posed a serious problem for the Chickasaw.

Relations with the nearby Choctaw Indians also improved in the 1700s. When the American Revolution began, the Chickasaw felt that they should support the English. Their good relations with the English had kept them safe for many years.

The colony of Virginia wrote to the Chickasaw nation and threatened to attack if they supported England. The bold Chickasaw responded by telling them not to bother invading their lands—the Chickasaw would meet them halfway and send them back without their heads!

When the Revolution ended, the Chickasaw established relations with the new United States. The Chickasaw endured the same hardships as many other native societies when white settlers began moving into their lands.

Many white settlers moved into Mississippi in the 1820s. During the 1830s, the Chickasaw were forced out of the Southeast along with the rest of the Five Civilized Tribes. Although the Chickasaw were known for their skill in battle, they also had many other skills.

They were known (and still appreciated) for their beautiful baskets. These were often brightly colored with natural dyes, such as sassafras root. Chickasaw generally stayed in one spot but might migrate according to the seasons.

The Chickasaw built both winter and summer houses. The winter house was the larger of the two. The summer house had two rooms and plenty of ventilation to keep the occupants cool. Chickasaw also liked to play. In addition to their homes, they usually built a ball field!

Interesting Facts about Civil War:

Native Americans endured many wars and the loss of their land. Their history is marked by many tragedies. However, those tragedies and defeats have not kept them from making many achievements.

There are many famous Native American chiefs. But Native Americans have also made many other contributions. Below you’ll find a short list of famous Native Americans, who each left their mark on American society.

  • Squanto—without the help of the Pawtuxet Indian, Squanto, and the Pilgrims might not have survived their first winter in North America. He gave them food and helped them to grow their own.
  • Sacagawea—As a teenage girl, Sacagawea helped the Lewis and Clark expedition into the west by serving as an interpreter. She also saved records and supplies when one of the expedition’s canoes capsized.
  • Sequoyah—Sequoyah wrote the Cherokee alphabet. The alphabet was very easy to learn, so most of the Cherokee became literate in a short time.
  • Dr. Charles Alexander Eastman—A Sioux author, Dr. Eastman helped found the Boy Scouts of America
  • Stand Waite—when eleven Southern states seceded from the Union in 1860-61, some Cherokee supported the Confederacy. Stand Waite was a Cherokee leader and a brigadier general in the Confederate army.
  • Ira Hayes—Hayes was a Pima Indian who served in the US Army in World War II. He was one of the American soldiers who raised the US flag over Iwo Jima.
  • Will Rogers—Rogers is famous as a writer, actor, and social commentator. He was also of Native American descent and grew up on Oklahoma Indian territory.
  • Wilma Mankiller—Mankiller was the first woman elected to be chief of the Cherokee people, in 1985.
  • Pocahontas—Even though she was only a young girl, Pocahontas helped the Jamestown colony survive its first winter by bringing them food. She also married a colonist and became a celebrity in England!
  • Pontiac—An Ottawa Indian, Pontiac defended the Great Lakes region from a British invasion in the 1760s. He is so respected that Detroit-area car manufacturers named a line of automobiles for him!
  • Sitting Bull—The Sioux chief is one of the most famous Native Americans in history. He is responsible for the defeat of Custer at Little Bighorn.
  • John Ross—Ross served as chief of the Cherokee longer than any other person. He led the Cherokee during the process of removal.
  • Sarah Winnemucca Hopkins—Hopkins published a book called “Life among the Piute’s: Their Wrongs and Claims.” She is believed to be the first Native American woman to publish in the English language.

Native Americans.

Homes and Dwellings

There were many Native American tribes in North America, and their homes were often very different. Some tribes had to build homes to withstand harsh winters. Others built homes to keep them cool in extreme heat.

No matter where they were located, or what kind of climate they had, Native Americans were very creative in building homes. They used the materials that were available to them to make the best homes for their environment.

In the Great Lakes region, where forests were plentiful, they built homes called wigwams. Most wigwams were eight to ten feet tall. They were made from wooden frames and covered with woven mats and sheets of birch bark.

Often, wigwams were built in a dome or cone shape. Mats covered the floor, and extra mats could be added for warmth. In the Southern Plains, some tribes-built homes are called grass houses. They look similar to wigwams but were made with different materials.

Like wigwams, they were often bent into a dome or beehive shape. Since grass is plentiful on the prairie, grass houses were thatched with long prairie grass. Grass houses could be very large, sometimes as tall as a three- or four-story building! That’s a lot of grass!

In the southeastern United States, they made wattle and daub houses. The first step in building these homes was building a frame, usually from cane, vines, or wood. The frame would then be coated with clay or mud. These homes took a lot of effort to build.

They also required a warm, dry climate in order to dry the mud or clay. Because so much work went into building wattle and daub houses, they were for permanent use. That meant they were well-suited to agricultural people who tended to settle in one place rather than move around.

One of the most interesting types of home is the cliff dwelling. These were built by the Anasazi in the southwestern United States. Believe it or not, they were built along the sides or under the overhangs of cliffs.

Imagine having to climb a ladder to get into your house! The Anasazi did just that—they climbed a ladder onto the roof of their cliff dwelling, and then entered through an opening in the ceiling. Cliff dwellings could be quite complex.

One, known as the Cliff Palace, has more than 150 rooms beneath the rim of a canyon. Another one, Balcony House, can be reached by climbing a thirty-two-foot ladder and crawling through a tunnel. If you’re wondering why the Anasazi would build homes that were so difficult to get into, the answer is simple: for protection!

If they were attacked, they simply had to pull up the ladders, and no one could reach their homes! If you want to build your own Native American home, this is the least you should know:

 Native Americans.

Set of engraved vintages, hand-drawn, old, labels or badges for Native Americans.

• Wigwams: wooden frames covered with mats or sheets of birchbark

• Grass houses: bent wooden frames thatched with long grasses

• Wattle and daub houses: wooden frames covered with clay or mud

• Cliff dwellings: built onto the top or sides of a cliff with a ladder for entry

Iroquois Tribe

The Iroquois were an alliance of five tribes in the northeastern United States. Those tribes were the Onondaga, the Oneida, the Mohawk, the Cayuga, and Seneca. They were a powerful confederacy for many years and exercised a great deal of influence in the early American history.

The origin of the word Iroquois is unknown, although it is believed to be a combination of an Indian and a French word. The Iroquois were known for their longhouses, which were occupied by several families.

A common room was built at the end of each house, which could be used by all residents. The longhouses were divided by a central corridor. Along each side of the corridor were compartments, which were residences for individual families.

Wampum was a very important part of Iroquois culture. Wampum were cylindrical beads that were made of clamshells. They were used as decorations on clothing, but they also served more significant uses. Strings of wampum were used in mourning rituals.

A person of authority might wear a belt made of wampum beads. They could also be used to record the terms of treaties between tribes. They were even sometimes used as money! The Iroquois had an interesting—you might say a strange! —practice.

Sometimes, however, the adopted tribal members were treated the same as the lost family members, even if they were of a different age or gender! Like many Native American tribes, life for the Iroquois was greatly disrupted by the arrival of Europeans.

They generally had peaceful relations with the French, who did not try to convert them to Christianity as the English did. When possible, the Iroquois tried to remain neutral in conflicts between the English and the French.

They trusted neither group. This worked until the French and Indian War (1754-1763). The Mohawk sided with the English and the Seneca with the French. When the war ended, and the French ceded a very large portion of land to the English, much of it was Iroquois’ land.

The American Revolution also tested the Iroquois Confederacy. Each of the five nations was free to choose its course during the war. Some fought with the English, and some fought with the Americans. When the war ended, however, many Americans set their sights on moving west.

Unfortunately for the Iroquois, this often put them in conflict with the white settlers. The Iroquois maintained their tradition of independence and acting on their own. When the United States went to war with Germany in 1917, the Iroquois Confederacy declared itself an allied nation in the war effort!

Many athletes are good at one sport. It’s rare, however, for an athlete to be VERY good at more than one sport. Jim Thorpe was one of those athletes. He was a rare person who excelled in both baseball and football and won Olympic medals for the track.

Jim Thorpe

Jim Thorpe was born in 1888 in Oklahoma, on Sac-and-Fox Indian land. His given name was Wa-Tho-Huk, which meant “bright path.” His start as an athlete began in the schoolyards of his childhood.

He often ran the twenty miles from school back to his home. While attending the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania, Thorpe happened to pass some students who were practicing track.

Again and again, he watched as students failed to make the high jump. Even though he was dressed in overalls, Thorpe gave it a shot, and cleared the bar! In 1912, Thorpe competed in the Stockholm Olympics, where he won medals.

 He won the pentathlon, came in seventh in the long jump, and set a world record in the decathlon. He met the king of Sweden, who told him he was the greatest athlete in the world. Likewise, he returned to the United States and was greeted with a ticker-tape parade in New York City.

Unfortunately for Thorpe, in the summers before he participated in the Olympics, he was paid to play baseball. Many amateur athletes were paid, but most used fake names to get around the rules.

Thorpe used his real name. He was paid very little—just two dollars a game. However, the Olympic rules stated that an athlete who was paid was not an amateur, and amateurs were not permitted to compete in the games.

In 1912, a reporter discovered that Thorpe had been paid to play baseball. Thorpe claimed he had not known of the rules (which might explain why he—unlike other athletes—had used his real name).

He said, “I hope I will be partly excused by the fact that I was simply an Indian schoolboy and did not know all about such things. I was not very wise in the ways of the world and did not realize this was wrong.” In early 1913, Thorpe’s Olympic medals were taken from him.

Thorpe eventually signed with the New York Giants, and eventually played with the Cincinnati Reds and Boston Braves. He also played football for the NFL and served as the first president of the American Professional Football Association.

After leaving sports, Thorpe held a variety of jobs, including working as an extra in Hollywood films. He often struggled to earn enough money to provide for his family. In 1982, the International Olympic Committee restored Thorpe’s gold medals, roughly thirty years after his death.

Maria Tallchief

Maria Tallchief

Maria Tallchief

Maria Tallchief was one of the most accomplished dancers of the twentieth century. She was the first Native American woman to hold the rank of a prima ballerina or the leading woman dancer in a ballet company.

Tallchief was born in Oklahoma in 1925. Her father was an Osage Indian and the family name was actually Tall Chief. From a very early age, Maria’s family saw that she was talented. She began ballet at the age of three!

By the age of eight, Maria’s family left the Indian reservation where she’d grown up and moved to Los Angeles. Her parents had big dreams for both Maria and her sister, Marjorie, who was also a dancer.

While only a teenager, Maria moved to New York City, in the hopes of finding a spot with a major ballet company. It was in New York City that Maria was advised to take the name, Maria Tallchief.

Russian ballerinas were very much admired at the time, and many American dancers took Russian stage names. Maria, however, was very proud of her Native American heritage. She refused to change her name.

In New York, Maria earned a spot with the Ballet Russ de Monte Carlo. The famous choreographer, George Balanchine, choreographed many of the company’s performances. He and Maria became close friends and were eventually married in 1946.

The marriage of a passionate choreographer and a highly talented ballerina produced incredible performances. When Balanchine founded his own ballet company, the New York City Ballet, Maria Tallchief was the company’s first star.

Balanchine created many roles for her. One of these roles, “Firebird,” made her famous. Tallchief also starred as the Swan Queen in “Swan Lake.” Her role as the Sugarplum Fairy in “The Nutcracker” made the ballet one of the most famous in the world.

In the 1950s and 1960s, Tallchief traveled the world as a ballerina. She became the first American to perform in Russia’s Bolshoi Theater. She often starred in television performances, and even had a role in a movie, “Million Dollar Mermaid,” in 1952.

She also performed for the Royal Danish Ballet, the San Francisco Ballet, and the Hamburg Ballet. For most of the rest of her life, Tallchief promoted ballet in Chicago. She founded the ballet school of the Lyric Opera.

She also worked as the artistic director of the Chicago City Ballet. No matter where Maria Tallchief went in life, or how famous she became, she never forgot her Native American heritage.

She was proud of her Osage ancestry. She did not like the misconceptions many people had about Native Americans. In addition to the many awards, she won for her dancing; Tallchief has also been honored for her pride in her heritage.

She is depicted on a mural in the Oklahoma state capital. She was even honored by the Osage Nation with the title Princess Wa-Xthe-Thomba, which means “Woman of Two Standards.”

Native American Art

Native Americans art

Native American Art

There were many Native American tribes across North America. They each had their own unique culture. Many tribes developed unique art forms, as well.

Since tribes were often very different from each other, their art was often very different from each other. Generally, only native societies that settled in an area for a long period of time pursued art.

Tribes that moved often did not have time for creative pursuits. There were many Native American tribes across North America. They each had their own unique culture.

One of the most common types of art created by Native Americans was pottery. Not all tribes made pottery. The Lakota Sioux, for example, moved too often to carry around heavy pieces of pottery. Most tribes, however, made pottery for its usefulness and also because it was beautiful.

Native Americans often made pottery the same way that artists make it today. They used a spinning wheel, or they sometimes made coil and pinch pots. Many pottery pieces were decorated with important symbols, such as animals.

Sometimes native pottery recorded important events in the history of a tribe. In addition to pottery, Native Americans also made colorful and beautiful baskets. Basket weaving was a common pastime for native women, who spent long periods of time weaving reeds and cornhusks into detailed patterns.

Baskets served a purpose since they were used to carry vegetables and fruits. They also told a story. Like pottery, baskets could be decorated to talk about tribal leaders or even battles. Blankets were another item made by Native Americans that was both useful and attractive.

Set of wild west American Indian

Set of wild west American Indian

Like baskets, blankets were woven in detailed patterns and vivid colors. It might take days or even weeks to complete a blanket! Many native tribes also made beautiful carvings. Sometimes they carved bones or animal teeth, or even rocks.

These carvings were often of animals. Perhaps the most famous of all Native American art forms was the totem pole. Totem poles were large. In fact, some are more than one hundred feet tall. Totem poles were mostly carved by native people in the Pacific Northwest and Canada.

That’s where the country’s tallest trees can be found! Totem poles were carved with many different faces. Sometimes the faces were of family members, and sometimes they were of animals. Sometimes totem poles were carved with large, protruding wings or beaks.

Totem poles were even used to tell stories or to pass down legends! Imagine it…. a one-hundred-foot-tall storybook with wings and a giant beak! In the Southwestern United States, the Navajo were famous for their sand paintings.

These served a certain purpose. They were made for healing ceremonies. The Navajo believe that the paintings allow them to communicate with spirits who have the power to heal sickness. No matter how beautiful or complex they were, once the ceremony was over, the painting was destroyed. It was simply no longer needed.

Native American Clothing

The clothing of Native Americans varied widely. It depended on what resources were available to them, where they lived, and the time of year. Native Americans who lived in very warm or tropical regions wore very little clothing.

In some cases, they even went naked! In colder climates, more layers of clothing were worn, and they were usually made from thicker materials. One of the most common materials used in Native American clothing was animal skins.

Over many years, Native Americans developed ways of tanning animal hides so that they became soft leather. The leather was used for shoes and clothing, and sometimes as a covering for their homes.

Using animal hides as clothing also served another purpose. Some Native American tribes believed that wearing the skin of an animal gave the wearer some of the animal’s strength and power. Sometimes, an animal’s tail would be left intact and used at the neckline, something like a furry necklace!

For much of Native American history, they also used the plants native to their region for clothing. They even used tree bark, if you can imagine that! It’s hard to imagine, but bark would be stripped from the tree, dried, and shredded.

The fibers gathered from shredding the bark would then be woven into various items of clothing, such as shirts, hats, caps, and aprons. In time, Native Americans began to grow cotton and weave it into cloth. Other fibers such as wool, yucca, and even human hair were sometimes woven into fabrics!

Many items of clothing were also highly decorated, with things like beads, shells, feathers, animal teeth, and fringe. Sometimes decorations were more than simple embellishments. Sometimes decorations could indicate a person’s tribe, a woman’s marital status, or how skilled the person was as a hunter.

By the mid-1800s, Native American tribes began using a material known as “Indian” cloth. This was a type of wool that was woven specifically to be used in trading with Native Americans. It was usually dyed bright, vivid colors.

Unfortunately, later with the increased contact with the Europeans, specifically Americans, meant that Native Americans gradually lost their traditional ways. Living on reservations meant that Native Americans often lost access to the traditional plants and fibers they used in clothing.

Being forced away from their homes meant that Native Americans gradually lost their traditions (in clothing and in other ways). In time, their clothing became no different from that worn by white Americans.

Native American woman

Elderly 99-year-old Navajo Native American woman and her daughter

Native American Entertainment

Native Americans enjoyed sports and games just like everyone else. They spent a lot of their time growing crops and hunting, but they enjoyed their free time. We know from accounts of Europeans, that Native Americans played a variety of games.

They also enjoyed music and entertained themselves with a number of different instruments. Virtually all native tribes played a kind of stickball. Some tribes even included a stickball field in their villages. They used a small ball, roughly the size of a tennis ball.

The ball was tossed into the air, and then numerous players chased it and attempted to hit it with sticks. Even women played this game and some histories record how rough the female players were. A stickball game could become very large, with dozens or even hundreds of people playing.

Sometimes people even bet on the outcome of the game! Many tribes played a kind of hand game. This involved two players hiding bones or sticks under their hands, shifting them back and forth. The other team has to guess where the bones and sticks are.

This game was not only played for fun. Apparently, the game was used to gain land, horses, or cattle. It may have even been used to get a wife! Whatever games Native Americans played; it seems that entire villages participated.

They were not strictly for children. Even elderly family members played games. It also appears that betting on games was commonplace. Music was also widely played for entertainment. European accounts of their encounters with Native Americans often describe enthusiastic music-playing.

Drums were widely used as rattled. Rattles were often made of dried gourds and then filled with things like small rocks or seeds to make noise. Native Americans also made rattles to wear on the body. These were made by stringing shells or animal hooves onto a cord, which would then be worn around the ankle or wrist.

Wind instruments, such as whistles, were also widely played by Native Americans. These were often made from wood, reeds, or hollowed bones. Archaeologists have found many carvings and cave drawings of people playing flute-like instruments. This tells us that it was a popular instrument for Native Americans.

Native Americans were resourceful and very good at using what was available to them. Food was no exception. Wherever a tribe was located, they learned what plants would grow there and how to hunt the animals in the area.

Native American Food

Fish - Salmon - in Native American Style

Jumping Fish – Salmon – in Native American Style

Many tribes survived mostly hunting and fishing. In the Arctic and extreme northern parts of North America, most tribes relied entirely on hunting and fishing. The reason for this was simple—nothing would grow there!

Other tribes hunted mostly big games, like buffalo or caribou. Those tribes moved frequently in order to follow the herds. Almost all tribes hunted at least part of their food. Most tribes hunted deer and rabbits and caught fish in rivers and lakes.

Native Americans felt very strongly that they should not waste food, so they were careful to eat all of an animal that they killed. Agriculture, or farming, was very common among native tribes.

Farming was most common among settled tribes who did not move around very often. It was most advanced in the Southern United States, where the warm climate created a long growing season.

The tribes of the Southeast developed special methods for growing their food. They used irrigation, crop rotation, and planted windbreaks to insure their crops. The main crops that were grown by Native Americans were corn, beans, and squash.

Corn, in particular, was a very important part of the diet of Native Americans. It was referred to as maize by many Native Americans. Most Americans of today are used to corn in shades of yellow. But Native Americans grew a wide variety of corn in many different colors.

They grew red, green, blue, and even black corn! Over the years, corn has been bred to be much sweeter than it was when Native Americans grew it.

Unfortunately, it’s far less healthy now than it was then. In addition to food crops, many native tribes also grew medicinal plants, cotton, and tobacco. Believe it or not, it is estimated that as much as three-fourths of the world’s foods today are food that was originally cultivated by Native Americans!

Native Americans also added to their diets by gathering foods. This meant that they gathered plants that grew in the wild, such as berries, nuts, and herbs. Over time, they learned which herbs could be used to cure sickness or help heal an injury.

Native American meals were simple. Their food was usually eaten fresh, with a little seasoning. Most foods was cooked over an open fire. Corn was prepared and eaten in many different ways. They ate corn-on-the-cob, hominy, popcorn, and even baked cornbread.

Many of these foods are still eaten in the areas where Native Americans passed along their foods and cultures.

Native American Homes

There were many Native American tribes throughout North America. The homes they built were as varied as they were. Their homes often reflected the region in which they lived, their climate, and the nature of their life. Three of the most recognized Native American homes were the teepee, the longhouse, and the pueblo.

The teepee is the Native American home that you’ve probably seen in movies. It is probably the most famous of all Native American homes. The word comes from the Lakota word “thipi,” which means “dwelling.”

These were most common on the Great Plains of the central United States. They were tent-shaped and were usually covered with buffalo skins. Teepees were useful for tribes that moved a lot because they could easily be taken apart.

They were usually about twelve feet tall. Later, however, as the Plains Indians became horsemen, they built them twice as tall. They were meant to be portable and could be taken apart very quickly.

Teepees were simple but cleverly designed. The opening at the top of the teepee had a flap. When fires were burned inside the teepee, the flap could be opened to let smoke escape. Think of it—it was almost like a chimney!

Longhouses were most common in the Northeastern United States. They were usually used by the Iroquois tribes. As their name suggests, they were long—they could be 200 feet long and twenty feet wide. They were usually built with a long, central hallway with a row of compartments down either side.

Individual families lived in the compartments. Longhouses also had a common room at one end which could be used by everyone in the house. Believe it or not, as many as sixty people could live in one longhouse!

Longhouses took a long time to build. Therefore, they were most often used by tribes who tended to stay in one place for long periods.

In the southwestern United States, the Pueblo Indians made homes known as pueblos. They made clay of water, earth, and straw, and then formed bricks. These bricks were dried in the sun and used to make flat, rectangular homes.

These homes looked something like very large shoeboxes. For the sake of protection, Pueblo homes usually did not have doors or windows on the outside. Instead, the home was entered by climbing a ladder and entering through an opening in the roof. The opening on the roof was the only opening a home might have. Pueblo homes could be more than one story, sometimes with additions made over time.

Native American Mythology

There were many Native American tribes in North America, and each one had various myths. Most tribes had myths that involved the creation of the world, as well as numerous heroes and deities.

Most of these stories were passed down orally, as Native Americans did not use written languages. Sometimes stories were entrusted with special storytellers whose job was to pass down legends from the past.

Native American Mythology

Native American Mythology

Although Native American myths differed widely, there are certain things that most of them had in common. Most Native American myths and stories involved a creator. This creator was sometimes referred to as the Great Creator or Great Spirit.

There were other spirits who were the personification of natural elements, such as the sun, rain, or the sky. For people who depended on agriculture to survive, elements such as the sun and the rain were very important, so it makes sense that they might be seen as deities.

Many tribes also had beliefs and stories about the creation of the world. Many Native American creation myths tell of the earth being covered by a massive sea. A sea creature—usually a large turtle—dove to the bottom of the sea and returned with a lump of mud which, in time, became the Earth. Other creation stories involve a deity who descends from the sky.

A number of myths also involve a person known as a “trickster.” In these stories, a trickster is usually a mischievous person or animal who is small or weak but makes up for the weakness through being cunning.

In other words, tricksters are characters who succeed by using their wits. Tricksters sometimes did good things, and sometimes they caused problems and did wicked things. Often tricksters were people or animals who deliberately tried to spread as much confusion as possible.

Animals often had special roles in the myths of Native Americans. In many cases, animals help humans in some way, sometimes granting them special qualities, such as courage, or special favors.

The Plains Indians, for example, had a number of stories that involved the buffalo. The buffalo was an essential part of life for the Plains Indians. They hunted it not only for its meat but for its skin and bones as well. They used virtually every part of the buffalo, so it was obviously very important to their culture.

Native American Religions

There were many Native American tribes. They each had their own beliefs. Some tribes had beliefs in common, but there were also many differences. Many Native American religious beliefs were passed down orally, rather than being written down.

This also makes studying Native American religions more difficult. Many native religions were centered on nature. Many tribes believed that all living things—humans, plants, animals, and even the rivers and wind—were all connected.

They believed that these elements of nature were sacred. Many of their religious beliefs involved the origins of things in the natural world, or even the world itself. When most people think of religion, they usually think of a god or a creator of some kind.

Native American religions do not always include such a god. Many tribes seem to have developed an idea of a group of gods. The Sioux have a term—Waken tank—which means something like “greatest sacred ones.”

The Europeans who encountered Native Americans did not understand their beliefs. Since there was no priest or holy book, many Europeans dismissed their rituals and beliefs. They did not see them as a religion.

However, there are a number of things that native beliefs have in common with any other religion. For example, native religions included prayer. Sometimes a prayer was for protection from one’s enemies or healing from sickness.

Although Native American religion did not include someone who served exactly the same purpose as a priest or minister, they did have religious leaders. In Native American societies, this person was known as a shaman or medicine man.

A shaman, was believed, could communicate with the gods. They played an important part in rituals and ceremonies. Because of their ability to communicate with the gods, they were especially respected in native society.

Many native tribes believed that it was possible to anger the gods. When this happened, the gods could take revenge by making a person sick or giving their enemies special powers. To keep from angering the gods, Native Americans might use certain charms.

 These could be things that were worn on the body, or they could be objects believed to have magical powers, such as a prayer stick. They might also use incantations and spells. Some tribes even used human sacrifice as a way of keeping the gods happy!

 Fortunately, human sacrifice was something that happened rarely! As with any other religion, native religions had prophets. Prophets often experienced visions or claimed to communicate with the spirits of dead warriors and leaders.

Sometimes, prophets introduced new ceremonies and rituals that were meant to give participants special powers. One of the most famous of these was the Ghost Dance.

The Ghost Dance was a ritual that became widespread among the Plains Indians in the late 1800s. It was believed that people who performed the Ghost Dance became invincible!

The Navajo Nation is spread across the states of Utah, New Mexico and Arizona. The Navajo Nation is the largest American Indian tribe, with almost three hundred thousand members. Many of them live on reservations in New Mexico.

Navajo Tribe

The Navajo call themselves “Dine,” which means “the People.” Their land is referred to as “Dine Bikeyah,” or “the land of the People.” After the Navajo settled in the Southwest and gave up their nomadic way of life, they became sheepherders.

Shepherds are still an important part of Navajo life. They are regarded as some of the best herdsmen in the Southwest. The Navajo generally did not live in villages. Instead, members of an extended family lived near each other so that they could help each other grow food and care for their herds.

The Navajo had conflicts with Mexico for many years. When the United States annexed much of the Southwest following the Mexican War, many Navajo hoped that their problems were over.

Many Navajos had relatives who had been kidnapped and held as slaves by the Mexicans. Unfortunately, the US did nothing to free the Navajo slaves, and Mexico continued making slave-raids into the Navajo territory.

1862 was a tragic year for the Navajo. Under orders of the US military, Kit Carson and his soldiers burned Navajo homes and crops. In 1864, there was another wave of attacks led by Kit Carson.

He and his troops rushed through Canyon de Chilly, causing horrible destruction. Eventually, the Navajo were forced away from their land on a 300-mile forced march known as The Long Walk.

They were taken to a prison camp in New Mexico, where many of them were held for up to four years. Many of them died along the way. In 1868, the US government signed a treaty that allowed the Navajo to return and live on a reservation on their own land.

In spite of their poor treatment by the government, many Navajo enlisted in the US Army during World War II. Because the Navajo language was unknown to most people, many of those soldiers became “Code Talkers.”

They used the Navajo language to develop a system of sending coded messages as a way of helping to defeat the Japanese. Navajo Code Talkers were involved in every major battle in the Pacific during World War II. The Japanese were never able to break their code!

Pueblo Tribe

The Pueblo people of the southwestern United States have an ancient history stretching back roughly 7,000 years. For many years, the ancient Puebloans lived in what is known as the Four Corners area.

This is a part of the United States where the corners of New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, and Utah, touch. At some point in the 1300s, their culture declined. They, then, settled into what is now known as New Mexico and Arizona.

Perhaps the most striking feature of Pueblo culture is their homes. They built adobe homes that were multistoried. Adobe is a mixture of earth, water, and straw. It is extremely strong, and adobe structures have lasted for centuries. They may be touched up from time to time, but they are remarkably durable.

The walls of adobe structures were very thick and made of sun-dried bricks. Many adobe homes were accessible by climbing a ladder and entering through an opening in the roof. The villagers themselves are also referred to as “pueblos.”

In New Mexico and Arizona, the Pueblo people continued to live as they had for centuries. Each pueblo had its own chief, although the most important decisions were made by priesthoods.

One of the things that made Pueblo culture unique was the role of women. Pueblo people were matrilineal, which means that power and status were passed through the women in a family, rather than through the men.

Women-owned the homes and gardens and were generally more respected than women of other native tribes. Many Pueblo women also did much of the farming, which also gave them more respect, because they were producing the community’s food supply.

Far from being one type of people, there are actually twenty-one pueblos. The most well-known of these are the Hopi, Zuni, and Taos. The Taos Pueblo still live; so much as they have for centuries.

There are numerous Native American sites that are UNESCO World Heritage sites, but only the Tao’s Pueblo is still a living community. It is one of the most remarkable examples of Pueblo’s adobe structures.

According to tradition, Pueblo people have lived at Taos for a thousand years. Roughly 150 people still live in Pueblo. As is their tradition, there is no running water or electricity inside the residences.

The Pueblo people are known for their artwork, particularly their pottery. Many people collect pottery painted by the Pueblo and it can be found in many museums. Much of this pottery is adorned with symbols that tell the history of the Pueblo people.

Some of these pieces are so detailed that archaeologists can now use them as a way of piecing together the history of the Pueblo people!




The Lewis and Clark expedition into the American west is one of the most legendary events in United States history. It might not have been so successful, however, if it was not for the help of a young Shoshone woman named Sacagawea.

When Sacagawea was about ten years old, she was kidnapped by Hidatsa Indians and taken to what is now North Dakota. She was then sold as a slave to Toussaint Charbonneau, a French-Canadian fur trader. She later became his wife.

In 1804, Lewis and Clark persuaded Charbonneau to join them on their expedition as an interpreter. It was understood that Sacagawea would join the party as well. They wanted her on the journey because traveling with a woman would indicate to Native American tribes that they came in peace.

Shortly before the journey set out, Sacagawea gave birth to her son, Jean Baptists Charbonneau. He made most of the journey on his mother’s back, becoming the country’s youngest explorer!

Sacagawea spoke both Hidatsa and Shoshone. Her husband, Charbonneau, spoke Hidatsa and French. When the expedition met Native American tribes, Sacagawea spoke to them in Shoshone, and then translated that to Hidatsa for her husband.

He then translated the Hiatus to French. Another member of the expedition spoke French, and by relaying the messages through three people, Lewis and Clark were able to communicate with the Native Americans they met.

Sacagawea was valuable not only as an interpreter. But also, as a native of the American west, she knew which berries, roots, and nuts were safe to eat and which ones could be used as medicines. Once, when one of the expedition’s boats capsized in a river, many of their important papers were in danger of being carried away by the current.

Sacagawea quickly jumped into the water and recovered many important papers and supplies. Both Lewis and Clark were impressed by her calmness under stress. At one point during the Corps of Discovery’s expedition, Lewis and Clark attempted to buy horses from a Shoshone band.

Sacagawea served as their interpreter. To their surprise, she found the leader of the band was her brother! She had not seen him since being kidnapped years earlier. Though she could have returned to her people, she chose to remain with the expedition. She continued the journey all the way to the Pacific Ocean.

A few years after the expedition, Sacagawea gave birth to a daughter, Lisette. After the birth of Lisette, the remainder of Sacagawea’s life was uncertain. Most sources say that she died in 1812, shortly after Lisette’s birth.




Pocahontas is one of the most famous women in Native American history. Even though all American children learn about Pocahontas in school, there are still parts of her life that are misunderstood.

We know for sure that she was the daughter of Chief Powhatan. Some sources say she was his favorite daughter. She apparently met John Smith, the leader of the Jamestown colony, in 1607.

There is a famous story about Pocahontas saving John Smith’s life. According to the story, Smith was captured by Powhatan’s warriors, and was about to be killed. Pocahontas intervened and rescued Smith.

Some people believe that this event was a type of “adoption” ceremony performed by Indians. Over the years, the story grew to the point that Pocahontas and John Smith were married. This, however, is not true. It might make a nice story, but Pocahontas married someone else!

Pocahontas was about eleven when she met John Smith. This would have been in 1607, the year the colonists landed in Jamestown. She visited the colony often, usually bringing food. Many sources report that Pocahontas’s visits and gifts of food kept the colonists alive during their first year or so in Jamestown.

At one point, John Smith was injured in a gunpowder explosion. He returned to England for treatment. The colonists told Pocahontas and the other Native Americans that he was dead. After hearing of Smith’s “death,” Pocahontas stopped visiting the colony for several years.

The man Pocahontas actually DID marry was John Rolfe was a leading colonist in Jamestown. He was important to the history of the colony because he showed the colonists how to grow tobacco. Tobacco allowed the colonists to finally make a profit.

At some point in adulthood, Pocahontas converted to Christianity and took the name “Rebecca.” After her marriage to John Rolfe, the couple and their son, Thomas, were invited to England by the Virginia Company, which funded the Jamestown expedition.

The Virginia Company believed that Pocahontas would help attract new settlers to Jamestown. In England, Pocahontas was a celebrity! She met many of the most important people of the day. She had her portrait painted wearing stylish English clothes. Not only that, but she even met King James and Queen Anne!

Believe it or not, John Smith was in London at the same time as Pocahontas. They met, and Pocahontas was overcome with emotion and couldn’t speak! (Remember, as far as she knew, Smith was dead).

After she calmed herself, Pocahontas enjoyed talking about old times with John Smith. The Rolfe was in England for several months, but eventually decided to return to Jamestown. Unfortunately, Pocahontas became very sick, and died before leaving England. She was only twenty-two, and had already earned a spot in history!



Tribes and Regions

North America is a very large continent. Terrain and climate vary widely across North America. Because of these differences, there was also a wide variety of native tribes.

North America is generally divided into the following regions:

•     Northwest Coast

•     Plains

•     Southwest

• the Arctic

•     Southeast Woodlands

•     Northeast Woodlands

The Northwest Coast is a small area that includes parts of present-day Oregon, Washington, and southern Canada. The major tribes from this region include the Makah, Nootka, and Tlingit. The Plains include a very large region of the central United States.

It extends from the southern boundary of Canada to parts of Texas. The tribes of the Plains—especially the Sioux—were very good horsemen and fierce warriors. The most well-known of the Plains tribes were the Sioux, Pawnee, Blackfoot, Crow, Cheyenne, and Arapaho.

The Southwest covers an area that included present-day Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, parts of Texas, and extends downward into Mexico. Most of the tribes in the Southwest region were nomadic and relied on farming to survive.

The United States fought numerous wars against the tribes in the Southwest, and they developed a reputation for being fearsome fighters. The most famous of the Southwestern tribes include the Hopi, Navajo, Zuni, and Apache.

The Arctic has probably the harshest climate of the regions. It is very large and stretches from Siberia through Alaska and Canada to Greenland. The native people of the Arctic include the Inuit and the Aleut.

The Southeast Woodlands include most of the southeastern area of the United States, from Florida to Texas and extending northward to North Carolina. The tribes in this part of the United States were varied and often developed very complex and advanced societies.

 Among these were the Five Civilized Tribes: Creek, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Seminole. They tended to settle along river valleys and were primarily farmers. Northeast Woodlands is another very large area.

It includes the area between the Mississippi River to the Atlantic Coast, and from the Great Lakes to the Tidewater region of Virginia and North Carolina. Many of the tribes in the Northeast were the native people who first encountered the Europeans in the New World.

Because of that, they played a large part in early American history. The major tribes in the Northeast include the Iroquois, Wampanoag, Narraganset, Creek, Massachusetts, and Nausea.

Remember that even though the tribes might have lived in the same general region and shared things in common, each native society was unique. There were far too many native societies—even in a relatively small region—to attempt to describe their culture according to region.

The Seminoles

For centuries, native people known as the Muscogee lived in what would become the southeastern United States later. They were incorrectly referred to as “Greeks” by English speakers.

After the creek war in 1813-1814 which forced them to give up millions of acres of their land, the most determined creeks fled to Spanish Florida. There, they joined with the descendants of Indians who had lived throughout Florida’s forests for centuries.

These native people referred to themselves as yet’ Seminoles which means “free people”.Eventually, the Indians in Florida came to be known as “Seminoles”. Spain was no longer the powerful nation it once was.     

It had very little control over the events in Florida. After numerous attacks on white settlers by Seminoles following the creek war, the United States government sent troops to Florida. The troops were commanded by Andrew Jackson, a tough general from Tennessee.

Many Americans at the time hated Native Americans because they fought with the British in both the American Revolution and the war of 1812. Americans saw Indians as a threat to their security. The Seminoles in Florida also took in runaway slaves. This angered many southern slave-owners.

Explore the previous examples and facts, and you will find yourself getting the necessary knowledge and information to fully grasp the concept of Native Americans. So, keep on visiting our Learning Mole to get more knowledge and information.

Learning history can seem dull when it’s done in a textbook. The opportunities online homeschool offers to those with interests in the past are fantastic, delving deep into society and the way things are. Interactive history sites provide a unique opportunity to bring the past to life and encourage children to take an interest in the time that came before them. Online homeschool can present children with the tools to understand their present and future by learning about their past. From the history of nations to why objects were created, history has much to teach us. With the incredible online resources available to us, learning history has become an important part of daily life and personal curriculum.

Online Homeschool of History: PBS Online

While famous for being a history channel, PBS Online hosts a plethora of information online for people to utilise. A phenomenal online resource, PBS has information on historical events and personalities, with some of their information being shown in historical dramas and videos that grip the viewer. PBS has an assorted and diverse web catalogue. Providing primary and secondary sources for viewers to investigate further, PBS has a fully engaging collection of interviews, timelines, glossaries, photos, and links to relevant sites to build upon the knowledge of their videos. They cover a wide range of topics as well with features in American History, World History, History on Television, and Biographies. The PBS Teacher Source is a perfect place to retrieve online homeschool resources for parents, guardians and educators who are trying to make the best of learning from home. They offer an array of lesson plans and activities to get children involved with history.

History from around the world is accessible from a plethora of sites.

Living History: The Center for History and New Media

The Center for History and New Media or the CHNM came into existence 25 years ago when founder Roy Rosenzweig set up the centre with early support from the National Endowment for the Humanities. His mission was to create digital projects that reinvented the boundaries of history and connected its importance to the humanities. Over the last 25 years, over one hundred different projects have been produced and are used by tens of millions of people annually.

Over 130 individuals have worked on these projects to create some of the most collaborative and extensive research in the realms of the humanities. Multi-disciplinary, humanities scholars have worked with researchers, software developers, designers, and media producers to develop lasting content that has had a lasting impact on academic fields throughout the globe. These academics and technical specialists come from all over the world to develop online programs to cater to online homeschool content.

Using technology to democratise history, CHNM has pushed the boundaries of digital humanities by creating work that incorporates multiple voices, encourages participation in the preservation of the past, and is specifically designed to reach a diverse audience. Very driven by accessibility, their work is openly sourced and created to be collaborative. A fantastic, beautiful site allows people to engage from an online homeschool model.

The Center for History and New Media hosts many project websites that provide digital tools for children and people to teach, learn, and conduct research. With over 16 million visitors to their site, it’s become a popular online homeschool tool and is a fantastic resource to learn multiple viewpoints to historical events.

Using new media to reproduce historical works, CHNM is a tool that reflects critically on the success of new media in historical practice. Their own resources are also links to extensive syllabi and lesson plans to make online homeschool of history easier. With essays on the history of the world and new media, they have an essential History Matters website which delves in the history of the United States. A perfect tool for people engaging in online homeschool, it also has extensive resources to help parents, guardians and educators unlock the secrets of history for children.

online map

California Dreaming: Score

Famous for its surf, laid back lifestyle, and movie stars, California also provides a valuable and reliable source of historical knowledge. The Schools of California Online Resources for Educators or Score is a project packed with online homeschool resources for students and teachers alike. A catalogue of information, there are reviews of education and history-related websites, lesson plans, maps, and interactive media to engage with.

Split into sections of grade and content level, it is an extensive font of knowledge that covers all bases. The content it has linked to is suitable for children of all ages and it provides a much-needed base for historical learning and for those interested in developing their child’s reflections into the past.


Online Homeschool: Digital History

For those keen on American history, Digital History serves as an American history digital textbook. With over 400 annotated documents, primary sources on slavery, Mexican American and Native American history, and the political, social and legal history of the United States, it has an extensive back catalogue, to say the least.

A beautiful selection of short essays on the history of film, ethnicity, and technology, they give a unique insight into the private lives of people of the Americas at that time. Their multimedia exhibitions provide a level of engaging and provocative content for people to be involved in. They have reference resources that include a searchable database with over 1500 annotated links.

A phenomenal online homeschool resource, Digital History has an incredible amount of classroom handouts, chronologies, and glossaries. It also hosts an audio archive that includes speeches and book talks by historians, and a visual archive with hundreds of historical maps and images – this is a perfect tool for online homeschool. An incredible feature that Digital History offers is that of the ‘Ask the HyperHistorian’, a feature that allows users to pose questions to professional historians. An interactive, engaging site filled with unique content and interactive media, Digital History is an important resource for those engaging in online homeschool.

In order for things to move from one place to another, there should be a medium that connects the two places together and through which what needs to move can move. For instance, cars move on roads. Planes fly in the air. Ships sail in the sea. Without a medium, movement cannot happen.

The same is true for ideas. For ideas to be transferred from one person to another, we need to express them in words. Words can be either written or spoken. In this case, writing or speaking is the medium through which words move.

In this article, we are going to look into writing in particular and how it evolved throughout history.


How did writing originate?

Between 5500 BC and 4000 BC, the Sumerian Civilization flourished in Western Asia in the area that is now southern Iraq. Because some cities lacked important resources that people needed for daily life, trade trips started between cities to buy the missing goods.

The Sumerians then needed a way to communicate with other distant people, deliver messages, remember what items they needed to buy, and count things up.

At the time, writing mostly used signs instead of letters. The different signs meant different things. When signs were placed side by side correctly, they would complete a sentence that told specific information.

The Sumerians first used to write on rocks. The ancient Egyptians for instance used to write, paint, and tell detailed stories on the walls of their temples—they are believed to be the first to have invented graffiti.

However, if the written script needed to be transferred while a person was traveling, it would be hard to carry along heavy rocks, especially if the text is long. This is when the need to invent something else to write on was born.

Who invented paper?

The ancient Egyptians were pioneers in this. They were the first civilization to invent paper from a plant called papyrus in the fourth century BC. In fact, the English word paper came from papyrus.

So instead of heavy rocks, they then had small light-weighted sheets on which they could write whatever they wanted however long it was.

With the development of the writing material, the written content also underwent some changes. As we mentioned earlier, the content was mostly items a person needed to remember or important messages they wanted to send others. However, writing started to be widely involved in prehistoric societies.

Officials used writing to record workers’ wages, give instructions, teach people, and then document famous events. On the walls of the ancient Egyptian temples—most of which are located in the modern-day cities of Luxor and Aswan in Upper Egypt—kings used to tell the stories of their battles and document the development they made in the country during their reign.

As time went by, humans continued to document their knowledge and life-long experiences for the next generations. Besides, they recorded the important events that changed the face of the world which are now collectively known as history.

How were books copied?

The writing system never stopped evolving since then. After the wide use of paper, humans started collecting them in books. Then came the copying and translation processes to make up versions of the same book in different languages.

So when someone needed to have a translated copy of a book, they had to travel to the country where the author lived, and take their permission to translate and copy their original ideas. After that, they would read, translate the book, and then fully write it on new sheets of paper.

When books were large, such a copying process used to take a lot of time and money as well to buy papers, ink, and pens. And if many copies were needed, the process got even more wearying.

Why was the printer invented?

Nowadays, if someone needs to read a book originally written in French, they can easily find a perfect translation in their native language. All they need to do is browse Amazon and with just one click, they can have the hard copy of the book delivered to their door in a few hours or start reading an electronic version right away on their Kindle or iPad.

Centuries ago, people still copied books by hand. Once the need for many copies emerged, a means for producing many versions in short amounts of time was a must. That is exactly when the printer was invented

In Germany, in the mid-15th century, an inventor called Johannes Gutenberg came up with the first moveable printing press. Over the years, his invention developed so much to allow the mass production of books in way less time.

Fictional writing

For a long period of time, the writing process was still only exclusive to documentation and communication. Facts were only written and people believed all written content was facts.

But since humans are distinctive among other creatures by their ability to think, process information, and imagine things, they started to apply this in writing. Instead of just imagining or visualizing things in their heads, why not write them down? Why not describe, organize, and make a story out of them?

So fiction writing was born. Writers started to tell written stories completely based on their imagination. As such writing developed, the fiction structure was introduced and later evolved.

Nowadays, a fictional story needs to have certain elements such as characters, plot, settings, theme, point of view, and style.

Genres were also born to classify books into different types. They also give the readers a clue of what type of story they were about to read. Such genres included adventure, thriller, romance, fantasy, and science fiction.

Nowadays, millions and millions of books are written, copied, translated, printed, ordered, shipped, and read every year. Writing evolved from a way to document facts and events to become a source of entertainment for people.


Every written content is the property of its writer. When you come up with an idea, this idea is completely yours and everybody has to respect that. No one has the right to steal your ideas, use them, or claim they are theirs.

That being said, people are more likely to believe in this fact but rarely do some of them put it into practice. Unfortunately, many people in old times as well as modern ones, still steal others’ work.

To protect written words from being copied or stolen by other people, copyright was invented to give the author of a written text only the right to copy, distribute, or apply any changes to the text. According to this law, anyone who was proven to copy a book without permission from the author was punished.

The first copyright law was issued in the US in May 1790 within the then-new constitution of the USA. This law was intended to protect copies of books, maps, and charts from their authors.

Nowadays, writers mostly grant their copyrights to their publishers by agreement or license. Publishing houses are now not just responsible for publishing and distributing books but also for protecting them on behalf of their authors.


Coming from the Latin word plagiarius which meant kidnappers, plagiarism refers to the action of stealing or ‘kidnapping’ someone’s written work and pretending it is theirs.

In the first century AD, the term was used by a Roman poet to refer to other poets who stole his words. Sixteen centuries or so later, the English language had a new word ‘plagiarism’ which was listed in the dictionary as ‘the crime of literary theft’.

One might say that it is too harsh to think that using someone else’s words is a punishable crime. In fact, it is. Plagiarism is not different from regular theft. Both words and money are owned by people. When any of them is stolen, it is called theft.

Plagiarism also comprises a great deal of disrespect and unappreciation for the true owner of the content. It cancels the great effort they put in to come up with it, let alone the knowledge they gained over the course of their life.

But has this always been the case with plagiarism as a crime? Well, not really.

During the middle ages in Europe, plagiarism existed but was considered a normal thing that was not violating any rights. Some authors were known to copy others’ work and merge it with their original work.

As time went by, writers, poets, and even painters started signing their work or publicly declaring ownership of their words. When the first copyright law was issued in America in the 18th century to protect such ownership, plagiarism started to be viewed as an unethical act and even a crime to be punished for.

Plagiarism as a crime was not meant only to protect authors’ work but also to warn them against using others’ words. Authors who copied their counterparts were expected to come up with entirely original works of writing.

Since then, authors and academics started to view others’ works as resources to be treated very carefully. In case something was required to be copied, a citation came up to properly refer quoted text to its original author. Anyone who did not align with the standards of citation was at the risk of being accused of plagiarism.

Citation refers to the act of quoting someone else’s words or ideas with the reference to the author or the source of the information. This way, everyone reading a paper with citations will know who exactly wrote what.

Nowadays, plagiarism in academia is a severely punishable crime. Students who commit an act of stealing others’ work with no citation can get expelled from college. Not only that, it destroys their professional reputation and negatively affects their entire career.

Furthermore, according to some universities, students who plagiarized might be fined large amounts of money from $100 to $50,000 and can even be sent to jail.

Plagiarism is not just disrespecting the real author or content. But its consequences are no joke.

Why is plagiarism so common nowadays?

Resources from all over the world started to be widely available in the first days of the Internet. Now, we float in oceans of knowledge and information. They record almost everything that had happened on the planet ever since it was formed 4.5 billion years ago and to the moment this article is being written.

With such huge knowledge, people are supposed to be better educated and knowledgeable. Ironically, they are not. On the contrary, people are becoming more and more ignorant about the world. The most they can do is copy information from different websites and repost them as theirs.

Plagiarism is mostly now associated with academia where students have to do research and write papers on the topics they are studying. And there are several reasons why it is very common.

One of such reasons is that students are unaware of why plagiarism is illegal. Sometimes, if they happen to share the same opinion about something with other authors, they think there is no need to cite the source since they have the same ideas.

Another reason is students being lazy. Some students do not dedicate much effort to their classes. So when they have assignments, they are quite too lazy to put in the time and effort needed to finish them. Instead, they copy the original text from online resources with no citation. This seems easier and does not take more than just a few minutes.

In addition, students are more likely to plagiarize if they have a short amount of time to finish their assignments. Furthermore, if they do not really understand the assignments or are unable to know where to begin, they start to feel worried or may even panic. That leads them to plagiarize.

How to reduce plagiarism?

By working on each of the reasons just mentioned, students’ plagiarizing can be reduced dramatically. Teachers must educate students about plagiarism, how much of a nasty and unethical act it is, and why it is necessary to appreciate others’ work.

In addition, making sure students understand what they are studying, what their assignments are asking them to do, and giving them enough time to do them will surely reduce plagiarism. It will also guarantee students have a more efficient learning experience.

How is plagiarism detected?

In the past, when the amount of written content was limited, it was not hard to know if someone copied someone else’s work. However, now, with millions and millions of resources about the same or similar topics, how can teachers and university professors know if their students have plagiarized?

Well, this can somehow be detected if the teacher is familiar with each of their students’ level of knowledge, writing styles, and even their most common grammatical, spelling, and punctuation mistakes.

This is a natural plagiarism checker based on students’ writing styles. But what if students are perfect writers? Well, teachers then will have to detect plagiarism based on the content; the information students wrote.

That being said, it means the teacher has to be aware of the most common resources of the topic being researched. This way, they can spot which paragraph was taken from which book. But given the huge virtual library available on the Internet nowadays, this seems like a mission impossible!

Such necessity urged the invention of a plagiarism detector. Luckily, engineers were able to develop computer software that can detect whether or not a text was plagiarized. This only happens by scanning databases.

But what are databases in the first place?

An online database is storage of well-organized information. Simply, a plagiarism detector finds databases that have information about the same topic of an assignment. Then it starts to scan both the assignment and the content for any similarities between them. When some text is detected to be copied as-is, the plagiarism detector highlights it.

Plagiarism detectors are a great help to teachers and university professors to find plagiarized text in a few minutes. The invention of plagiarism detectors has helped many students too to check their assignments before submission to avoid any unintended plagiarism.


Writing is a unique skill that helps people communicate with one another, phrase thoughts and ideas, and transfer them to the next generations. Books are a great means of learning that is mainly intended to help humanity go forward.

Since prehistoric times, writing underwent huge development as long as the need for it accumulated. From writing on clay and temple walls, the invention of paper and books, to the first printer and the modern mass production of books.

Writing was first used to transfer facts throughout history. But then humans started exploring their imagination and turning the imaginary worlds in their heads into words. That is when fiction writing was born.

With the widespread of written content and either the ignorance or dishonesty of some people, the stealing of others’ own words or ideas started to spread. This was referred to as word kidnapping or plagiarism.

It was not until the American constitution was issued that the first law of copyright was created to help protect the works of authors. And this is when citations started to merge in.

Nowadays, plagiarism is mostly common in academia among students who are quite unaware of the unethicality of plagiarism. Besides, when students have a huge number of assignments with little time to do them or happen to be too lazy to do the assignments, they tend to plagiarize.

Several ways are used to help reduce plagiarism among students. The most straightforward solution is the knowledge that any act of plagiarism will be revealed by the plagiarism detector.

On the other hand, the most severe solution is the consequences students who plagiarize will face. Such consequences include suspension from college, fines of large amounts of money, a bad reputation, and the probable destruction of a career.

What is a Cat?

The domestic cat is a type of small carnivorous mammal that belongs to the family “Felidae.” It is called a “domestic cat,” or “Felis catus,” to differentiate between it and other wild types of cats. The Felidae is a family of carnivorous mammals, members of which are called felids. Other felines are also referred to as “cats” whether they are big cats or small cats. Big, wild cats include lions, tigers, leopards, jaguars, pumas, and cheetahs. The lynx is an example of small, wild cats. A “carnivore” is an animal that feeds only on meat. Let’s check out some facts about cats.

Where Do Cats Live?

Domestic cats have lived among people for thousands of years in nearly every part of the world, and they are one of the most popular pets in the world. A cat can either be a house cat, a farm cat or a feral cat. House cats are kept by humans as companions and for their ability to kill rodents. Farm cats are kept on farms to keep rodents away. Feral cats wander freely in the streets, and they often avoid humans.

Physical Features

Domestic cats have long, flexible and strong bodies. They have large eyes, triangular ears, and four rows of whiskers on each side of the nose. They have long tails that help in balance.

All cats have hair no matter their types. The “hairless” cats actually have hair but it is very short and almost invisible. Other cats have very thick hair that is called fur. Cats’ fur may be white, black, brown, grey, yellow, red, or orange. Some cats have striped fur, others may have a mixture of colours in their fur.

Most cats have five claws on their front paws, and four on their back paws. The claws are protractible and retractable, which means that they could be extended and pulled in. When a cat is relaxed, it keeps its claws covered with the skin and the fur of the paw. When a cat is about to hunt, defend itself, or climb, it may extend its claws.

The paws have five paw pads that look like fingers. There is a sixth paw pad in the inside of the front paw that doesn’t touch the ground called a “carpal pad.” The function of the carpal pad is to provide traction when the cat stops suddenly, goes down a hill, or jumps off a high place. So, it is a bit like an anti-slip.


Some cats grow to adult size in only one to two years, while others may take three to four years to grow. New-born cats grow fast for their first six months. In addition, males are larger than females.

Most domestic cats are about 20 to 25 centimetres (8 to 10 inches) tall from paw to shoulder. When fully grown, they reach about 45 centimetres (18 inches) long from head to body, with about 30 centimetres (12 inches) long tails. Adult cats usually weigh from 4 to 5 kilograms.


Cats walk precisely. They move the two legs on one side before the two on the other side. This walking style is called a pacing gait. When they want to speed up their walking, they move the diagonally opposite front and back legs together. This walking style is called a diagonal gait. In addition, cats walk on their toes, just like dogs.

Life Cycle of Cats

Cats, like other mammals, are born, and they don’t hatch from eggs like birds and reptiles. The pregnancy period of a female cat lasts for about two months. It then gives birth to a litter of baby cats. A litter is the group of young animals born to an animal at one time. A pregnant female cat finds the safest place, cleans it with its tongue, and gives birth there by itself. Female cats can have two to three litters a year.

The lifespan of cats varies according to different cat breeds. Some cats may live up to 10 years, and others may even live up to 20 years. There are five stages of a cat’s life as follows:

1. Kittens (0-6 months)

A baby cat is called a kitten. Kittens are generally born in a litter. A litter of cats often has around 3 to 5 kittens, but it can have as little as one kitten, or as much as 12 or even more. Kittens are born blind, deaf, and toothless. They drink their mother’s milk, and they cannot eat normal food for the first 4 to 6 weeks of their lives. Kittens are born about 8 centimetres (3 inches) long. By the age of 6 months, the average weight of a kitten reaches about 2.5 kg.

2. Junior (7 months – 2 years)

During this period, a junior cat reaches full size, yet it is not fully grown. They become extremely active, and they learn about life and how to survive it.

3. Prime Cat (3-6 years)

Prime cats are mature, fully grown cats. They are tall, long, and strong. They become wiser about their lives and their surroundings. They are healthy and active.

4. Mature Cat (7-10 years)

A mature cat is a cat in its middle age. In this life stage, cats gain more weight, and their coats become less brilliant. Their activity begins to decrease.

5. Senior Cat (11 years and over)

Senior cats become weak and calm. They are usually so lazy that they may spend the entire day sleeping. They show signs of old age, such as white hairs on their fur.

Cats Diet

Cats are carnivores, meaning that they are meat eaters. They can hunt and fish. Many cats hunt and eat small animals, such as rodents and rabbits. They use their sharp canines to catch and kill prey, and they use their molars to cut it up. Cats do not have flat-surfaced teeth, which means that they cannot chew. In addition, water is an important part of a cat’s diet. Cats need plenty of fresh and clean water daily.

Kittens do not eat before their eyes open and they can move on their own. They need their mother’s milk from birth until they reach 4 weeks old. After weaning, they need wet food that contains high amounts of protein, and they also need calcium and fats for energy. Adult cats need to eat balanced food. Their food must contain about 50% to 60% protein and 30% to 50% fat. However, not all cats need the exact same amounts. Kittens should be fed up to three times a day, while it is enough for adult cats to eat once or twice a day.

House cats often eat dry or canned food that is made especially for them. Dry food is made of a mixture of meat, minerals, vitamins, grain, poultry and other necessary elements. The mixture is dried into small pieces that cats can easily eat. It is better not to feed cats raw meat and canned fish because they can cause them sickness. In addition, most cats are lactose-intolerant, so they should not be fed milk.

Cats Senses

1. Sight

Field of Vision

The visual field of cats is slightly wider than that of humans. The field of view of cats is about 200 degrees, while humans can see only 180 degrees view. Cats are also near-sighted, meaning that they cannot see far objects clearly.


Cats have poor colour vision and they cannot see colours in the same way that humans can see. They have two types of cone cells that are sensitive mostly to blue and green. It is hard for cats to distinguish between red and green. They also don’t see the colours as saturated as humans can see.

Night Vision

The most important feature of a cat’s vision is that they have excellent night vision. Although they cannot see in total darkness, their ability to see in dim light is much better than that of humans. This is because of many features, including:

  1. Large Pupils

The eyes of cats have large pupils. The pupils expand and contract according to the intensity of light. At low light, the pupils expand and cover most of the eyes. At bright light, they contract to slits, which allows the eye to focus without chromatic aberration.

2. Rod Cells

The cats’ eyes have around seven times more rod cells in their retina than humans. The rod cells are sensitive to low light, and they also allow the cats to sense motion in the dark.

3. Retina

The retina of a cat’s eye has a layer of guanine. This causes cats’ eyes to shine at low light in a strong light.

4. Tapetum Lucidum

Behind the retina, there is a layer called a “tapetum lucidum.” This layer reflects any light that passes through the retina back into the eye, which strengthens the eye’s ability to see at low light.

2. Hearing

Cats’ sense of hearing is sharp and sensitive. It is very helpful for them when hunting or to avoid being hunted. In fact, cats can hear more frequencies than humans. Cats usually turn their heads to the direction of the sound.

The outer ear of a cat is called the pinna. It is large and shaped like a cone, and it amplifies sounds and helps detect where a sound is coming from. It is connected by 27 muscles (humans only have 6), which makes it able to rotate 180 degrees. Cats can hear even the ultrasounds that humans cannot hear, such as the ultrasonic calls that rodents (their preys) make.

3. Smelling

A cat’s sense of smell is very sensitive. In fact, Cats’ sense of smell is 14 times better than that of humans. In a cat’s nose, there are more than 200 million odour sensors, while there are only 5 million ones in a human’s nose.

The sense of smell is the sense that cats rely on the most for picking up information. The sense of smell is important for cats for identifying people and objects, locating prey or danger, and evaluating their food. In fact, cats rely more on what they smell than what they see to explore their environment.

4. Taste

Unlike other senses, cats’ sense of taste is weak. The surface of a cat’s tongue contains taste buds. However, they have 473 taste buds, compared to the 9,000 taste buds that humans have. So, cats’ response to food is related to the smell.

If you have a cat at your house, you should keep away bitter food from it, such as lemon. The taste buds interpret bitter taste as dangerous or poisonous food.

5. Touch

Cats have a sharp sense of touch. They have four rows of whiskers on each side of their noses. There are also smaller groups of whiskers found on other parts of their bodies, such as above the eyes and on the backs of the front paws. The whiskers of a cat are very sensitive to the slightest touch. Not only the whiskers, but also the eyebrows, hair of the cheeks, hair on the ears, toes and paws, and the tip of the nose are all very sensitive to touch.

Whiskers help cats monitor their surroundings and notice even the smallest changes, such as air pressure, temperature and wind direction. They are planted even deeper than fur, and they send signals of any touch to the sensory cells found at their roots. In addition, when its whiskers are touched, a cat will blink to protect its eyes. Although cats shed whiskers sometimes, whiskers should never be cut.


Cats are clean animals by nature. They use their tough tongues to comb and clean their fur. They learn this behaviour as kittens from their mothers. Mother cats lick their kittens to help keep them clean and to create a bond with them. When kittens are two weeks old, they are able to do this on their own.


Domestic cats communicate by sounds and body postures. The ways of communication are very important to cats, whether between a mother cat and her kittens, between male and female cats, or between cats and other animals, such as dogs.


Cats make different sounds and use them for communication. These sounds include meowing, hissing, growling, yowling, squeaking, chirping, grunting, and purring. It is not known exactly why cats purr, and there is no clear anatomical feature in cats’ bodies that is responsible for the purring sound. However, a cat’s purring may be a sign of comfort. Cats usually purr when being petted, when they are relaxed, or while eating.

Body Language

Cats also depend on different body postures for communication. The tail and ears are important parts for cats to send signs. The whole shape of a cat’s body actually changes when it is relaxed or alert. For example, when a cat raises its tail, this indicates a friendly greeting. Flattened ears indicate hostility. Nose-to-nose touching is also a way of greeting for cats. When it feels danger, for example, a cat shows its claws, arches its back, and makes its hair stand on end.

History of Cats and their Relationship with Humans

There has been a very long relationship between cats and humans since long ago. The earliest known association between cats and humans was probably about 10,000 years ago, at the time of the origin of agriculture in the Middle East. People at that time settled to farm lands, and rodents used to attack their stored grain. Cats preyed on the rodents, and they stuck around as they found a source of food. They also scavenged the garbage that humans produced, just as feral cats today do.

Cats have long been known to different cultures around the world. The ancient Egyptians worshipped cats around 4,500 years ago. They often mummified cats so that they could accompany them to “the next world.” They had also domesticated cats because of their ability to hunt mice and rats that ate their stored grain. In addition, there is evidence from art and literature that indicates there were cats in Greece from the 5th century BCE.

Over the years, cats domesticated themselves naturally until there was the species called “domestic cats” or “felis catus.” Today, millions of people keep cats as pets at their houses all over the world. However, keeping cats indoors as pets has only become common in the recent 70 years. Cats have always lived outside. Feral cats are not lost pets. They would actually be scared and unhappy if they are kept indoors. The outdoors is their home, and they are adapted to it.

Cat Breeds

Abyssinian cat


The Abyssinian cat is a breed of domestic short-haired cat that has a ticked coat, or light and dark bands of colour on each hair shaft. The name comes from Abyssinia (now Ethiopia) because it is believed that Abyssinian cats have originated there. They are also referred to simply as Abys. Abyssinian cats are very intelligent, curious and playful. They love to explore, jump and climb.

Abyssinians are small to medium in size. Their average height is 20-25 centimetres. Males weigh 7 to 10 pounds and females weigh 6 to 8 pounds. Their lifespan is between 9 to 13 years. Their coats are soft and medium in length, and they come mainly in four colours: ruddy brown, red, blue and fawn. Kittens are born with dark coats that gradually lighten as they are growing up. They have rounded heads, broad ears, and eyes shaped like almonds in shades of gold or green. Their bodies are slim but muscular.

American Bobtail Cat
Facts about Cats

American Bobtail

The American Bobtail is an uncommon breed of domestic cats that looks similar to wild cats. Its main feature is that it has a short, bobbed tail. Despite their wild appearance, American Bobtails are friendly and devoted companion cats. They are also confident and intelligent with dog-like personalities. They like playing games like fetch and hide-and-seek.

American Bobtails have medium to large sturdy bodies. Their coats are shaggy medium-length to long that come in any colour or pattern. They can be black, white, blue, red, cream, chocolate, lavender, cinnamon, fawn and other colours. Their eyes come in various colours, too. Their average height is 20-25 centimetres. Males weigh around 6-7 kg, and females weigh around 3-5 kg. Their lifespan is between 15 to 20 years.

American Shorthair Cat

American Shorthair

The American Shorthair is a breed of domestic cat that is considered a working cat. It is believed to have been a European cat before it was brought to North America. When settlers sailed from Europe to North America, they carried cats on board to protect their cargo from mice and rats. These cates landed in their new world and adapted to their new life.

American Shorthair cats are adaptable and smart. They enjoy playing games that challenge their intelligence. They love attention from their owners, but they are also fairly independent. They may get along with other pets, but their hunting instincts may take over with birds and small animals.

The American shorthair cats have muscular bodies and legs. Their average height is about 20-25 centimetres. Males weigh around 5-7 kg, and females weigh around 3.6-5 kg. Their lifespan is between 15 to 20 years. American Shorthair cats have a large head, medium-sized ears and large, wide eyes. They are recognized in various colours and patterns, such as brown-patched tabby, blue-eyed white, shaded silvers, smokes and many other colours and patterns. The most common and popular, however, is the silver tabby.

Bengal cat


The Bengal cat is a breed of domestic cats from hybrids of the Asian Leopard Cat with the Abyssinian and Egyptian Mau. The name comes from the scientific name for the Asian Leopard Cat “Prionailurus bengalensis.” Bengal cats are very intelligent, curious and confident. They are energetic cats that enjoy jumping and climbing around.  

Bengals are medium-sized with wild appearance. Their coats have spots and markings that resemble those on leopards. The coats show different colours and patterns, such as contrasted shades of bright orange to light brown with dark spots, or a distinctive marbling pattern. Some Bengals have a glitter to the tip of their fur that glistens when the light hits it. The average height of Bengals is 20-25 centimetres. Males weigh around 4-7 kg, and females weigh around 2.5-5.5 kg. Their lifespan is between 9 to 16 years.

Bombay Cat


The Bombay is a breed of short-haired domestic cats that is related to the Burmese. The most important feature of Bombay cats is their all-black coat with golden or copper eyes, resembling a wild panther. Bombay cats are energetic and smart. They enjoy playing games, and they learn tricks quickly.

Bombay cats have large, long bodies and long tails. Their average height is 20-25 centimetres. Males weigh around 3.5-5 kg, and females weigh around 2.5-4 kg. They have rounded heads and straight medium-sized ears. Their lifespan is between 12 to 18 years.

Burmese Cat


The Burmese cat is a breed of domestic cat that originated in Burma but is believed to have developed in the United States and Britain. They bear a resemblance to the Bombay cats. Burmese cats are sociable, energetic, curious and playful. They love to explore and fetch objects. They also enjoy interactive toys and learning new tricks.

Original Burmese cats were all dark brown in colour, but the new lines come in a wide variety of colours. The colours include blue, champagne and platinum. Their coats are short and silky. They have green or golden eyes depending on their coat colour. Burmese cats have muscular bodies, rounded heads, and medium-sized ears. Their height is about 25-30 centimetres. Males weigh around 4-5.5 kg, and females weigh around 3.5-4.5 kg. Their lifespan is between 10 to 15 years.

Chartreux cat


The Chartreux cat is a rare breed of domestic cat that is from France. Chartreux cats are great hunters. Farmers appreciate them for their hunting abilities. Chartreux cats are commonly known for their smile. In fact, the structure of their heads and their tapered muzzles make them appear to be smiling. Therefore, the Chartreux cat is often called “the smiling cat of France.”

The Chartreux cat is medium to large in size, with an average height of around 20-25 centimetres. Males weigh around 5-7 kg, and females weigh around 3-5 kg. Their lifespan is between 8 to 14 years. Chartreux cats have short-haired, woolly, blue coats. Their eyes’ colours are copper or orange. 

Egyptian Mau

Egyptian Mau

The Egyptian Mau is a rare breed of short-haired domestic cats. The word “Mau” is the Egyptian word for cat. Egyptian Maus are highly active, energetic, friendly and smart. They also have good hunting skills.

Egyptian Maus are medium in size. Their average height is 20-25 centimetres. Males weigh around 3.5-5 kg, and females weigh around 2.5-3.5 kg. Their lifespan averages between 9 to 15 years. Egyptian Maus are the fastest of the domestic cats because they have longer hind legs. They have short-haired coats with spots on the tips of the hairs. They also have a long, dark, dorsal stripe that runs along the spine from their heads to their tails. Egyptian Maus come in around six colours, most commonly silver, black, bronze, smoke, caramel and blue. Their eyes are green.

Siamese cat


The Siamese is a well-known breed of domestic cat from Thailand. Siamese cats get their name from Siam (Thailand today), where their ancestors were born. Siamese cats are so social, and they like companionship. They are intelligent, energetic, and playful. There are two types of Siamese cats: the Traditional Siamese, and the Modern Siamese.

Siamese cats are known for their distinctive appearance. Most of them have blue eyes and brown face, ears, tail and paws. Their coats have a kind of pattern called point coloration. It means that their bodies are pale and their faces, ears, feet and tails are dark. They have triangular heads, almond-shaped eyes, and large ears. They are small to medium in size, and their bodies are long and muscular. The average height of a Siamese cat is 20-25 centimetres. Males weigh around 4.5 to 7 kg, and females weigh around 3.5 to 5 kg. Their lifespan is between 11 to 15 years.

Persian cat


The Persian cat is one of the common breeds of long-haired domestic cats. It is known for its round face and short muzzle. Persian cats are not the most active cats. They are often quiet and calm. Persian cats are medium to large in size. Their average height is 20-25 centimetres. Males weigh around 3-5 kg, and females weigh around 3-4 kg. Their lifespan is between 12 to 17 years.

A Persian cat generally has a round head, a short face, large eyes, a small nose, chubby cheeks, and rounded ears. The body of Persian cats is strong and muscular. Their legs are short but strong, and their tails are thick. Persian cats have long, thick coats that are usually white, but they sometimes come in other colours such as black, blue, cream, and red. Their eye colours vary according to the coat colour; for example, a white Persian often has blue eyes, while a silver or golden one often has green eyes.


The Himalayan cat is a breed of long-haired domestic cat that was created from crosses of the Siamese with the Persian. The Himalayan cat has the body type of the Persian cat but the colourpoint pattern of the Siamese. It is known for having the best characteristics of both breeds. Himalayan cats are sweet and quiet cats.

Himalayan cats are medium to large in size, with an average height of 25-30 centimetres. Males weigh around 5-6 kg, and females weigh around 3.5-5.4 kg. Their lifespan is between 9 to 15 years.

The Himalayan cat has a round head, round eyes, a short nose, small ears, and chubby cheeks. It has a muscular body with a thick neck and short but strong legs. Its short legs with a stubby body make it harder for it to jump as high as other cats can do. Himalayan cats have thick, long and glossy coats that are light-coloured, and they have darker faces, ears and tails. Their bodies come in many colours, but their eyes only come in blue, like the Siamese.

Emails and messaging apps like WhatsApp and Messenger are the instant forms of communication used by almost everyone on the planet nowadays. They allow us to send text messages, voice notes, photos and even start live videos. Such apps canceled the vast distance between us. We feel as if we are living in the same place and not thousands of kilometers apart.

Now one of the most used ways of communication is email. Though they are mostly used in business, many people prefer to use emails to communicate with their friends and family. A lot of vital information is shared, going back and forth in the air around us. Text messages, files, and links are all sent in mere seconds.

The email technology though was not developed overnight. The first email sent was in 1965 in the MIT, or Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in the USA. But the technology is still evolving day after day. And to make sense of how emails came about, we need to learn a little bit of history about the different ways of communication that allowed the revolution of emails.

So how did people communicate in the past?

In the very far past, in order to send messages to others who lived far away, people had to send them with messengers. Those are real messengers in the form of people who were heading to the same place. Messengers used to take a very long time to deliver the message. Such duration mainly depended on the form of transportation they were using.

That continued for thousands and thousands of years until finally, miraculously, the first post office was established in Sanquhar, Scotland in 1720. This is when people started to write letters and drop them in mailboxes. Then these letters were collected by a postman who traveled to deliver the letters all at once. The faster the transportation became, the quicker the letters were sent.

However, this still took time. Thankfully, telegraphs were invented. That was in the year 1837 by an American inventor named Samuel F. B. Morse. Telegraphs are small devices that are able to send and receive short messages a lot faster. Instead of a person traveling, it was electrical signals that traveled this time.

How telegraphs work is pretty easy. To send a message between two cities, they should be connected through power lines named telegraph lines. These lines are also connected through electrical wires to the telegraph device in the telegraph office.

A telegraph device has two parts, a transmitter, and a receiver. Each letter of the alphabet is represented by a different electric signal. The transmitter in one city sends the message in the form of electric signals. These signals are transmitted to the other city through the telegraph line.

On the other side, the different electric signals are received and then translated into their corresponding letters to write the message. Telegraphs allowed messages to be sent in minutes.

Though telegraphs were fast, they were not that fast to send emergency messages and other vital information that had to be sent immediately. Luckily, 40 years later in 1876, a Scottish inventor named Alexander Graham Bell came up with the telephone.

Telephones were/are revolutionary. All you had/have to do is pick up the handset, dial the number, wait a few seconds until the other person replies, and then here you go. You are sending and receiving messages instantly. And not even written messages, but voice ones.

That being said, telephones were a kind of luxury, limited only to those who could afford them. That is why many people still depended on letters to send and receive messages. And maybe because they were more used to them. Another good side of letters is that it is easier to say things on paper other face-to-face.

The development of telephones, however, did not stop the development of other forms of communication. In 1965, at MIT, researchers wanted to find a way to communicate within the institute, send messages, and share files. And because necessity is the mother of invention, they invented the email.

An email is just like a letter, but electronic. No wonder it is preceded by an e which stands for electronic. Instead of a paper, you write on a screen. Instead of a pen, you write on a keyboard. And instead of enveloping your letter and dropping it in a mailbox, you only click ‘Send’. Ta Daaa!

Since then, emails have been evolving. Every day, new features are added to facilitate communication and file-sharing among users. You can send emails to one person only or many at the same time. You can attach files to the email or link them if your attachment is bigger in size than what the email can carry. You can copy and resend emails to other people. And the list of functions goes on and on.

So emails have become so important. Every email is either asking for information or giving information. To get the information you are asking for, you need to make sure you make your point as clear as day. This means you have to write emails properly.

To write a good email, you first need to decide who you are sending the email to. This is important because you have to write in a tone suitable for each recipient. Writing emails to friends and cousins is not like emailing your teacher. That is why we have informal emails and formal ones.

How to write informal emails

Before you write an email, you must have an email address of yours as well as the email address of your recipient. This is exactly like their home address at which you are sending them the electronic letter.

Any email address looks like this: What comes after @ is the email service provider. This is the virtual post office that will deliver your email to your friend’s virtual mailbox or inbox. Once you have the email address of your friend, you can start writing your informal email using the following steps.

(1) Go to your email page and click Compose, New, or New Message. A box will open in which you can write your email.

(2) Write your friend’s email address in the ‘To’ bar. If you are sending the email to more than one person, write their email addresses there too. Leave a space between them.

(3) Write the title of your email in the ‘Subject’ bar. The title should tell your friend what the email is about before they open it.

(4) Start your email with a salutation or greeting to your friend. Dear Pete or Hi Pete is pretty fine. You also need to add a comma after the name. This is good email punctuation.

(5) Write your message. This is what you want to ask or tell your friend about. It is called the email body. As mentioned earlier, make sure your message or question is direct and short. This makes it easy for your friend to understand and reply to it.

(6) Close your email by saying Thank you, Goodbye, or Regards. Then add a comma after it. Write your name in the next line.

(7) Then send your email.

(8) Instead of sending your email instantly, you can choose to send it later. Just click on ‘Schedule send’ and then choose the time. The email will be sent automatically even if your laptop is turned off.

Informal emails are usually sent to friends and beloved ones who we get on with really well. That means we can use casual language in our emails. Additionally, we can use informal expressions and slang that we use in everyday conversations as well as contractions. The following is another informal email to a friend.


How to write a formal email

We sure do not talk to our teachers or adults in general the same way we talk to our friends. It is the same case with writing emails. We should choose a more formal language to address adults.

Here are the differences between friendly emails and formal ones.

  1. Write a clear and formal email subject. For example: Request to join science club.
  2. Always use ‘Dear’ to greet your recipient.
  3. Address them by their last name.
  4. Write in full sentences.
  5. Avoid using contractions. Write (you are) instead of (you’re).
  6. Avoid the use of any informal expressions. For example, if you use (what’s up, buddy?) with your friend, you must use (how are you, Sir?) with your teacher.
  7. Use expressions such as (Yours sincerely) or (Best regards) as a greeting at the end of your formal email.

Here is an example of a formal email written to a teacher.


Writing an email is essential to ask for and receive important information. And learning the best way to write an email based on who you are sending it to is necessary to receive a proper reply to your email.

Today, we learned some interesting information about the different ways of communication people used before emails. Whether it was regular letters, telegraphs, or telephone calls, they all helped get messages delivered.

When writing to friends or cousins, we usually write an informal or friendly email. We use easy language and casual expressions and we call our friends by their first names.

But if we are emailing the school principal for instance, we have to use a whole different tone. In this case, we must address the recipient by their last name and use proper greetings. Besides, we must write in full sentences, avoid using contractions, and never forget to end the email with a formal salutation.

It is all about idea brainstorming.

Like water, ideas seem to make up our mere existence. Everything around us that humans could ever develop is basically built on ideas. This is one distinct difference between us and all other creatures. We can think, generate ideas, process them, accept or discard them, and develop them.

If we look around, we will find ourselves surrounded by other people’s ideas. Books are authors’ ideas. Movies are writers’ and directors’ ideas. School started out as an idea. Paintings were originally ideas. Even technology in terms of laptops, mobile phones, and the cars that take us everywhere were once ideas.

We need ideas to evolve as human beings, to form our opinions, to be able to express ourselves, and to push forward the wheel of progress. On a small scale, ideas might make you do well in mathematics class. On a much bigger scale, they shape cultures and influence entire generations.

We are diving into an ocean of ideas.

Where do ideas come from?

Just like amateur artists need to copy the work of professional artists to learn and develop, one needs to learn others’ ideas in order to come up with their own. In this, reading is your first weapon.

Reading lets you know how people from different cultures and even different times in history viewed the world, came up with their inventions, and helped shape the world we live in now. So getting exposed to others’ ideas and opinions is the first way to come up with your own ideas.

But if we can get ideas from reading, then it is the writing process that generates ideas. Authors are uniquely able to build entire worlds of characters and events. But the question here is, where do authors get their ideas? Where do ideas originally come from?

Well, that is a good question. Thomas Edison, the great American inventor once said, “To have a great idea, have a lot of them.”. That is of course no hard job for Edison. After all, he is the one who tried several thousand ways before he could successfully invent the light bulb.

Still, Mr. Edison, you did not answer the question. Where do ideas come from?

As a matter of fact, they do not. Ideas are rather made. To comprehend this, we must first admit something: ideas do not come out of nothingness. “There is no such thing as an original idea,” said Mark Twain, the great American writer. Instead, we can change old ideas, trim them, flip them, combine them, and turn them into something completely new.

So the question is not where ideas come from but instead how do we come up with ideas?

Hare or tortoise?

Some people say that in order to get new ideas by merging old ones, one should 

have a good imagination. This is also known as talent. It should not be hard for talented writers then to create such fictional worlds.

That being said, there have been/are/and will be millions and millions of writers from every inch of the world. Does that mean they were/will be all born talented? Of course not. At least one of them had no talent and no ability at all to imagine unreal things. How, then, did they develop their ideas?

Well, let’s first acknowledge the golden ground rule that says: creativity is not attributed to talent only but also, if not mostly, to consistent practice. Practice is required whether there is talent or not.

We can pretty much think of writers with and without talent as resembling the hare and the tortoise from the famous children’s story. 

Those who are talented need to take care of their natural idea-generating machine in order to develop it and keep it running, otherwise it will get rusty. And they will just be like the sleeping hare under the tree who lost to the slow but consistent tortoise.

On the other hand, those who have little to no talent have to practice even more and all the time. They have to make up for their lack of talent by putting in more effort. Consistency is their key to success, just like it was the tortoise’s. 

Ideas are to solve problems

Ideas are exclusively necessary to solve problems. If nothing went wrong, we would have nothing to fix. If we lived in a system that never failed, why would we even bother to improve it? What would we need ideas for?

Think about it. Everything we use now was once an idea to fix a problem. Fans and air conditioners solve the problem of hot weather and vice versa with heating systems. Washing machines solve the problem of getting very exhausted washing clothes by hand. Cars save physical effort and WhatsApp cancels the long distances between people.

Luckily, our world is never short on problems. In turn, we need to generate ideas to solve them. We mentioned before that both talented and untalented people have to practice coming up with ideas. Fine. How do they do that? And how can we introduce new ideas?

Well, by brainstorming.

What, then, is brainstorming? 

Brainstorming is an activity to come up with new ideas, suggestions, and solutions to certain problems. Usually, it is a group activity where people meet to think more freely and list their ideas down. However, it can as well be practiced individually.

Brainstorming was born from a spark of frustration!

In the USA during the 1940s lived an advertising executive named Alex. F. Osborn. Since he was working in advertising, he and his team needed to generate ideas for ads. Ads attract customers to buy products. Good ads make customers buy the products.

However, Osborn’s employees were not able to generate good ideas on their own. That meant no ads which in turn translated to no sales and no salaries.

To fix this problem, Osborn decided to gather his employees in groups to think together instead of each one of them working on their own. He asked them to address one problem and start suggesting any ideas related to it then write them down.

One key principle in those sessions was not to judge, at least not during the process of generating ideas. All participants were allowed to think freely without having to care if an idea was good or bad. The more ideas they suggested, the more inspired they became to engage and come up with more ideas.

After a few sessions, Osborn found that the group was able to think more efficiently and come up with more creative ideas. So he called the concept ‘organized ideation’ but his employees later named it brainstorming because their brains were taking problems by storm. Makes sense.

But how did Osborn’s employees precisely come up with ideas? Well, not by magic, of course. Osborn could develop multiple principles and techniques to encourage brainstorming at work. His method exclusively suited employees but later on, many brainstorming techniques were developed to fit in as many situations and be used by as many people as possible.

In this section of the article, we will go through some interesting brainstorming techniques to help you generate your own ideas. Let’s tackle them one by one.

Three techniques of idea brainstorming

Before you attempt brainstorming, you must first identify what you are trying to generate ideas for. Is it a problem you are trying to solve? Or is it something you want to do but do not know how to? Either way, make sure you address the topic/problem in a clear statement. For example: how to organize a birthday party. 

(1) Listing

Now that you have successfully addressed your topic or problem, you can start generating ideas for it. The first method of brainstorming is called listing and it is pretty self-explanatory. 

You bring a piece of paper, write your statement as a title on top of it then start listing anything and everything that is related in any way to the statement. For throwing a birthday party, the list might be something like this:

  • Birthday cake (pretty straightforward!)
  • Make it at home, find recipe, buy ingredients
  • Buy it, find a good bakery, or buy it online
  • Drinks: soda, and juice
  • Fruit, small bites
  • Clothes
  • Money
  • Candles
  • Gift, wrapping paper, card
  • Decoration: balloons, ribbon, lights, party poppers
  • Guests
  • Place
  • Date and time: people have to be free, weekend 

By now, you should have a more clear idea about how to organize a birthday party. The next step is organization and judgment. First, try to put the items in order. If you can, choose an item and try to organize the rest according to it.

Secondly, add modifications as needed. You can now discard the items you think will not work or replace them with other alternatives. For this list above, money can be a keystone item to put the other items in order with. So the new list goes like that:

  • Determine budget.
  • Choose the day, time, and place.
  • Invite people.
  • Choose the gift.
  • Go shopping: buy cake ingredients, other food and drinks, gifts, wrapping paper, and decorations.
  • Find a recipe online.
  • Make the cake the night before the part or early in the morning.
  • Decorate the place.
  • Serve the food on a large table.
  • Start welcoming guests.

And voila! You now know how to organize a birthday party.

(2) Mind mapping

Mind mapping is the second technique of idea brainstorming. It is actually a little bit more fun because it includes visuals. Again, write the problem/statement on a blank paper, but this time in the middle of the page. Then start to think of ideas or items that are directly related to the statement.

The difference here is to write these items in bubbles around the statement and draw lines to connect them to the statement in the center and to one another. You should continue doing this until you run out of ideas. The result will look like a map with so many bubbles and lines.

If we use this technique on the same birthday party example, the resultant mind map would come out something like this:

And again, you know how to organize a birthday party using mind mapping.

(3) Six Questions

The third technique we have today is so interesting and allows you to think more clearly. It is the six-question technique. The idea here is so simple. Once you identify the problem, ask six questions about it with what, when, where, how, why, and who.

Such questions can be phrased in many different ways to help you come up with more ideas. For example, if you want to buy a birthday gift for your friend, the questions can be something like that:

  • Who am I buying the gift for? Who will give me the money? Who will I ask for an opinion?
  • What can I buy? What does my friend want? What does he/she like? What does he/she not like? 
  • When should I buy it? When is the birthday?
  • Where can I buy it? 
  • How can I buy it? How much money does it cost? How much money do I have? How will I go to the store? How will I choose the gift? How will I wrap it? 
  • Why am I choosing this gift in particular?

Answering these questions and organizing your answers can pretty much give you a good idea about what gift you should buy for your friend and how exactly you are going to do that.

Tips to improve brainstorming

Improving your brainstorming skills is a sure thing with consistent practice. The more you apply the techniques we discussed above, the better and the faster you will become at coming up with ideas. Think of it like a muscle. The more you train it, the stronger it will get.

Besides practice, there are a couple of things that can help you have better brainstorming results. Here they are. 

(1) Teamwork

It is always better to do things with other people and it is just the same thing with brainstorming. Group thinking provides inspiration that might be scarce when brainstorming alone. Participants also engage with each other’s suggestions which in turn results in more and more ideas. So try brainstorming with your friends or colleagues.

(2) Topic Size

Secondly, when brainstorming, make sure the problem you are trying to solve or the topic you are addressing is neither too broad nor too specific. Broad topics can be overwhelming because there are so many perspectives to consider the problem from and therefore many areas to cover. On the other hand, specific topics provide a pretty narrow spectrum to move and come up with related ideas.

(3) Time Frame

Thirdly, set a suitable time frame. To avoid getting too carried away with brainstorming, it is better to set a period of time for each brainstorming session. Such sessions for sure are going to have different lengths based on the topic being discussed.

To do this, you can first try to freely brainstorm a topic, with no time frame applied. Just start your stopwatch and do it until you run out of ideas. Then shorten this period a bit and repeat the process. Try to come up with as many ideas as you can within the new time frame.

You can adjust the time based on your results. But remember, you are trying to generate ideas faster but not at the expense of idea quality.

Your Assignment

Now that you are familiar with three different brainstorming techniques, how about some assignment? Using any of the techniques listed above, try brainstorming as many ideas as you can about one or all of these topics:

  1. Vacations
  2. Chores
  3. Basketball


Ideas literally make up everything around us. We get to enjoy everything that facilitates our life thanks to the ideas of millions of people. Though we do not necessarily have to invent a new washing machine or build a rocket that can travel to Jupiter in 10 hours, we sure need to learn to think better, do well at school, and be able to solve our own problems.

That is why generating ideas is a necessary skill for kids as well as adults. In this article, we learned three different ways of idea brainstorming: listing, mind mapping, and the six-question technique. Whether you write your ideas in a list, draw them in a web and connect them to each other, or get creative with questions, you are going to have some ideas, actual ideas, that you did not have before. 

Remember not to judge or criticize your ideas while you are still generating them. Once you are completely done, you can then evaluate your ideas, relate them to each other, cross out flimsy ones, and put the rest in order.

Wind Energy

Winds range from light breezes to natural hazards, such as hurricanes and tornadoes. The wind is caused by differences in pressure in the Earth’s atmosphere. Air from a high-pressure area will move towards an area of low pressure. 

We will be talking about wind as a form of energy. First, we will refresh your memory with some wind facts. So, let us begin this article with the will to learn all there is to know about wind as a form of energy. 

High winds are caused when air moves between areas with large differences in air pressure. The wind is always in motion. It forms when the sun heats one part of the atmosphere differently than the other part. 

This causes the expansion of warmer air, making less pressure where it is warmer than where it is cooler. Air always moves from high pressure to lower pressure and this movement of air is wind.

Cool air will move in and replace the warm air. When warm air rises, it causes wind. The wind is the flow of gases on a large scale. On the surface of the earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of air. 

In meteorology, winds are often referred to according to their strength and the direction from which the wind is blowing. Short bursts of high speed wind are termed gusts. Wind energy is a form of renewable energy source. 

The most important wind energy fact is that this green energy source is leading the renewable energy market with installations that keep growing each year. Back in 2007, the estimations on worldwide installations for onshore wind energy barely reached 100 GW. 

Electricity: how is it measured?

Electricity production and consumption are most commonly measured in kilowatt-hours. A kilowatt-hour means one kilowatt (1,000 watts) of electricity produced or consumed for one hour.

Today, the global capacity of wind power reaches over 540 GW. That represents an increase of nearly 550% in one decade.

That is since turbines convert the wind’s kinetic energy into mechanical or electrical energy. In turn, this energy is used to provide the necessary power needed for many fields, such as industry, agriculture, and many more.

Mechanical energy

Wind energy can be harnessed by sails for transportation (sailboats) and other purposes, such as grinding grain and pumping water. In the United States, some six million mechanical windmills were in operation in the late 1880s. 

Until about 1935, it kept helping homesteaders and farmers to settle the West. Mechanical wind energy is most commonly used today for pumping water in rural or remote locations.

Electrical energy

 Harnessing the wind for electricity generation is the most widespread use of wind energy today. Wind turbines, activated by the wind, generate electricity for homes, businesses, and sell to utilities.

 In the U.S., the use of wind for electricity generation by utilities is limited but growing. In 2002, less than 1% of U.S. electricity supply came from wind power. Some European countries get a larger share of their electricity from the wind. 

As Denmark gets 20% of its total electricity supply from wind energy, while Germany gets 5%.

Wind power

 Wind power is the conversion of the energy in the wind into electricity. Wind energy has been used for thousands of years. The first windmills were built over 1500 years ago, for both grinding stones that crushed grain into flour, and to pump water.

Windmills have also been used to pump water out of wells on farms in South Africa since the old days. By the end of 2009, wind power supplied 1.3% of global electricity consumption. Wind power is widely used in European countries, the United States, and Asia. 

However, it is still a relatively new technology in South Africa. Studies have shown that South Africa has a lot of wind and will be able to produce a lot of electricity from wind. Wind power is a growing source of electricity for today’s generation. 

Worldwide, the wind is the fastest-growing energy source. Its installed generating capacity increased by an average of 32% annually from 1998 to 2002. Its use is expanding because modern technology has reduced the cost by more than 80% since the first commercial wind turbines were installed in California in the 1980s.

Many of those wind turbines still work today and can be seen in Palm Springs and Tehachapi in Southern California, and the Altamont Pass outside San Francisco. In areas with an excellent wind resource, it can sometimes be more affordable to get new power by building a wind farm than by building coal, natural gas, or another type of power plant. 

In addition, wind energy is a clean, safe, and renewable (inexhaustible) power source. China in 2015, made up 33.6% of the world’s wind power and installed more wind turbines than all countries within the European Union combined.

China, the USA, and Germany are the three countries that produce and use the most wind energy in 2020 in the world.

Wind turbines

In ancient history and for centuries, wind energy, in the form of windmills, was used for tasks such as grinding grain and pumping water. 

Today, advanced wind machinery known as wind turbines is used in many parts of the world to convert the wind’s kinetic energy into electrical energy. Modern trade wind turbines produce electricity by using rotational energy to power a generator. Wind energy is harnessed through the use of wind farms. 

The land between the turbines is used for agricultural and other purposes. Most large wind turbines are of roughly the same design. The wind turbine has a three-blade horizontal axis directed upwind, attached to a motor structure on top of a tall tubular tower.

The method of generating electricity from wind energy using turbines, 

as the wind moves the blades of the turbine that resemble a fan, which leads to its rotation, which in turn operates the generator responsible for generating mechanical, and electrical energy.

Wind turbines convert wind energy into electrical energy by using the aerodynamic force resulting from the rotating blades.

 That works in the same way as the plane’s wings or the propeller.

When the wind flows and reaches the blade, the air pressure decreases on one side of this blade, and this pressure difference creates lift and drag forces. The lifting force is stronger than the drag force. 

This leads to the rotation of the blade, which is connected to the generator either directly through the turbines or indirectly through a shaft and gearbox. This, in turn, leads to the operation of the generator that generates electricity.

Most wind turbines are divided into two main types: horizontal turbines and vertical turbines. Wind turbines can be built either on large water bodies such as oceans or lakes. These turbines consist of a shaft or tower high above the large blades and the engine’s base. 

The blades of large wind turbines that produce up to 1.8 megawatts of power may be over 130 feet (40 meters) long,

 and can be placed on towers about 260 in height feet (about 80 meters) long and can be used to provide power for individual homes.

Types of wind turbines

horizontal-axis wind machines

There are two types of wind machines (turbines) used today, based on the direction of the rotating shaft (axis): horizontal-axis wind machines and

vertical-axis wind machines.

vertical-axis wind machines. The size of wind machines varies widely.

There are two types of wind machines (turbines) used today, based on the direction of the rotating shaft (axis): horizontal-axis wind machines and vertical-axis wind machines. The size of wind machines varies widely.

 Small turbines used to power a single home or business may have a capacity of fewer than 100 kilowatts. Some large commercial-sized turbines may have a capacity of 5 million watts or 5 megawatts. 

Larger turbines are often grouped into wind farms that provide power to the electrical grid. Horizontal-axis turbines look like windmills. Most wind machines that are being used today are the horizontal-axis type. 

Horizontal-axis wind machines have blades like airplane propellers. A typical horizontal wind machine stands as tall as a 20-story building and has three blades that span 200 feet across. The largest wind machines in the world have blades longer than a football field. 

Wind machines stand tall and wide to capture more wind. Vertical-axis Turbines Look Like Egg Beaters Vertical-axis wind machines have blades that go from top to bottom. The most common type is the Darrieus wind turbine, named after the French engineer Georges Darrieus.

 He patented the design in 1931. It looks like a giant, two-bladed egg beater. This type of vertical wind machine typically stands 100 feet tall and 50 feet wide. Vertical-axis wind machines make up only a tiny share of the wind machines used today.

How does a wind turbine work?

Like old-fashioned windmills, today’s wind machines (also called wind turbines) use blades to collect the wind’s kinetic energy. The wind flows over the blades creating lift, like the effect on airplane wings, which causes them to turn.

The blades are connected to a drive shaft that turns an electric generator to produce electricity. With the new wind machines, there is still the problem of what to do when the wind isn’t blowing.

Horizontal-axis wind turbines are most commonly used today. The wind blows through blades, which converts the wind’s energy into rotational shaft energy. The blades are mounted atop a high tower to a drive train, usually with a gearbox. 

That uses the rotational energy from the blades to spin magnets in the generator and convert that energy into electric current. The shaft, drive train, and generator is covered by a protective enclosure called a nacelle. 

Electronic and electrical equipment including controls, electrical cables, ground support equipment, and interconnection equipment control the turbine, ensure maximum productivity, and transmit the electric current.

Today’s utility-scale turbines can be 100 meters (over 300 feet) high or more. Blades Rotor Tower Nacelle Foundation Cables Wind turbines are designed in such a way that the wind makes the rotor blades turn. 

The wind makes the blades spin around. This action then turns the rotor, to which the blades are joined to. The rotor is connected to the nacelle, which contains the gearbox. This makes electricity when it turns. The wind turbines are connected to the electricity supply grid through thick cables. 

Most turbines have three or two blades, which rotate around a central hub to drive a generator housed in the nacelle. Blades are made from materials such as fiberglass, carbon fiber, or wood laminates.

They are designed to withstand the force of strong winds. The nacelle is the large housing at the top of the tower. It contains the generator and other important components such as the gearbox and control equipment.

The tower sits in a steel-reinforced concrete foundation. The foundation ensures the turbine can withstand forceful winds. It is always below ground level and so cannot be seen. If the wind gets any faster than about 25 meters per second, the turbines will automatically shut down and turn their blades out of the wind. They do this to prevent damage.

How much power do wind turbines make?

The amount of electricity that a wind turbine makes depends on two things: the speed of the wind and the size of the wind turbine.

 The energy in the wind increases with the wind speed. When the wind’s speed doubles, the energy it contains increases by eight. This means a wind turbine will produce more electricity when the wind is stronger.

Larger turbines can capture more of the wind’s energy. So, make more electricity. At those times, other types of power plants must be used to make electricity. Wind Production In 2008, in the United States, generated a total of 52 billion kilowatt-hours, about 1.3% of total U.S.

 Although this is a small fraction of the Nation’s total electricity production, it was enough electricity to serve 4.6 million households or to power the entire state of Colorado. The amount of electricity generated from wind has been growing rapidly recently. 

The generation of wind in the United States nearly doubled between 2006 and 2008. New technologies have decreased the cost of producing electricity from wind, and growth in wind power has been encouraged by tax breaks for renewable energy and green pricing programs.

 Many utilities around the country offer green pricing options that allow customers the choice to pay more for electricity that comes from renewable sources to support new technologies. Wind power plants require careful planning. 

As operating a wind power plant is not as simple as just building a windmill in a windy place. Wind plant owners must carefully plan where to locate their machines. One important thing to consider is how fast and how much the wind blows at the proposed locations.

 As a rule, wind speed increases with altitude and over open areas that have no windbreaks. Good sites for wind plants are the tops of smooth, rounded hills, open plains or shorelines, and mountain gaps that produce wind funneling.

Wind speed is not the same across the country. Wind speed varies throughout the United States. It also varies from season to season. In Tehachapi, California, the wind blows more from April through October than it does in the winter.

 This is because of the extreme heating of the Mojave Desert during the summer months. The hot wind turbines in the ocean air over the desert rise. As the cooler, denser air above the Pacific Ocean rushes through Tehachapi Mountain and takes its place. 

In a state like Montana, on the other hand, the wind blows more during the winter. Fortunately, these seasonal variations are a good match for the electricity demands of the regions. In California, people use more electricity during the summer for air conditioners. 

In Montana, people use more electricity during the winter for heating. 


Major wind power locations

Wind turbines (sometimes called wind machines) generated electricity in 31 different states in 2008. The States with the most wind production are Texas, California, Iowa, Minnesota, and Oklahoma.

Most of the wind power plants in the world are located in Europe and in the United States, where government programs have helped support wind power development. As of 2008, the United States ranks first in the world in wind power capacity. 

Followed by Germany, Spain, and China. Denmark ranks ninth in the world in wind power capacity but generates about 20% of its electricity from wind. Offshore Wind Power Conditions are well suited along much of the coasts of the United States to use wind energy.

 However, some people oppose putting turbines just offshore, near the coastlines. People think the wind turbines will spoil the view of the ocean. Currently, there is a plan to build an offshore wind plant off the coast of Carrier’s vertical wind turbine in Martin.

Wind farm

wind energy plants, or wind farms, as they are sometimes called, are clusters of wind machines used to produce electricity. A wind farm usually has dozens of wind machines scattered over a large area.

A wind farm is a large group of wind turbines in one place used to produce electricity. A large wind farm may consist of hundreds of individual wind turbines distributed over an extended area.

Wind farms convert the wind’s naturally existing kinetic energy to electrical energy, using the aerodynamic force from the rotor blades. That, in turn, is what we use to power everything in our lives that requires electricity.

Wind farms will generate electricity at wind speeds that are between about 5 meters per second (18 kilometers per hour or a gentle breeze) and about 25 meters per second (90 kilometers per hour or a gale).

 The world’s largest wind farm, the horse hollow wind energy Center in Texas, has 421 wind turbines that generate enough electricity to power 220,000 homes per year. Many wind plants are not owned by public utility companies.

Instead, they are owned and operated by business people who sell the electricity produced on the wind farm to electric utilities. Wind energy is an economic power resource in many areas of the country. 

The wind is a clean fuel; wind energy plants (also called wind farms) produce no air or water pollution because no fuel is burned to generate electricity. Growing concern about emissions from fossil fuel generation increased government support. 

Moreover, higher costs for fossil fuels (especially natural gas and coal) have helped wind power capacity in the United States grow substantially over the past 10 years. The most serious environmental drawbacks to wind machines may be their negative effect on wild bird populations and the visual impact on the landscape. 

To some, the glistening blades of windmills on the horizon are an eyesore; to others, they’re a beautiful alternative to conventional power plants. 

Wind factors

The following are factors on which wind energy depends and affect the exit and generation of energy from it. Wind in the desert is typically extreme and unrestricted by trees and vegetation. 

wind energy can be an effective erosion and transportation agent if it is strong and blows across fine-grained sediments such as stands, sits, and clay. As with all energy supply options, wind energy can have adverse environmental impacts, including the potential to reduce, fragment, or degrade habitats for wildlife, fish, and plants. 

Furthermore, spinning turbine blades can pose a threat to flying wildlife like birds and bats. The impact on birds of prey and migratory birds through the turbines does not kill many birds each year, but the total deaths could eventually tip the species into decline.

The majority of birds killed by wind turbines are birds of prey. Birds of prey and wind developers are both drawn to the same sites-hills and ridges where the wind provides lift for soaring birds.

The effect of wind in the vineyard is important for winegrowers for many reasons. Continuous strong winds may damage the vines and impede growth. And the wind effect depends on water depth and increases in importance as the depth decreases, whereas the pressure effect is independent of depth.

Facts about wind energy

·         Wind energy is the most competitive energy source.

A typical argument from fossils advocates is that wind energy is much more expensive than fossil sources. The truth is that since fossil fuel plants require coal, oil, and natural gas to work, the operation and maintenance costs are very high.

When you summarize the expenses over a lifetime and take a look at the legalized cost of energy, then you realize that wind energy is not only competitive, but it’s cheaper than installing a generation plant based on coal, natural gas, or combined cycle technology. 

Saying that wind energy is expensive is nothing but a renewable energy myth. 

·           The first modern wind turbines were built in the 1940s in Vermont, USA.

In 1941, the Smith-Putnam wind turbine, the world’s first-megawatt wind turbine, was connected to the local electric distribution system.

·          The world’s largest wind turbine is located in Hawaii, USA.

·           Today’s wind turbines can be less noisy than a car. 

Since wind turbines are considerable devices that have large moving blades, it is logical that they will create some noise. There is no point in denying it. However, the effects of this noise have been widely exaggerated, and every so often it is hard to separate fiction from reality.

The sounds created by wind turbines are related to the changes in wind speed due to blades moving; these have been classified as tonal and low-frequency sounds. When comparing these sounds with other typical sounds that can be found on the streets of a city, researchers have found that a wind energy farm is not as loud as is believed.

Modern wind turbines produce very little noise. The turbine blades produce a whooshing sound as they encounter turbulence in the air, but this noise tends to be masked by the background noise of the blowing wind. 

·           Fossil fuel plants are more dangerous for birds than wind turbines height.

The typical misconception against wind turbines is that they represent the greatest danger for bird species around the globe, mainly due to collisions with blades or towers. However, those who argue such statements seem to forget the effect caused on birds by other conventional sources of energy.

·         Wind Energy will not damage the power grid.

Due to the intrinsic variability of wind energy, 

it is often believed that wind power exposes great risks to the power grid since the transmission system needs to be balanced at all times,

 and radical ups and downs in available power from wind farms could lead to blackouts or a lower quality of service.

However, the truth is that the wind resource is highly predictable and as time and data are collected, forecast methods improve their accuracy.

·            The first developed windmills was wind energy in 2000 BC in Persia and Ancient China.

·            In Vermont in 1940, the first modern turbine was built.

·            To pump water and crush grain, we have used wind energy for hundreds of years.

·           Wind energy requires a production tax credit (PTC) to achieve these economics. 

·           If wind energy displaces energy from existing coal plants, then rates will go up.

·           Wind variability does increase the day-to-day and minute-to-minute operating costs of a utility system because the wind variations do affect the operation of other plants.

·            Wind energy is a converted form of solar energy, which is produced by the nuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium at its core.

·          As an inexhaustible and free energy source.

 It is available and plentiful in most regions of the earth. In addition, more extensive use of wind power would help reduce the demand for fossil fuels, which may run out sometime in this century, according to their present consumption.


The wind is simple air in motion.

It is caused by the uneven heating of the earth’s surface by the sun. Since the earth’s surface is made of extremely diverse types of land and water, it absorbs the sun’s heat at different rates.

·          China has a long history of using windmills. 

The unearthed mural paintings from the tombs of the late Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 AD) at Kandahar, Liaoning City, have shown exquisite images of windmills, evidencing the use of windmills in China for at least approximately 1800 years.

·           Wind turbines are used directly to do work such as water pumping or grain grinding.

The practical vertical axis windmills were built in Sis tan (eastern Persia) for grain grinding and water pumping, as recorded by a Persian geographer in the ninth century.

·             Wind turbines are used to convert wind energy to electricity.

Wind energy is a special form of kinetic energy in the air as flows. It can be either converted into electrical energy by power converting machines or directly used for pumping water, sailing ships, or grinding gain.


History of wind Power

Over 5,000 years ago, the ancient Egyptians used the wind to sail ships on the Nile River. Later, people built windmills to grind wheat and other grains. The earliest known windmills were in Persia (now called Iran). 

These early windmills looked like large paddle wheels. Centuries later, the people of Holland improved the basic design of the windmill. They gave it propeller-type blades, still made with sails. 

Holland’s windmills are world-renowned. American colonists used windmills to grind wheat and corn, pump water, and cut wood at sawmills. As late as the 1920s, Americans used small windmills to generate electricity in rural areas without electric service. 

When power lines began to transport electricity to rural areas in the 1930s, local windmills were used less and less, though they can still be seen on some Western ranches. Windmills Make a Comeback after Oil Shortages. 

The oil shortages of the 1970s changed the energy picture for the Country and the world. It created an interest in alternative energy sources, paving the way for the re-entry of the windmill to generate electricity.

 In the early 1980s, wind energy took off in California, partly because of state policies that encouraged renewable energy sources. In the 1990s, the push came from a renewed concern for the environment, in response to scientific studies indicating potential changes to the global climate if the use of fossil fuels continues to increase.

Wind energy has become one of the most important and remarkable alternatives for the generation of electricity from renewable energy sources. This source of energy presents several advantages that make it the most suitable technology for utility-scale projects.

Solar and wind energies

Solar and wind energies are eligible for home-usage. They are two of the most sustainable and environmentally friendly sources of energy, and they are intrinsically linked. Interestingly, wind energy actually wouldn’t exist if it weren’t for solar energy.

Wind exists due to the sun unevenly heating the surface of the earth. As hot air rises, cooler air moves in to fill the void. So, it makes sense that, as long as the sun continues to shine, the wind will continue to blow, and we will continue reading on Learning Mole. 


In the end, we conclude that the wind is used to generate electricity using kinetic energy from air movement and is converted into electrical energy using wind turbines or wind energy conversion systems.

wind energy
wind energy

In the end, we conclude that the wind is used to generate electricity using kinetic energy from air movement and is converted into electrical energy using wind turbines or wind energy conversion systems.

The wind is a clean and inexhaustible source that is used to produce energy,

 And wind energy is energy extracted from the kinetic energy of the wind by using wind turbines to produce electric energy, and it is a type of electromechanical energy.

Abundant and renewable energy is found in all regions, 

But its availability varies from one site to another. It is clean, renewable energy that does not produce emissions such as greenhouse gases during operation, and it needs varying areas depending on the size of the plant and the type of towers used.

As we have been stressing, the wind is a renewable energy source that does not pollute, so some people see it as a suitable alternative to fossil fuels. So, keep on visiting our Learning Mole to get more knowledge and information about all different kinds of stuff.

This was all about the wind turbines. We hope you enjoyed it. To practice even more on wind and learn other interesting subjects, keep visiting Learning Mole.

History of Lightning

Lightning is considered one of the oldest observed natural phenomena on earth. Ancient people mostly always believed in nature gods. Some ancient people believed that God was responsible for lightning, others believed that angry gods threw lightning bolts from the heavens. 

Do you know that the Early Greeks believed that lightning was a weapon of Zeus? So in the past, no one knew the fact of lightning. By the 1700s scientists proved that lightning is a bright flash of electricity produced by a thunderstorm.


is a huge, bright flash of electricity in the atmosphere that happens between the clouds, the air, or the ground. Ice particles and water droplets, which are inside a cloud carry electrical charges, some are positive and others are negative. Air is considered as a barrier between the positive and negative charges in the cloud and between the cloud and the ground.

Lighting usually happens when the opposite charges build up enough in the clouds. To equalize these opposite charges, the positive charges form under the cloud on the ground. The sparkle flash of lightning very fast equalizes the negative and positive charges in the atmosphere until the opposite charges are set up again.

When the electricity from the lightning heats the gases in the air, the gases expand and make a loud noise. The loud noise, which follows lightning is called thunder.

All lightning that is produced from thunderstorms is very dangerous. So if you hear the booming sound of thunder, then you may be in danger. Not all lightning is dangerous. 

Do you know that….!!!
  • Lightning hits the ground 25 million times a year which means about 50 to 100 lightning bolts may strike the Earth every second. 
  • A lightning flash has enough energy to light a 100-watt bulb for about 3 months. 
  • Lightning is approximately six times hotter than the surface of the sun!

Lightning Color

Lightning is always bright in white color, but often it’s tinged with another color around the edges. Lightning may come in different colors of the rainbow “Red, Yellow, Green, Cyan, Blue, and Violet”. Lighting color depends on conditions in the clouds and in the air.

The color of a lightning stroke depends on how hot it is and what is in the clouds and in the air. Lightning color starts with red and ends with violet, which is considered the hottest. Let’s see:

  • Yellow or Orange lightning: point out that there is a large concentration of dust in the air.
  • Blue lightning: inside a cloud, points out the presence of hail.
  • Red lightning: inside a cloud, points out the presence of rain.
  • White lightning: indicates that the air has a little amount of moisture “humidity”.

What are Cloud Flashes?

Cloud flashes are lightning that occurs inside the cloud which travels from one part of a cloud to another, or from the cloud to the air.


is mainly caused by lightning. When a lightning blot travels from the cloud to the ground it makes a little hole in the air called a channel. At the moment when the light is gone, the air breaks down again and occurs a booming sound of thunder.

Do you know why we see lightning before we hear thunder??????

That’s because light travels faster than sound.

What is a “stepped leader”?

A stepped leader is negatively charged particles that come from the cloud, it moves in many directions trying to find the path of least resistance. Stepped leader speed reached two hundred thousand “200,000” miles per hour.

There are several types of lightning. You can identify the type by what is at the flash channel start and end. Here are some of the lightning types:
Cloud-to-Ground Lightning (CG) 

All of you kids think that Cloud-to-ground lightning comes from the sky, but in fact, it comes from the ground up. It is a channel of a negative charge that is called a stepped leader. It takes the zigzag or forked pattern, so it is sometimes called forked lightning. The stepped leader is not easy to see by eye, it is so fast and travels to the ground in a millisecond. 

When the negative charge of the stepped leader became near the ground it attracts a channel of positive charge “steamer”. It starts moving upward from the ground tries to find tall objects such as a tree, house, or telephone pole. When the charges of leader and streamer connect, a powerful electrical current begins to flow.

Cloud-to-Air Lightning (CA)

Cloud to air lightning occurs when negatively charged air particles are attracted to positive charges inside the cloud. Cloud-to-Ground lightning contains Cloud-to-Air lightning through the branches, which reach the main channel into the mid-air. 

The flashes of Clouds sometimes have visible channels which reached out into the air around the storm but do not strike the ground.

Ground-to-Cloud Lightning (GC) 

It is an invisible channel of electrically charged air moving from the cloud directly to the ground. Its strikes sometimes called upward-moving lightning, they are common on tall structures such as towers and skyscrapers.

How does the Visible Lightning Strike produce?

When a separate channel closes an object on the ground, a powerful wave of electricity from the ground moves upward to the clouds and produces that visible lightning strike.

Do you know that the ground is mainly made up of positively charged particles, and storm clouds have negatively charged particles? Negatively charged in Ground-to-Cloud Lightning follow positively charged particles.

The polarity of the Ground-to-Cloud Lightning can be either positive or negative. Ground to cloud lightning and cloud to ground lightning are nearly the same. The name depends on the flash itself.

Cloud-to-Cloud Lightning (CC) or Intercloud Lightning

Cloud to cloud (CC) or intercloud lightning happens between two clouds, one carries a positive and the other carries a negative charge. These obviously do not strike the ground so they just travel from cloud to cloud.

Intracloud Lightning (IC)

Intracloud lightning is often called “sheet lightning that’s because of the appearance of its discharge lighting, which lights up the sky like a sheet of light. It is the most common type of cloud that mainly occurs inside a cloud and jumps between different charge areas in the cloud.


Have you heard about lightning rods one day? Do you know who Benjamin Franklin is?

Who was Benjamin Franklin?

Benjamin Franklin was an American inventor and politician. He had many inventions such as Urinary Catheter, American Celebrity, Swim Fins, The Odometer, American Political, Cartooning, Glass Armonica, Reaching Device, Franklin Stove, Bifocal, Eyeglasses, and the Lightning Rod. Benjamin Franklin was fond of storms and loved to study them. Lightning Rod was one of his great inventions. 

What is the Lightning Rod?

A lightning rod is an external terminal set up in a building or structure. The main purpose of a lightning rod is to attract the lightning to prevent it from striking a building, structure, or people. You can find many types of lighting rods with different characteristics. 

How does the Lightning Rod work?

By the 1700s Benjamin Franklin invented a gorgeous invention called the “ lightning rod”. Before that invention, the houses were burned out from lightning strikes. One day in May 1752 a thunderstorm passed over the village of Marly-la-Ville “Philadelphia” and destroyed many buildings.

Benjamin Franklin was ready for this storm and waited for it. He prepared the tools for his experiment. Here are the tools he used in his invention:

  1. Kite made of silk cord.
  2. Hemp string.
  3. Silk string. 
  4. House key. 
  5. Wire. 

First, Franklin built a simple kite and connected a wire to the top of it. At the bottom of the kite, he tied a hemp string, and silk string. After that Franklin attached the key to the hemp string. Then they waited. Franklin’s son helped him to fly the kite in the air through the thunderstorm.

Franklin noticed that the free threads of the hemp string were upstanding, just as they suspended on a common conductor. Also when he moved his finger close to the key, he felt a spark because the electricity reached the key. The negative charges in the metal piece attracted the positive charges in his hand, so he felt 09othis spark.

From this point, Franklin proved some points:
  • The metal key was electrostatically charged.
  • The clouds were electrically charged.
  • The lightning strikes were large electrostatic discharges.

As a result of this discovery, in 1753 Franklin invented the lightning rod and it became a great invention at that time. Lightning rods saved many houses and structures from destroying and burning.

What is Fulgurite?

Fulgurite is a glassy formation that happed by a lightning strike on sandy soil. The lightning heats the soil and mixes the soil particles, which surround the path of the channel and cause a hollow tube-lined formation shaped like the lightning strike that formed it.

What is the difference between Thunder and Lightning?

Lightning Thunder
MeansThe flashing of light that is produced by a discharge ”positive and negative charge” of atmospheric electricity.The sound that follows lightning because of a sudden expansion of the air in the way of the electrical discharge.
EnergyElectrical energy.Sound energy.
MovementLight travels faster than sound. You can see the lightning first. Lightning is fast and too hot. It is more destructive than thunder.Thunder is slower than lightning. You can see thunder after lightning. Thunder causes heavy rain and strong winds. It is not dangerous as lightning.

Lightning is formed when water and ice particles hit with warm air and build up static energy. Thunder is formed by the quick expansion of gases in the electrical charge of lightning.

What is Volcanic Lightning?

Volcanic lightning is known as “Dirty Thunderstorms”. It is able to produce some of the most powerful lightning storms on Earth.  

Volcanic eruptions don’t always produce lightning. Just a single eruption can produce multiple or separate lightning storms.  

Scientists discovered that lightning seems to be explosions throughout the eruption, however, not all explosions occur lightning. They also observed that most of the strong lightning happens at the beginning of the eruption and after that lightning progressively less in intensity as the eruption continued, it may take weeks to stop.

Facts about Lightning and Thunder

  • Thunderstorms are always a result of lightning, so you can’t see and hear a thunderstorm without lightning. On the other hand, you can see lightning without a thunderstorm. 
  • Thunder is sometimes called “heat lightning” because it always happens in the summer.
  • Lightning can have 100 million to 1 billion volts and contains billions of watts.
  • Positive lightning is stronger than negative lightning because of its electrical field. And due to its long flash duration and its great peak charge, positive lightning is considered more dangerous than negative lightning.
  • Lightning happens more in the summer due to the humidity in the atmosphere. The land surface is warm in summer, so warm air keeps more water vapor. The water vapor condenses into liquid water cloud drops, the latent heat is released to occur thunderstorm.  Moist and warm air near the surface can cause deep convection that may produce lightning.
  • Thunderstorms are less common in the winter, and sometimes lightning can happen during snowstorms. 
  • Lightning hit the same spot more than one time.
  • Lightning hit taller objects more than shorter objects to produce the upward channel.

What is the 30-30 Rule for Lightning?

It is considered an easy way to determine the lightning in our area. First, if you see lightning start, begin counting to 30. Then, count the seconds between seeing lightning and hearing thunder.

If this second is less than 30 seconds so this lightning is so harmful. At this time you should quickly search for a safe place to hide in.

Lightning Tips for Kids

Here are some tips, which help you to protect yourself from harmful Lightning: 
  • You can protect yourself from harmful lightning by staying indoors during the storm. Indoors means a safe place such as homes, enclosed shelters, offices, and shopping centers.
  • Always follow up the weather forecast to know what’s the news about the weather.
  • During thunderstorms, you should delay any activity outdoors.
  • Don’t forget the 30-30 rule. 
  • If you are stuck in an open area, try hard to find a safe place to stay in. you can get low, sit down, or crunch that may help you to stay safe but not remove you from danger.
  •  If you are stuck outside and there is no safe place to hide, the following actions may remove the danger from you:
  1. If you are in elevated areas such as hills, or peaks, you should leave it instantly.
  2. Don’t lie flat on the ground just crouch down, tuck your head, and put your hands over your ears. 
  3. Don’t stay under a tree.
  4. Don’t stay on a cliff or rocky overhang.
  5. If you are swimming in a pond, sea, or pool, instantly get off the water. 
  6. Don’t stand near objects that conduct electricity such as light poles, barbed wire fences, and power lines that is because lightning can travel through any metal.
  •  Staying at home never indoors protects you from lightning. So f you are indoors “homes”, you should follow these instructions, which keep you safe and reduce your risk of being struck by lightning:
  • Stop using water during a thunderstorm such as a shower, wash dishes or any other activity with water. Lightning can travel through plumbing.
  • Turn off all electronic equipment, lightning can travel through electrical systems such as televisions, iron, air conditions.
  • During thunderstorms do not lie on concrete floors or stand on walls, lightning can travel through metal wires in concrete flooring or walls.

Let’s Do Simple Experiments

1- How to make Lightning at home?
  • A low-watt light bulb and a ballon.
  • Make the room dark by closing the curtains and turning off the lights. 
  • Blowing up the balloon and rub it on your head.
  • The friction builds up an electrical charge just like the inside of the cloud during the storm.
  • Move the balloon closer to the end of the light bulb.
  • The light-up is similar to lightning, the negative charge from the ballon leaps across the air and is connected to positive charges inside of the light bulb, that what happened during the thunderstorm from a cloud to another cloud, or from a cloud to the ground.
2- How to Make a Spark?
  • Pencil with an eraser.
  • Aluminum tray.
  • Your hair.
  • Styrofoam plate.
  • Thumbtack.
  • Attach the pencil with an eraser in the center of the aluminum tray by using pushpins.
  • The function of the pencil is to make like a handle “ to lift the aluminum tray”. 
  • Rub the styrofoam with your hair, you should rub it roundly, fast, and so hard for about 3 minutes.
  • Hold up the aluminum tray by using the pencil handle and putting it on the Styrofoam plate.
  • You will see the spark very clearly as what you see during lightning…Try it yourself…
Common Questions about Lightning

1- What is the speed of lightning?

The flashes of lightning that we see travel at the speed of light “670,000,000 mph”. 

2- Is lightning a fire or air?

Lightning is a brilliant electric spark “fire” discharge in the atmosphere, which occurs during a thundercloud.

3- Is lightning faster than sound?

No, doubt that lightning and thunder occur at the same time. But in fact, we see lightning before hearing thunder because light travels a million times faster than sound. On the other hand, sound takes about five seconds to travel one mile.

4- Is lightning as fast as the speed of light?

No, lightning is not as fast as the speed of light. The speed of light is 299,792,458 meters per second.

5- Is lightning faster than a bullet?

Yes, if we compare lightning speed with bullet speed we will find that lightning is faster than a bullet.

6- Is lightning hotter than the sun?

Yes,  lightning is hotter than the sun, which is 5 times hotter than the surface of the sun. In fact, lightning strikes fall on a tree, it can blow off.

7- Is anything faster than light?

No, there is no object else that can travel faster than lightning.

The United States of America, United States, or America for short, (abbreviated as USA or US), is a country comprising 50 states. Most of the country is located in the center of North America, where 48 states and the capital Washington are located between the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean. Canada borders America to the north while Mexico is located to the south of the country.

Northwest of the continent, above Canada, is Alaska, which is only separated from Russia to the west by the Bering Strait. The state of Hawaii, which is an archipelago, is located in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. The country also includes islands in the Caribbean and the Pacific Ocean.

The United States comes in third place in terms of area (9.83 million km²), and it ranks third in terms of population (329 million people). The United States is distinguished as one of the most diverse countries in the world in terms of race and culture, and this came as a result of the great immigration from different countries. The US economy is the largest national economy in the world.

America’s Name Origin

In 1507, a German cartographer mapped the world and he named the areas of land located in the Western Hemisphere as “America”, inspired by the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci. The former British colonies were the first to use the modern name in the Declaration of Independence in 1776.

The current name was finalized in 1777, as «United States of America»”. The short form was also adopted by the United States. Citizens of the United States are referred to as Americans. Though the word America refares to the whole continent, the term American is almost restricted to the citizens of the United States.

American Flag

The Flag of the United States of America is a symbol of freedom and liberty to which Americans pledge their allegiance. Standing at attention and facing the flag with their right hand over the heart to salute their nation, country, and flag.

The flag consists of 13 alternating red and white stripes representing the 13 original colonies. Its 50 white stars on a blue field represent the 50 states. The colors on the flag represent:

Red: valor and bravery,

White: purity and innocence,

Blue: vigilance, perseverance, and justice.


Historical Background

The country was founded by thirteen British colonies along the Atlantic coast, the first of which was the English colony of Virginia, after the Virgin Queen Elizabeth. The pace of English settlement on the east coast increased after the emergence of companies aimed at encouraging the settlement movement in overseas lands.

In the nineteenth century, the United States acquired lands from FranceSpain, the United Kingdom, Mexico, and Russia, as well as the Republic of Texas and Hawaii. Disputes between the agricultural South and the industrial North over state rights and the expansion of the slave trade led to the American Civil War in the 1860s. The victory of the Northern Territory prevented a split in the country, which led to the end of legal slavery in the United States.

The American national economy became the largest in the world by 1870. The Spanish American War and World War I emphasized the country’s military might. In 1945, the United States emerged from World War II as the first country to possess nuclear weapons, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, and a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The United States also became the world’s sole superpower after the end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The United States spends about 50% of global military spending on American forces.


The tension between the American and British colonists during the revolutionary period of the 1860s and early 1770s led to the American War of Independence, which took place from 1775-1781. After Britain was defeated by American forces with the help of France and Spain, Britain recognized the independence and sovereignty of the United States over American lands west of the Mississippi River.

US Independence Day

The United States’ first Senate, House of Representatives, and President (George Washington) took office in 1789. The Bill of Rights was adopted in 1791, which forbids the restriction of personal liberties and ensures legal protections. The public view of slavery changed. The slave trade was protected by law until 1808. The northern states banned the slave trade between 1780 and 1804, while slavery in the southern states lasted longer.

Civil War

Tensions between slave and free states led to a growing debate about the relationship between the state and federal governments, as well as the violent conflicts caused by the spread of slavery to new states. Abraham Lincoln was elected as the anti-slavery Republican Party candidate for president in 1860. The American Civil War broke out and four pro-slavery states joined the Confederacy. Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation ended slavery in all states. After the Union victory in 1865, there were three constitutional amendments guaranteeing freedom to about 4 million African Americans who were slaves, who became citizens, and had the right to vote. The war greatly increased federal power. The civil war remains the deadliest conflict in the country’s history, with some 620,000 soldiers killed.

Women’s Rights Movement

In 1920, the women’s rights movement won a constitutional amendment granting women the right to vote.

Great Depression

The boom of the 1920s ended with the collapse of Wall Street in the Great Capitalist World Crisis of 1929, which resulted in the Great Depression. After being elected president, Franklin Roosevelt put a set of policies that increased government interference in the economy.

Cold War

The United States and the Soviet Union vied for power after World War II during the Cold War. The United States promoted liberal democracy and capitalism, while the Soviet Union supported communism and a centralized planned economy. Both supported dictatorships and the two powers engaged in proxy wars.

Space Race

The failure of the Soviet Union in 1969 to launch the first manned spacecraft to President John F. Kennedy‘s call for the United States to be the first to send a man to the moon.

Nuclear Race

Kennedy also had a decisive nuclear confrontation with Soviet forces in Cuba, over the installation of nuclear-armed Soviet missiles on Cuba, known as the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Civil Rights

Meanwhile, civil rights movements increased, led by African Americans such as Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King who fought segregation and discrimination by peaceful means.

Government of the United States of America

The United States is the oldest living federal government in the world. It is a constitutional republic and a liberal democracy, thus ruled by the majority and while the rights of minorities are protected by law. In the US federal system, citizens are subject to three levels of government: federal, state, and local government.

The federal government consists of three branches:

Legislative authorityCongress consists of two chambers, the Senate and the House of Representatives, whose tasks are to make federal law, declare wars, ratify treaties, and have the power of prosecution.

Executive authority: The president is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and has the right to reject bills and appoint the Cabinet and other officers.

Judicial authority: The Supreme Court and other federal courts. Judges are appointed by the president and with the approval of the Senate.

US Capitol and White House

Geography of America

The area of ​​the United States of America is approximately 1.9 billion acres. The state of Alaska, separated by Canada from the United States, is the largest state in area. The United States of America is the third or fourth country in terms of area after Russia and Canada and ahead or after China. The order varies because of the difference that occurs when calculating the area of ​​the two disputed areas between China and India.


America’s Climate Diversity

Because of its large area and geographical diversity, the United States has the most types of climate. The climate varies in the north, where it is humid continental east of the 100th meridian and humid subtropical in the south. The southern tip of Florida has a tropical climate. Most of the western mountains have an alpine climate. In addition, the climate in the Great Basin Desert in the southwest is arid, while it is considered to have Mediterranean weather in coastal California and oceanic in coastal Oregon and Washington and southern Alaska. Most of Alaska is polar. The country is also exposed to some natural disasters, especially the states that overlook the Gulf of Mexico.


America’s Geographical Diversity

The United States is known for its astonishing nature, not only because of its vast area and climate diversity, but also because of the natural variation. America occupies a vast space of the North America Continent. As a result, America is famous for its wide range of geographical features and phenomena. On the coastal plain of the Atlantic, there are the tremendous forests and hills of Piedmont. The Appalachian Mountains separate the east coast from the Great Lakes region and the grasslands of the Midwest. The Mississippi-Missouri River, the fourth-longest river in the world, runs from north to south in the middle of the country.

The Rocky Mountains are located at the western end of the Great Plains and extend north to south along the country. The Great Rocky Basin and other deserts are situated far to the west. The Sierra Nevada and the Cascade Mountains also extend near the Pacific coast. Mount McKinley in Alaska is the highest peak in the country and in North America. Alaska is known for its active volcanoes, in addition, Hawaii is made up of volcanic islands. The volcano under Yellowstone National Park in the Rocky Mountains is the continent’s largest volcano.

Mount Mckinley – Alaska


The population of the United States in 2022 is 332,403,650 people. The United States is the third most populous country in the world after China and India, and the United States is the only industrialized country whose population is expected to increase in large numbers. The birth rate is 13.82 per 1,000, which is 30% percent lower than the world average, while population growth rates are 0.98%, which is much higher than those of Western Europe, Japan, and South Korea. Mexico has been the main source of new residents for more than two decades, and since 1998, along with China, India, and the Philippines, has become the top four countries exporting immigrants to the United States each year.

The United States has a very diverse population, with 31 ethnic groups numbering over one million people. White Americans are the largest of these groups; Americans of German, Irish, and English roots make up three of the country’s four major races. African Americans make up the country’s largest minority and the third largest ethnic group. While Asian Americans are the second-largest minority, Chinese Americans are the third-largest Asian American ethnic group, in addition to Filipino Americans, and Indian Americans.


English is the national language. Surprisingly enough there is no official language at the federal level; however, some laws, such as US naturalization requirements, require proficiency in English. Around 80% of the population over the age of five, spoke only English at home. Spanish is used by 12% of the population at home, making it the second most common language and the second most taught language. Some Americans advocate making English the official language in the country as it is in at least 28 states.

Although New Mexico does not have an official language, there are laws that mandate the use of both English and Spanish, as is the case in Louisiana for English and French. Both Hawaiian and English are the official languages of Hawaii according to the state constitution. Several island territories give official recognition to their indigenous languages ​​besides English. While Spanish is the official language in Puerto Rico.

American Currency

The US dollar is the official currency of the United States of America, symbol $, code USD to distinguish it from other dollar currencies used by other countries and usually referred to as US dollar. Like most countries, the United States issues paper and coins money for monetary dealings. The US dollar is divided into 100 cents. Cents coins come in the forms of 1₵, 5₵, 10₵, 25₵, 50₵. As for paper money, they come in seven denominations as $1, $2, $5, $10, $20, $50, and $100. The paper money is green-colored and usually referred to as (greenback) in slag American and dollars are usually referred to as (bucks).

Measurement systems

The United States maintains its own units, which largely trace back to British Imperial units such as the mile, yard, and Fahrenheit. As for the American special units, they include the American gallon and the American pint. The United States is one of only three countries that have not adopted the International System of Units. However, the metric system is increasingly being used in science, medicine, and many industrial fields.


The United States is a melting pot of many nations and cultures, due to the constant immigration process, it is enriched with a variety of ethnic groups, traditions, and values. Regardless of the indigenous peoples of the United States, including the Native Hawaiians, nearly all of the people or their ancestors have migrated within the past five centuries. Western culture is the primary culture among Americans, which mainly draws from the customs of European immigrants, influenced by many other sources such as the traditions of Africans. Increased immigration from Asia and Latin America has added to the cultural diversity, yet these different groups maintain their distinct cultural roots.

Although the prevailing culture in the United States does not recognize classes, scholars have identified differences between the social classes in the country, which affect social relations, language, and values. The United States was pioneering in calling for individualism. The American middle and professional class initiated many contemporary social trends such as modern feminism, environmentalism, and multiculturalism in order to realize the American Dream.

The American Dream

The American Dream is a patriotic spirit of the United States, and a set of ideals (democracy, rights, freedom, opportunity and equality) in which freedom includes the opportunity for prosperity and success, as well as the social mobility of families and children. The meaning of the “American Dream” has evolved across history, it includes both personal concepts, such as owning a house and becoming rich, and a Cosmo vision.

The American Dream is embedded in the Declaration of Independence, as it states that “all men are created equal” and have the rights of “life, freedom, and the pursuit of happiness.”


During the 18th and early 19th centuries, American art and literature borrowed much from Europe. Writers such as Edgar Allan Poe, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Henry David Thoreau established a distinct American literary voice by the mid-19th century. Emily Dickinson, unknown during her lifetime, became a major poet in America. Mark Twain and Walt Whitman were also leading figures in the second half of the century. Some works have quoted essential aspects and characteristics of the national experience.

Eleven Americans have won the Nobel Prize in Literature, the last of them being Toni Morrison in 1993. William Faulkner and Ernest Hemingway are among the most important writers of the 20th century. A new generation of literary writers opened a new approach paving the way to postmodern literature.

Cinema and Theater

Since the first 20th century, the US movie industry has greatly developed to become the world’s leader in the filmmaking industry based in Hollywood. Hollywood is a target for the leaders of motion picture production in the world, although within the 21st century it is more and more decentralized, and film companies have been seeking new places all over the globe.

The producer Walt Disney was a pioneer in both animated film and movie merchandising. credit goes to him in making Disney Productions and Disneyland spread around the world. The industry enjoyed its golden years, in what is commonly referred to as the Golden Age of Hollywood till the 1960s. In more recent times, filmmakers such as Steven Spielberg, George Lucas, and James Cameron have gained renown for their blockbuster movies, often characterized by high production costs and earnings.

Theater in the United States is affected by the old European theatrical art and has been deeply influenced by the British theater. The central hub for theaters, performers, actors, and producers/directors is in Broadway, where the community of theater culture used to get together.

Flowers are indeed pretty; they have unique fragrances; and each flower has a distinguished meaning, depending on its shape and colour. Flowers are characterized by different attributes and distinct features.

Flowers are what we will read more about together in this floral journey, so buckle up!  We will learn all about flowers, fluorography, how they originated and where, their types, their significance, importance, how deadly they can be, learn more about the rare flowers, how to grow a flower, the occasions that require flowers, and many juicy facts in between.

What are Flowers?

Flowers are a part of a plant. That is sometimes called bloom or blossom. Inside the flower petals, there is the part that produces pollen and seeds. Those are later transferred by bees, bats, moths, and other creatures that absorb the nectar of the plant in the bees’ case or visit the plant for a different purpose.

That nectar is what produces honey by the bees later on. Flowers rely on the outside factors to transfer the pollen or seeds to another plant or area. To, reproduce and multiply. The outside factors can be water, wind, birds, butterflies or bees as insects, or animals, such as bats.

All of which visit the flower for different reasons. Since these external factors help in the process of pollination, we call them ‘pollinators’.

Pollinators of Flowers

Their main job is to transfer pollen and seeds from one flower to another or a new area. Pollinators are necessary for our survival. Pollinators are creatures that assist plants in the process of reproduction.

The pollen or seeds stick to the bodies of the Pollinators when they are doing their purpose of visiting the flower, such as absorbing nectar in bees. Then, it gets transferred to another plant or another part of the same plant when the Pollinator moves onto another plant or another part of the same plant.

They mainly carry pollen from the male part of the plant to the female part. The male part of the plant is called ‘stamen’. Whereas, the female part of the plant is called ‘stigma’. The process of Pollination is necessary for the plant to become fertilized. It enables the plant to produce fruits when it becomes fertilized.

In turn, providing us with essential plants that we eat in our everyday life. Most fruits are flowers to begin with, that are fertilized by the pollination process that the Pollinators carry out. It also enables the plants to spread and reproduce more fruits by spreading the seeds.


Water pollination is called hydrophily. The plants that are pollinated by water are called aquatic plants. The process takes place when pollen floats on the surface of the water. It keeps on drifting until it comes in contact with flowers.

Water pollination has two types. The surface pollination and the submerged pollination. Surface pollination happens when the pollen of the male part floats on the surface of the water until it comes in contact with the stigma of the female flower.

We can see plants like Waterweeds, Hydrilla and Elodea, Water Starwort as Callitriche, and Ditch Grasses as Ruppia pollinate using hydrophily surface pollination.

Hydrilla and Elodea

Hydrilla is also known as water thyme. It can survive in salty water. It grows deep in the water or even on the surface. It forms mats and each of them is slender. It branches 25 feet long. The roots have tubers that look like a potato growing in the mud.

As for Elodea, it is often referred to as waterweeds. It is from the Hydrocharitaceae family which is a plant. It provides shelter and food for many aquatic creatures. For example, insects and fish. It purifies water. Goldfish love eating Elodea.

It is mostly used as a decoration, however, it grows rapidly in nitrogen and phosphorus-rich environments which leads to a decrease in oxygen that eventually leads to the death of the fish in the aquarium.

Water Starwort

Water Starwort is also known as Callitriche. Callitriche grows from July to September. It forms many seeds. Ducks love to feed on it. It is green. The leaves on top of the stem take an oval shape, like an egg. Whereas, the lower part of the stem has straight leaves. Two leaves are growing on each joint of the stem. 

Ditch Grasses

Ditch grasses, widgeon grass, or as it is commonly referred to as Ruppia is a unique shallow submerged grass. It has diverse types. Mainly, it has about eight types.

In Eel-grass, such as Vallisneria, the whole male part of the flower detaches itself from the plant body and floats on the surface of the water until it comes in contact with the female part of the flower or as we call it the ‘stigma’.


Growing Vallisneria is really easy. All you need is a good fertilizer and light. Then, sit back and watch your aquarium turn into a jungle. It is easy to remove when it exceeds the area you specified for it.

On the other hand, submerged pollination mostly takes place with pollen grains. A male part of the plant is referred to as pollen grain. Pollen grains are considered heavier than water. Therefore, it sinks.

Eventually, the sunken pollen grains are caught by the stigma. The stigma is a female part of the flower. The submerged pollination can be observed in water- nymphs. Water- nymphs are also known as Najas. In addition to Coontail.


Coontail is also known as Ceratophyllum demersum or Hornwort. It is rootless. It is a lake weed. It forms colonies using submersed pollination. It grows rapidly and quickly. It provides shade and a source of food for some insects and fish.  

Generally, hydrophily is rare in plants. It can reach up to 2% of plants that pollinate through the usage of water. Which is about 30 genera. For example, monocotyledons or as they are commonly referred to monocots. Monocots are grass and flowers that are similar to grass called angiosperms.

The seeds of the angiosperms are mostly one embryonic leaf or a cotyledon that is transferred through water and keeps floating on the surface of the water or sinks in water. Until it reaches the female part of a flower that it fertilizes.

For instance, as we observed previously, water pollination takes place in common Waterweeds, Water Starwort, Ditch Grasses, eelgrass, Najas, and Coontail.


Pollination takes place by different methods as we mentioned. The wind is another factor that helps pollinate a flower. Wind pollination is also known as ‘Anemophily’. Anemophily is the process of transferring pollen from one plant to another by the effect of wind.

Many of the most important crops worldwide are wind-pollinated. Many plants are pollinated by wind, however, we will discuss a few. For example, grass, cereal crops, trees, and ragweeds.


In addition to all the methods we discussed, there is one factor that is essentially as important. It is pollination by insects. This type of pollination is called ‘Entomophily’. Where some insects distribute the pollen throughout the area. Usually, it is the pollen of flowery plants.

For example, butterflies and bees. Butterflies drink the nectar using their proboscis. Learn more about butterflies on Also, remember to learn all about the butterfly’s cycle of life:


Each bee has a specific role. Some bees are forager bees. Forager bees collect nectar from flowering plants. They drink the nectar and store it in their crop. The crop is also known as the honey stomach. It is used for storage and the nectar is not digested.


Some animals help out in the pollination process. It is called ‘Zoophily’. It is the type of pollination that includes an animal. For example, some birds and bats help out in the pollination process.


Pollination can take place by birds. This type of pollination is called ‘Ornithophily’. Birds help fertilize the plant by transferring pollen using their bills from one flower to another. Birds move from one plant to another feeding on nectar. They help pollinate many different types of flowers. For Example, orchids, the cardinal flower, and pineapple.


As for bats, they also help out in the pollination process. This type of pollination is called chiropterophily pollination. Bats eat insects and nectar found on the flower as well as some flower parts. In the process, they transfer pollen from one plant to another. More than 300 types of fruits are pollinated by bats. For example, Bananas, Mangoes, and Guavas.

Let us check some interesting facts about flowers before moving on to the flower language that we find most entertaining. Remember to check out the cycle of a plant on LearningMole, before carrying on.

Some interesting facts about Flowers

  1. Broccoli is a flower
  2. In the past, Tulips were more valuable than gold in Holland
  3. Orchids get their nutrients from the air
  4. Saffron, an expensive spice, comes from a type of crocus flower
  5. Bamboo is a flowering plant that flowers every few years
  6. Moonflowers only bloom at night and close by day
  7. The nice scent of roses comes from microscopic perfume glands on their petals
  8. Lilies are toxic for cats
  9. Certain flowers only release pollen when they feel a bee buzzing
  10. White flowers have stronger smells

The Language of Flowers

Now that we know all about pollination and the life cycle of the plant, we can carry on with our journey. Let us learn all about the language of flowers! The language of flowers is also known as floriography.

Floriography is the language that tells us all about each flower, its meaning, and its symbolism. The language of flowers helps us determine the most suitable flower bouquets for each occasion. Every single flower has a story to tell.

Floriography started to flourish in the Victorian era. During the region of Queen Victoria, flowers were considered an invaluable expression of feelings because people were too shy to express their emotions openly.

The region of Queen Victoria in the United Kingdom was from 1837 to 1901. People sent Tissue Mussies.  Tissue Mussies are also known as nosegays. Nosegays are small bouquets that express a gesture of love and interest.

In the Victorian era, the way a bouquet was held or received determined the feelings of the receiver. Whether they appreciate the gesture or are not interested. If a bouquet was held at heart level, then the receiver loves the bouquet.

However, if it was held facing downwards by the receiver, then they are not interested. This means, they do not share the same feelings or the feelings are not mutual. If the sender asked a question when giving the bouquet, the receiver may answer by reaching out their hands to receive the bouquet.

For example, if the receiver reaches out their right hand, then it means ‘yes’. However, if the receiver reaches out their left hand, then that means ‘no’. Flowers were indeed the most important means of communication at that time.

Let us read some more fun facts about flowers and carry on with our flower-filled exploration journey. Flowers have so many stories to tell and we will try to hear each one of them till we have successfully learned all about flowers.

Awesome Facts about Flowers

  1. Shenzhen Nongke Orchid blooms once every four to five years
  2. Chocolate Cosmos is a flower that smells like Chocolate
  3. Sunflower seeds contain a substance that prevents any plant from growing near them
  4. The skeleton flower has petals that are white but turn invisible when wet
  5. The lotus is a holy flower for Buddhists because it represents purity
  6. Daffodil bulbs look like an onion and are poisonous
  7. Tulip bulb can replace onion in cooking
  8. Dandelion leaves make a caffeine-free coffee
  9. Cauliflower and Artichokes are flowers
  10. Bluebell flower juice was used to make glue

The History of Flowers

Flowers existed about 140 to 250 million years ago, nearly the same time as the first dinosaurs. However, it is believed that plants existed 500 million years ago. During, a period called the Cambrian period. Each flower had a different connotation then. A connotation is the meaning, symbol, and significance of the flower.

For example, ancient Egyptians fancied the Lotus flower. We can find numerous depictions of the Lotus flower in the drawings found on the walls of ancient tombs and the symbols of the hieroglyphics. It portrays different coloured Lotus flowers. Mainly, white and blue. They believed it signifies purity.

Whereas Turkish people adored the Tulip. It is the symbol of the Ottoman ruling era. The beginning of the 17th century is known as the age of Tulips. They believed it was a sacred flower that symbolizes beauty and harmony.

On the other hand, the Japanese loved the Sakura. It is also known as the Japanese cherry blossom. Cherry trees bloom for a short period in spring. They believed it represents hope and renewal. As for Britain, they adopted the roses.

Mainly, the Tudor rose was adopted by Henry VII as the emblem of peace once the War of Roses ended. The War of Roses was the civil war between the royal house of Lancashire and the royal house of York.

It took place in England. The royal house of Lancashire wore red roses. While the royal house of York wore white ones. India and the Lotus, China and the Peony, Mexico and the Poinsettia, and so much more are all different flowers that are favoured by different cultures for different reasons all over the world.

Scientists believe that the first flower to have ever existed is an aquatic plant named the Montsechia Vidalia. It is believed to have been dainty and white. It had curved petals arranged in three each circles. It was first found in Spain.

However, it was in France and England, that giving flowers took over throughout the years. Originally, it all seemed to have started in Turkey. Giving flowers became very widely common during the middle ages. Each flower came to signify a specific emotion or gesture.

 For example, giving chrysanthemums symbolizes friendship. Whereas, a rose is a representation of love. Bluebells represent kindness and loyalty. A lily represents purity. Iris is the flower of hope and Carnations tell the person you miss them.

Flowers are a unique form of communication. Even the arrangement of flowers can tell a story. Flower Arranging is an art that started far long ago. It has different rules, types, and styles that people adhere to craft the desired final look of the flower arrangement.

Flower arrangement aims for balance, proportion, harmony, rhythm, and emphasis. There are 9 popular types of flower arrangements. For example, the Elliptical, Vertical, Triangular, Crescent, ‘S-shaped, Oval, and Cascade flower arrangements.

The Western style of flower arrangement is more familiar with symmetrical arrangements. Whereas, the Eastern style is more familiar with asymmetrical arrangements. The Western cares about the mass effect, so they add more flowers. However, the Eastern care more about the individual beauty of each flower.

The Western arrangements may and do touch the rim of the vase. On the other hand, in Eastern arrangements, the flowers never touch the rim of the vase. There is no right way to arrange flowers, but it is an art in itself and should be valued.

We shall carry on with some facts for kids about flowers before we carry on with our learning journey. Flowers still have so much to tell us. Stories vary from one flower to another. Each story is unique and fun to hear about.

Facts about Flowers for Kids

  1. The Yarrow flower was used in World War I to help heal soldier’s wounds
  2.  Fertilizers are not necessary for flowers, but sunlight and water are
  3. Flowers make their food by photosynthesis by using sunlight, water, and minerals
  4. Bees are the most important pollinators worldwide
  5. Tulips started in Turkey
  6. Orchids do not need soil to grow
  7. The Titan Arum flower is endangered
  8. Chrysanthemums are unlucky in Malta
  9. The Rose is considered the most beautiful flower
  10. The Rosa Sericea has four petals only

Different Countries, Different Flowers

There are a total of 195 countries. The ten most famous countries in flower trade, in order, are The Netherlands, Colombia, Ecuador, Kenya, Belgium, Ethiopia, Malaysia, Switzerland, Italy, and Germany.


The Netherlands is famous for flowers. It is mainly associated with Tulips. However, it is responsible for a variety of different flowers, trees, and bushes being transported all over the world. The Netherlands is ranked as the top country involved in floral trade worldwide.

It exports different varieties of flowers throughout different countries. More than half of the floral trade is being handled by the Netherlands. Each country has a national flower that it is associated with. The Netherlands’ national flower is the Tulip.


Colombia is best known for Orchids, roses, and carnations. Colombia has the largest amount of Orchids worldwide. More than 95 countries prefer to buy roses on Valentine’s Day or Mother’s Day. Colombia exports those.

The Orchid Cattleya TTrianais the most famous flower in Colombia. Colombia is also rich in a variety of different flowers. For example, the Cut flowers and Protea flower. The national flower of Colombia is the Cattleya Orchid.


Ecuador is known as the top producing country of roses and summer flowers. There are more than 400 varieties of roses there. Do not get me wrong, it produces different flowers as well, like Orchids. However, it is mostly known for roses.

The location of Ecuador is optimum for growing roses since roses mainly need sunlight. Ecuador is an equatorial country. Meaning it lies on the equator. They grow roses in the Andes Mountains.

The biggest and brightest roses are produced in Ecuador. The country built its success on the floral trade. The rose is the national flower of Ecuador. Black, rainbow, or any colour of roses, can be found in Ecuador.


Kenya is mostly known for growing roses, carnations, and Alstromeria. There are even more types of flowers produced in Kenya. Kenya’s weather is ideal for growing flowers. The Orchid is the unofficial national flower of Kenya.

Kenya did not establish a specific flower as its national flower yet. However, the traditional stunning Orchid is the closest thing Kenya has to a national flower. Kenya has about 110 farms of flower farms.


Belgium is known as the largest producer of Azaleas and Begonia. In addition to many other flowers, like roses, chrysanthemums, and Bluebells. Belgium has mild and humid weather. Its national flower is the Common Red Poppy.

The Common Red Poppy grows in fields and waste places. They have sedative properties and healing abilities. This is why they have long been used in European herbal medicine. Especially, with children or elders. It relieves pain and treats irritable coughs.


Ethiopia produces mostly roses and exports them to the world. In addition to, coriander, myrrh, cardamom, chat, and caraway. Ethiopia is well known for the Rosa abyssinica. The Rosa abyssinica is Africa’s only indigenous rose species.

It is an evergreen Rosaceae with white and creamy fragrant and orange climbing hips. It can be found in high altitudes in Ethiopia. The national flower for Ethiopia is the Calla Lilies. The Calla Lilies are native to South Africa.


Malaysia has over 15,000 species of flowers, plants, and trees. Some are used as decoration and others are still undiscovered in Malaysia’s rainforests. Examples, are Orchids, Rafflesia, Ixora, Sabah Highlands Pitcher Plant, Bougainvillea, Pagoda Flower, and so much more.

More than 800 species of Orchids grow in Malaysia. Rafflesia is one of the largest single flowers out there. It is also known as the ‘Stinking Corpse Lily’. The Stinking Corpse Lily is used to refer to the red and white Rafflesia because of its foul smell.

Whereas, Ixora is known as Jejarum. It is a flowering garden shrub. It translates to Needle Flower. Sabah Highlands Pitcher Plant is one of the most unusual plants in Malaysia.

It is a carnivorous plant. It is tubular structured. It lures insects and vertebrates inside to be digested. BBougainvillaeais the official flower of Ipoh. It enjoys a tropical climate and can be found especially in hot and wet environments.

The Pagoda Flower is also known as Clerodendrum paniculatum. It is one of the most beautiful flowers in Malaysia. The flower is native to Malaysia. As the national flower of Malaysia, it is the Hibiscus Rosa- Sinensis. It is also called bunga raya. Meaning, a great flower in Malay.


Switzerland has so many beautiful flowers flowering all the time. For example, the Swiss Alpine Flowers are known as the jewels of the Alps. It is one of the loveliest sceneries. Especially, when they are in full bloom.

Most of those pretty flowers are endangered. Some are even highly poisonous. Some are shades of pale lilac. Others are deep purple. There are many cheerful colours to admire. The national flower of Switzerland is the Edelweiss. It only grows in the high Alps.


Italy grows lilies, roses, chrysanthemum, Orchids, sunflowers, Mimosa, peonies, carnations, Buttercups, poppies, oleanders, and so much more. Italians love flowers. They especially adore lilies.

 It is a special plant with many special names and meanings. Lily is not only the most adored flower but is also considered the national flower of Italy. Lily was the all-time favourite flower during the renaissance age. However, it is now the national favourite in Italy.

The scientific name of the lily is Lilium. It is also known as Asiatic lilies, a stylized lily, and oriental lily. They come in different colours and each colour holds a special significance. The orange is for passion, yellow for happiness, and white for modesty.

Each lily looks different and unique. They range from 4 to 8 petals. They can grow up to 6 feet in height. As for the usage, the Asiatic lily is mainly grown for decoration or oil extraction. Whereas, Oriental lilies are more fragrant. 


Germany produces the Freiland Rosa. It is native only to Germany. Ireland means ‘outdoors’. These flowers are mostly produced in summer in open-air conditions. The extreme weather conditions in Germany help people to grow such roses.

The national flower of Germany is the Cornflower. Cornflower is also known as knapweed. It has a remarkable blue colour. However, it is now available in different colours as well. It used to be commonly known as the bachelor’s button because in the 19th century unmarried men and women wore it at their buttonholes to communicate their status.

It grows annually. It is native to Europe. It often grows as a weed in cornfields. For example, wheat, barley, rye, and oats. This is why they are sometimes known as the Cornflowers. However, it is named the Centaurea Cyanus.

Quick Flowers’ Facts

  1. Years ago, at the time Vikings were invading Scotland, wild thistle patches slowed them down and the Scots had time to escape. This is why the wild thistle is Scotland’s national flower. You can learn more about who the Vikings were on
  2. Sunflowers follow the sun’s movement throughout the day from east to west
  3. Flowering ‘Nicotiana’ is related to tobacco and it is from which the cigarettes are made
  4. Some gas plants produce ignitable gas on warm nights
  5. Angelica was widely used in Europe for a long time as a cure for everything
  6. In Middle Ages, Lady’s mantle was thought to have magical healing properties
  7. Yarrow is known for its healing properties
  8. 25% of flowers are endangered species
  9. 571 flowers species are already extinct since 1750
  10. 400,000 species of flowers exist and roses make up about 35,000 out of them

Flower Types

There are a variety of different flowers out there. Each variety has a wide range of types. And each type has a vast amount of colours. We will investigate the wide variety of different flowers we have out there, together!

There are many types of flowers out there. About 300 or more. However, we will discuss only a few of them and you can learn more about the flower types extensively on Where, you will find an article about the types of flowers, specifically.


We will mainly, talk about 10 common flower types. The first flower type we will discuss is Aster. Aster is a purple flower with a yellowish centre. It is named after the Greek word ‘Star’. It symbolizes love, wisdom, and colour.

It may bloom in many other colours, like pink, red, white, lilac, or purple.  It blooms in late summer or about early fall. They are quite easy to grow and they flourish beautifully. They can survive even in winter.


Carnation look like a flourishing spark. It comes in different colours. Each colour varies in meaning. It is commonly found near the Mediterranean region. It is native to the area. It needs to be planted in an area that is subjected to sunlight for about four to six hours per day.

Carnations reflect ideas of fascination and distinction. It is also known as Dianthus Caryophyllus, grenadine, clove pink, or as we call it: carnation.  A white carnation is a wish of good luck, innocence, and purity.

It can be found during spring. Light red carnations represent admiration. Dark red carnations express deep affection. Carnation is the birth flower of those who are born in January. Striped carnations symbolize regret.


 Daffodils are as William Wordsworth said:

“I wandered lonely as a cloud

That floats on high o’er vales and hills.

When all at once I saw a crowd;

A host, of golden daffodils,

Beside the lake, beneath the trees,

Fluttering and dancing in the breeze.”

They are beautiful yellow flowers. Usually found in spring. They are also known as Narcissus. Narcissus is the Latin name for daffodils. It is said to be named after the son of the river god in Greek mythology.

They represent rebirth and new beginnings since they bloom right after the winter frost. Daffodils can last up to 10 days in a vase. They represent hope. They come in white as well. They are a symbol of positivity and forgiveness.

However, one single daffodil means bad luck. Daffodils multiply by adding bulbs indefinitely. This is why they are believed to hold an infinite life span. In other words, a very long life span.


 Dahlia is natively a Mexican flower. They are bushy. Dahlias come in different colours. They are sun lovers. The more sun they are subjected to, the better they grow. They need at least six hours in the sun daily.

They are easy to plant. Dahlias bloom beautifully from mid-summer through fall. A blooming season can last up to 4 months. They used to be a religious symbol. A dahlia expresses wealth and elegance.


Daisies can be found all over the world. On every continent. Except for Antarctica. Daisies tend to open in the morning and close at night. Maybe that is why they are known as day’s eye. It relates to the Old English name ‘daeges eage’.

Daisies have white petals with a circular golden yellow centre. It refers to childbirth and motherhood. It symbolizes new beginnings and rebirth as well. It is made up of two flowers. The yellow centre and the petal florets. Sometimes the petals can be colourful.


Lilies are also known as Lilium. They are incredible pollinators as they attract many insects with their colourful flowers and tasty nectar. They have large petals that can range in colour. From white, yellow, orange, red, purple, to pink. Some even have freckles.

Lilies are commonly thought to represent devotion or purity. For example, the Virgin Mary. They can even symbolize the rebirth of hope. It is usually used at funerals because it may refer to death. The lilies that are given at funeral service are known as the white stargazer lily.


Orchids are believed to have healing abilities. They absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen just like any other plant. Orchids flourish when subjected to the sun. They symbolize beauty and elegance. They are believed to bring good luck and prosperity.

They are believed to have legendary healing qualities. They are a common addition to homes and farms. Different traditional cultures have long used them for healing and medications. For example, the Chinese and Ayurvedic.


Roses are a wonderful expression of love and affection. They come in different types and have a variety of colours. The number of roses given also makes a difference. For example, giving 10 roses is like saying: “You Are Perfect!”

12 roses means be mine and 13 is not so in love. Red roses symbolize love and romance. Pink roses are the women’s favourite. They symbolize gratitude. Orange symbolize passion and enthusiasm. Whereas, yellow symbolize friendship.

Rose petals are eatable. Roses teach us that no matter what you are going through, you are still spreading joy by existing. Roses have thorns at every stage in its life. From when they are still buds till full bloom. They always spread joy by merely looking at them.


Sunflowers follow the sun throughout the day as we previously mentioned. They provide vibrancy and energy. They are known as happy flowers. They remind us of the sun. Sunflowers are a symbol of positivity.

They make our admiration and loyalty attribute show by giving them. Sunflowers attract bees and pest-patrolling birds which eventually improves the harvest. They can live from 8 to 12 weeks. Usually at the beginning of July till October.


Tulips are the flowers of love. They represent perfect and deep love. They are also known for their vibrant bold colours. They have beautiful shapes as well. They are long, broad, and have parallel-veined leaves that are cup-shaped. They may even appear in different colours.

Usually with six petals. However, they have only three petals and the other three are sepals that appear as petals. They are usually associated with forgiveness. The Tulip is the national flower of Iran.

Flowers’ Facts to Remember

  1. The world’s largest flower is the Titan Arum
  2. The Titan Arum is almost 10 feet
  3. The Titan Arum is one of the most stinky flowers out there
  4. The Titan Arum is also known as the corpse flower
  5. The Corpse Flower is labelled as the ugliest flower in the world
  6. The Oleander is the official flower of the city of Hiroshima
  7. The Oleander was the first plant to bloom after the atomic bomb in 1945
  8. The Sego Lily plant is the state flower of Utah
  9. Mormon pioneers survived on the Sego Lily plant
  10. The world’s oldest flower bloomed 125 million years ago

The Importance of Flowers

Flowers are sure pretty. They bring joy by just admiring them, but have you ever wondered why they are important? Well, they have many functions, we bet you didn’t know about them. Let us tell you a few of them.

We will tell you a lot about the manufacture of flowers, what do we extract from them, and what is its usage. We will discuss how essential are flowers in the medical field and medicines by concentrating on herbalism.

Finally, we will tell you how magnificent flowers make everything seem. We will elaborate on examples of cities that mainly use flowers for decoration while we discuss their different artistic features.

Flowers and Manufacture

Flowers are used in different manufacturing processes. They are used in cooking and food manufacturing. Flowers are also used in making perfumes. Their oils are used for different purposes as well. In addition to that, flowers are used in cosmetics.

We will learn about each of the three manufacturing processes. The first process is the cooking and food manufacture. Flowers are used extensively in food production and are even used as ingredients in cooking.

Cooking and Flowers

Some flowers are edible and their petals make delicious snacks. For example, roses. There are a lot of edible flowers that take cooking up a notch. We will discuss a few types of those flowers. However, not every plant that smells good is tasty.

Just remember that some plants and flowers can be poisonous, so make thorough research before cooking with a flower or just stick to the following list because we did our research and you are safe to go.


The Hibiscus flower has a sweet yet citrus taste. People say the taste reminds them of cranberries. They are added fresh or dry into teas or other hot beverages. In addition to being used as a garnish for a fresh salad.

Usually, Hibiscus is grown for ornamental purposes. However, it is also widely used for culinary and medicinal purposes. It is edible. Still, it tastes better when used for tea, jam, or salad. Most people drink Hibiscus tea for medical purposes.

To create such tea, you should steep the dried pieces in hot water. It creates a deep rose-coloured infusion. It is plain but has a subtle, tart, and floral flavour. It is also a great flavour addition to drinks and dishes.


The petals of Carnation taste sweet. However, the base of the flower is bitter. So, make sure to separate them. “What’s Cooking America”, a culinary show, stated that Carnations are the secret behind the making of Chartreuse.

Chartreuse is a French liqueur since the 17th century. Only the petals are edible. Carnations can be used as desserts, to decorate pasta dishes, or in cooking rice. You name it! They have sweet-tasting petals for every sweet- tooth out there.

Carnations are the second most cultivated flower after the roses. Each colour of carnations stands for a different entity or occasion. For example, pink Carnations are a representation of motherly love. Whereas, red Carnations are a necessity for Chinese weddings.


Closed Sunflower buds that have not opened up yet can be steamed and eaten as you would eat an artichoke. Its bright yellow petals add flavour and colours to our everyday salad. Sunflower oil is used for different variety of usages.

You can even cook the flower head of the Sunflower. Let us investigate how to do so step by step, together. First off, preheat your grill to medium heat. Remove all the outer and inner petals. This will reveal the creamy seeds.

Brush it all over in olive oil. Dust some sea salt and place it head down on the grill. Cover the head for 5 minutes. Then, remove the head and add a bit more oil and season it however you like. Now, take one big bite.


Lilacs have a variety of flavours. They range from bitter to bittersweet. However, it has a lemony taste with a floral overtone. It has a slightly bitter taste with its perfumed fragrance. Some may find that it tastes like citrus. Quite the zesty flavour.

Lilacs are great in fresh salads. They also make a good addition to candied or crystalized with a mixture of egg whites and sugar. The simplest most known way to enjoy Lilacs is by an infusion of the flowers to create Lilac sugar.

Lilacs are edible, specifically the flowers themselves. They do not contain any form of poison or harmful substances that may harm humans, animals, or upset the stomach. You can make Lilac honey, Lilac astringent, or sugar them for dessert.


People love to eat Chrysanthemums. It tastes a bit like cauliflower. It has a tangy and peppery taste. The petals are usually added to fresh salads. Young leaves and stems are added to an Asian dish called Chop Suey.

It is also added to Shingiku as it is known in Japanese. The base of the flower can be extremely bitter. However, it is still widely used in different cooking recipes as a favourable ingredient. Chrysanthemum may be similar in taste to cauliflower, but it still has a unique taste of its own.

The taste is commonly referred to as a Chinese flavour taste. The leaves of Chrysanthemum are eatable even in their raw state. They can be eaten as they are, cooked to taste even better, or added to the food to enrich the taste.


Nasturtiums are one of the most enchanting additions to cooking. It is commonly used in cooking. The colourful flowers are sweet yet slightly peppery. It is just the right amount. It reminds us of the watercress.

Nasturtiums can be added to fresh salads. It fills up the savoury stuffing taste. We can even use their seed pods as a pocket-friendly alternative to capers. We can even use them as a sweet peppery addition to sandwiches, appetizers, and even cocktails.

The leaves of Nasturtiums are eatable. They make beautiful garnishes. Not only the leaves, but the whole flower is fully edible. The leaves, flowers, and seeds are all edible. They are a good source of vitamin C. Always remember, that they have a peppery taste.


The petals of Peonies are sweet. They are usually added to tea or water to infuse flavour. Especially, in China. It is also used in giving a nice appearance to the salad or cold beverage. Peony petals are so pretty and quite tasty.

Peonies are fragrant. The petals may taste good, but the roots, flowers, and seeds are toxic. It will cause poisoning. That will result in diarrhoea, skin irritation, tremors, and an accelerated heartbeat. So, be sure to split the petals from the roots and eat only the petals.

Peonies may look beautiful and smell nice, but they are quite toxic. So, only eat the petals or avoid the flower altogether. Not every flower is completely edible on our list. Some have specific parts that are edible. Others are fully edible to the roots.


Finally, the roses. You see, roses are pretty and fragrant. In addition to being quite tasty. The flavours differ. It depends on the growing condition which varies. The flavour and taste would make you think of strawberries or green apples.

All roses are edible. Darker coloured roses have a stronger flavour. We can use roses in a variety of ways. They can be added to salads, desserts, spreads, jam, butter, and so much more. The options are endless.

It can taste sweet, subtle, or range from fruit to mint to spice. You can freeze them in ice cubes or add them to drinks. The flower petals can be used to make jellies, syrups, or perfumed butter. Make sure you remove the bitter white portion of the petals.

Perfumes and Flowers

Nearly everyone would agree that flowers smell good. Their good smell makes them a good ingredient to add to perfumes. Perfumes are a luxury to some people and a necessity to others. However, we can all agree that they smell good.

Flowers make perfumes smell so much better and they may even change the colour of the perfume. We will mention a few flowers that are used in perfume manufacturing and we hope you find your next favourite perfume among them.


Roses are known as the queen of flowers. Roses are an essential ingredient in many floral perfumes. They are harvested by night. That’s because they carry a strong scent before sunrise. This is why they are usually harvested by night.

Rosa Centifolia and Rosa Damascene are two types of flowers that are widely used in perfume making worldwide. Rosa Centifolia is found in the south of France. Rosa Damascene is found in most Arab countries.

The notes are mostly used in perfumes because they offer a very refreshing scent that can mesmerize people’s senses. You can create your perfume with roses at home. It usually involves rose petals and some water.


Lavender is one of the most beautiful sweet-smelling flowers out there. It is used for many different purposes. Culinary, medical, and perfumery. They are flowers that are native to the old world.

They can be found across the Canary Island, South Europe, North and East Africa, the Mediterranean, and India. Lavender’s fragrance is unique. One of the most fragrant species of lavender is the hybrid Lavandin Lavender.

Lavender can be used to make your very own perfume at home. Some grain alcohol, 8 drops of vanilla oleoresin, and 10 drops of lavender essential oil. Combine them in a small bottle that is about 10 ML.


Jasmine is one of the sweet-smelling and pleasantly modest flowers. Their fragrance is at its peak just before dawn. They are processed immediately before their fragrance fades away. They are found in tropical regions all over the world.

They come in white and yellowish colours. They are widely used in the manufacturing of perfumes and cosmetics because of their mesmerizing fragrance. Jasmine flowers are used in aromatherapy.

Dried Jasmine flowers are used to make tea and have a nice scent that has a calming effect on the brain. “Jasmine” is a Persian word. Its origin is Yasmine. It means fragrance. There are more than 200 species of Jasmine out there.

Only two out of the 200 are used in perfumery. Jasmine Sambac is the first. It is native to China and India, but it mainly grows in India. The second is Jasmine Grandiflorum. It is native to Afghanistan and Iran, but commonly grown in France.


Violet is very common in the perfume industry. Due to its magnificent fragrance. Violets can be dated back to Ancient Greece in 500 B.C. They are native to the Northern Hemisphere, Hawaii, Australia, and the Andes in South America.

Two specific species of Violets are mainly used in the perfume industry. The first one is Victoria Violet. The second is the Parma Violet. Violets usually contain a chemical called ionine.

This chemical is responsible for desensitizing the nose and sense of smell. It is used in the production of perfumes, oils, and lotions because of its scent. Violets smell soft and can create a perfume with a very feminine fragrance.


Tuberose has a strong scent. Which is one of the reasons it is used in making perfumes. Once you smell Tuberose, you cannot help but remember the smell of gardens. That is because it smells more earthly than most fragrances.

Tuberose has metallic and buttery hints in its scent. However, it does not always smell good. Beware. When its petals turn brown, the smell turns to that of rot. As long as it is blooming, you are on the safe side.

It can smell spicy, creamy, or even as an exotic floral ingredient. Tuberose is considered one of the most expensive raw materials in creating a perfume. That is because 3600 Kg are used to extract only 0.5 Kg of the Tuberose oil. Which is a tiny amount.

Ylang Ylang

Ylang Ylang is not white, but it is white at heart. Meaning, it shares the features of white flowers. White flowers have fragrant scents. So does Ylang Ylang. It smells spicy, fruity, and heady.

In other words, Ylang Ylang is white at heart. It is referred to as the “Jasmine of the poor”. It is one exotic flower that is so sweet. Not as food, but sweet in smell. It originated from South Wast Asia, but it can be found all over Africa, the Caribbean, and the Americas.

Ylang Ylang can grow on trees or even on a vine. It produces large and long yellow or green flowers. They are usually picked up when they are most fragrant. That is when they have a reddish tint to them.


Frangipani is also known as Plumeria. Plumeria grows on trees. It can be white, yellow, or pink. It is a flower with an exotic scent of tropical wind. These flowers are native to tropical regions of South-East Asia, the Caribbean, and Brazil.

The same as Jasmine and Tuberose, Plumeria is most fragrant at night. Plumeria trick pollinators into pollinating them since they have and produce no nectar. It smells similar to Jasmine and Tuberose.

However, its scent is distinguished. It may contain a hint of lemon. It is believed to have the strongest scent among all the floral fragrances. That is why it is one of the basic ingredients of most perfumes.


Narcissus is one of the few wildflowers that is used in commercial fragrances. It is native to meadows and woods across Southern Europe and North Africa. It is widely grown across Asia and the Middle East.

The origin of the name is not exactly known. However, it somehow links to the Greek word ‘Narke’. This word means narcotic. This term suits the scent of these flowers wonderfully. It is usually also related to the Greek myth of Narcissus.

It tells the story of a handsome youth who one day was passing by a pond. He fell in love almost instantly. Once his eyes fell upon his reflection. Some say he fell in and drowned. Others say he turned into stone as time passed.

Others believe he perished away with time. However, they all agreed that Narcissus was his name. So, they called the flower that grew in the place he used to sit and admire his reflection after his name. The word refers to the story and so the name is associated with the flower.

Cosmetics and Flowers

Flowers do not only smell and taste good, they also look good and help us look even better. Some flowers are used in the manufacture of cosmetics. Cosmetics are not an everyday necessity to most people, but it is indeed an undeniably important matter to others.

Flowers are involved in the manufacturing of those undeniably important cosmetics. We will discuss a few flowers that are used in the manufacture of cosmetics.  Sunflower and Hibiscus oils are used in cosmetics to brighten the skin and moisturize it.

While they can also soften the hair and add shine to it. Roses, on the other hand, smell good, taste good, and look good. Because of their sweet fragrance, gentle texture on the skin, and nice colours, some roses are mostly used in manufacturing cosmetics.

Roses contain a variety of vitamins, antioxidants, and minerals. That is beneficial for the skin. Its oils are awesome for moisturizing dry skin. It also offers astringent properties. That makes it an excellent combatant of acne, redness, and inflammation.

Lavender, on the other hand, has many properties that allow it to gracefully enter the cosmetics field. It reduces acne. Lavender detoxifies the skin. It soothes irritation. Lavender tones your skin. It calms down the brain because of its soothing fragrance.

In turn, it helps us sleep. It is the perfect cure for anxiety and depression. Lavender also helps with hair loss problems. It gets rid of dandruff. Lavender can do so much more. That is why it became a vital ingredient in the production of cosmetics.

Saponaria is another one of those flowers that are considered the first choice of cosmetic development brands. That is because it has many properties that can be used in different variety of products.

It can be used as a powerful tool in your fight against acne. Saponaria contains natural chemical compounds that allow it to moisturize the skin. It rejuvenates it by creating rejuvenating masks, body oils, and so much more.

Chamomile mostly helps people relax because of its captivating and soothing fragrance. It is also used widely in skincare products. For example, in the creams, we use to keep our skin hydrated and moisturized.

It is also mainly used as an ingredient in the preparation of anti-inflammatory creams. It helps in improving the health of our bodies. It contains powerful anti-oxidants. For example, polyphenols and phytochemicals.

Once applied to the skin, it helps accelerate cell and tissue renewal. Therefore, it is used in anti-ageing creams or in the manufacture of products that protect the skin. According to Engelman, it reduces the appearance of fine lines and gives the skin a youthful glow.

Verbena, on the other hand, can be used in cooking, but it is mainly used as an undeniably essential element in the development of cosmetics. It helps recover the original state of the skin and keeps the skin hydrated.

Some acne creams use Verbena mainly, but it is also widely used as an important ingredient in other cosmetics products and skin-care elements. It is used in making deodorants and hand wipes because of its nice-smelling aroma.

Herbalism and Flowers

Flowers are not just sweet-smelling, tasty, and pretty. They are also handy. Flowers are used as herbs and cures in medical fields in a wide variety of countries. Some flowers are special because of their healing properties.

We will mention a few flowers that have these healing properties. Some flowers have proved throughout history that they have extraordinary healing abilities. They were used as a cure to almost every illness and as medicaments during the war.


Lotus is considered sacred in some countries and others, it is used as an everyday element in medicinal usage. It contains chemicals that decrease swelling, and kill cancer cells and bacteria. It also helps reduce blood sugar, break down fat, and protect the heart and blood vessels.

The Chemicals in Lotus help protect the skin, liver, and brain. Some people experienced feeling ‘high’ as a result of consuming the blue Lotus plant. It got them in a state of euphoria. This is one of the reasons why blue Lotus consumption is not approved in the United States.

It is also known as the sacred Lotus in some countries. The flowers, seeds, leaves, and some parts of the underground stem, also known as rhizome, of the Lotus are used to make medicines. It is used to stop bleeding. In addition to being used to treat digestive disorders, like diarrhoea.


Lavender dates back to the ancient Egyptians. Lavender played a crucial role in the mummification process. The word itself can be traced back down to its Latin roots. It was ‘Lavare’. That meant in Latin ‘to wash’.

As time went on, Lavender was a wonderful addition to bathtubs in several regions. For example, Ancient Persia, Greece, and Rome. These cultures believed that Lavender helped purify the body and the mind.

Lavender has been used to reduce many symptoms and improve multiple conditions. It was recommended for people suffering from sleep disorders. Such as insomnia. Lavender helps improve our sleep patterns and the quality of our sleep.

The aroma itself and inhaling it would eventually improve the sleep pattern. Lavender was also prescribed for those suffering from anxiety. It helps decrease anxiety as well. In addition to helping us with our hair loss problems.

It stimulates hair growth in about 28 days frame. The secret is consistency. It also helps with migraine and headaches. Lavender soothes headaches and migraines away. It also helps in handling and dealing with the side effects of chemotherapy.

It treats depression. Lavender helps fight off acne. It is also applied to burns as a traditional remedy to treat them. It helps improve skin conditions overall. It helps soothe wounds and makes them heal much faster.


Jasmine is used for a variety of purposes, but we will mainly talk about its medicinal features and usages. Jasmine oil is extracted from Jasmine. It is an essential oil that came from the plant we call Jasmine or Jasminum Officinale.

It has been popular for its sweet scent. It is used in the making of the world’s best-known perfumes, like Chanel No.5. It is also used in food, desserts, sweets, and alcohol. Jasmine oil can also be used as a home remedy to treat almost everything we suffer from.

It has lots and lots of health benefits. Jasmine is also used as an antidepressant. Aromatherapy is believed to reduce depressive symptoms. It boosts blood oxygen saturation and blood pressure. It helps people become more alert.

Jasmine improves the overall mood of the person. Jasmine oil is usually used in aromatherapy. Jasmine is also used as an antiseptic. The plant has antiseptic properties. Jasmine can be used in treating or preventing infections.

When diluted and directly applied to the skin or may be used to rinse oral infections. Jasmine has a romantic fragrance. It is also used as an antispasmodic. It reduces spasms. It is also used as a sedative.

Jasmine has sedative properties. It has a calming effect. The name ‘Jasmine’ can be traced back to its Persian roots. It used to mean ‘Gift from God’. Jasmine is highly sacred in India and the Himalayas.

Indian women use it to scent their hair and call it the “moonlight of the grove”. It is the national flower of Pakistan. It is also a sacred flower of the Kama, known as the God of Love. In the Himalayas of Western Chine, Jasmine is known as the ‘Queen of the Flowers’.

It helps with stress and insomnia. The delicate flower of Jasmine can create a fragrant tea with a soothing effect. It is rich in antioxidants. Antioxidants interact with gastrointestinal enzymes to facilitate better nutrient absorption.

It eliminates harmful bacteria and promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria in the stomach. It relieves indigestion. Jasmine deals with stomach cramps. It also soothes inflammation. Jasmine may be a delicate flower, but surely one with huge effects.


Sunflowers are native to the Americas. They are used for many purposes. Among those purposes, we have medicine. They have been used in medicinal remedies since the dawn of day. In our modern times, sunflowers still hold the status of medicinal properties.

It helps regulate cholesterol levels. Sunflower oil is rich in fatty acids. Those acids are healthy and they help lower harmful cholesterol levels. This, in turn, reduces the risk of heart attacks and atherosclerosis.

Sunflowers also help strengthen the bones since the seeds contain high levels of vitamins and minerals. These prevent age-related diseases. For example, osteoporosis and arthritis. Sunflowers also promote brain health because their seeds contain high levels of essential minerals.

Those minerals are considered brain food. They are harvested from the flower head. The seed itself is encased in a black and white striped shell. The seeds of sunflowers have a distinctive nutty flavour to them.


Chamomile is one of the most familiar medicinal herbs out there. The tea made out of Chamomile leaves was and still is used in traditional remedies. It mainly calms anxiety disorders and relieves stomach pain and cramps.

It may also relieve an upset stomach. Treat heartburn. Deal with nausea and vomiting. Chamomile does so much more. It helps with wound healing. Mainly, it is used for treating sleep, stomach, digestion, bruises, inflammation, and headache problems.

It is still being investigated as a treatment for diabetes. Chamomile is also known as Matricaria Recutita. It is sometimes also referred to as German Chamomile. It is a native herb to Europe, Africa, and Asia. It is also grown in North America.

Germany uses it as a treatment for coughs, bronchitis, and fevers. It contains many elements that are key to many other diseases and disorders. It is often consumed as herbal tea that soothes the mind and the brain.


Calendula is a plant. The flower is used to make medicine. Calendula is used to relieve and prevent muscle spasms. It helps reduce fever. It is also used to treat sore throat and mouth. Calendula helps with cramps, cancer, and stomach indigestion.

Calendula is also known as Pot Marigold. It is native to the Mediterranean region of Europe. It has antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties. In addition to being used in cosmetics, soaps, and shampoos.

It is also used as a wound treatment. The name Calendula is derived from the Latin name Calendar. It refers to the blooming season. It is also known as Marigold. The oil is extracted and used for different purposes.

Flowers as Decoration

Flowers, undeniably, look pretty and they make everything else look good. Some countries mainly use flowers as inspiration to design their buildings or decorate the place for a specific occasion. Other countries usually use flowers to decorate their gardens and houses.

Some people just love to decorate themselves using flowers. That includes their dresses, hairstyles, as well as cosmetics, as we previously elaborated. We will investigate each of them as much as time allows us to. In the end, we hope you can determine what your country mainly uses flowers for.

Flowers and Buildings

Flowers inspired many works of art, they still do, and they always will. Flowers do not only taste, smell, and look good, but also they spread goodness. Some countries went looking for flowers when they wanted to build and decorate.

Other countries still seek out flowers as their main source of inspiration. We will talk about a few buildings that were inspired by flowers. Then, we will discuss how flowers are used as a decoration inside buildings for a specific occasion or as an everyday beautiful sight.

The Lotus Temple

It is designed to look like a Lotus Flower. It is located in Delhi, India. It is a Bahai House of Worship that is open to people of every belief. Wherever your faith and beliefs lie, this place is open for you to explore.

The Lotus flower is one of the flowers that are considered sacred in India. The structure is shaped like that of the petal of the Lotus flower. The structure is clad in white marble. That white marble came from Greece.

MAXXI Museum

The National Museum of the 21st Century Arts is also known as MAXXI. It is the masterpiece of Zaha Hadid. Zaha Hadid is a Roman artist. The MAXXI museum contains many exhibits that are truly works of art.

However, it particularly contained The Golden Lotus piece. That piece was inspired by the shape of the Lotus flower. It was created by Choi Jeong- Hwa. Another artist could not help, but admires the beauty of flowers and sculptured it into life.

Sheikh Zayed Mosque

Muslims go to Mosques to pray their five prayers a day. A Mosque is a holy place just like a Church or a Temple. They are all places where people go to pray and practice their religion. The Sheikh Zayed Mosque lies in Abu Dhabi.

Its floors are covered in beautiful floral mosaics. They were designed by the artist Kevin Dean. The designs cover most, if not all, of the floors of the Mosque. The designs cover the interior walls and floors as well as the courtyard.

Marina Bay Sands

The Marina Bay Sands resort lies in Singapore. It contains a beautifully designed Art Science Museum. It was inspired by the Lotus flowers as well. Moshe Safdie found this inspiration that resulted in this beautiful piece of architecture.

The building is designed based on the shape of a Lotus flower. Each petal features a skylight. That skylight is at the tip of the pedal. To illuminate the interior that is visible to the people outside with natural light.

Burj Khalifa

Burj Khalifa is located in Dubai. The architecture was inspired by the Spider Lily. The Spider Lily is also commonly known as Hymenocallis. It was designed by the architects at SOM. The three-pronged footprints of the tower are more or fewer abstractions of the Spider Lily.

The plant inspired the architects to the point that they decided to work day and night on bringing this inspiration to life. They have thoroughly succeeded. The building is now considered the tallest skyscraper in the world.

Hangzhou Sports Center

The Hangzhou Sports Center is located in Beijing. It was designed for a specific purpose. The Hangzhou Sports Center was designed for the 2022 Winter Olympics that will take place in Beijing.

The building is inspired by the Lotus flower. The Lotus flower has indeed inspired many buildings and architecture. The Hangzhou Sports Center was designed by NBBJ. Intended to look like a Lotus- façade that is wrapped in white petals.

Prentice Women’s Hospital

The Prentice Women’s Hospital is a part of Northwestern University’s campus in downtown Chicago. However, it is now demolished. It was designed by Bertrand Goldberg. The artist was inspired by a cloverleaf.

A single fragile cloverleaf inspired a whole architectural building. It was completed in 1975. It was one of the very few first structures that were designed using computers. The Brutalist structure was one of the few of the first whose plans were made and mapped out using computers.

Quizhong Tennis Center

Quizhong Tennis Center is located in Shanghai. It was inspired by the magnolia flower. It is a beautiful flower. The Quizhong Tennis Center features a dynamic roof that consists of petals. The roof closes and opens depending on the weather.

Grand Lisboa

The Grand Lisboa is located in Macau. Specifically, in the Grand Lisboa hotel and casino. It was also inspired by the blossoming Lotus. Therefore, the postmodern design resembles the blossoming Lotus.

Flowers did not only inspire works of art and buildings, but they also helped improve our moods by just being there. That is why you would see flowers in Churches, gardens, or events. We will pick a few flowers to talk about in decorating weddings.


Rose is the symbol of Love. This is why it is popularly used as a decoration at weddings. It comes in different colours. Because of the variety of colours it comes in, it is easily paired with other flowers for decoration.

Roses look pretty in almost everything. They look pretty in large arrangements. They look good as centrepieces. They look good as bouquets. They look good in a corsage. They look good in almost everything.

They would and will add to the beauty of a well-decorated wedding event or venue. Roses are elegant. They are also fresh. Those two features make roses one of the most frequently used flowers in decoration because they fit for every celebration. 


Daisy, on the other hand, is a traditional wedding flower. It also comes in a variety of different colours. Which is one of the reasons why it is usually used by people in venue decorations for occasions and events.

Rustic and vintage are simply asking for a daisy. It is the perfect flower for decorating the event in rustic or vintage themes. Daisies make the perfect centrepiece for such weddings. The arrangements and bouquets will be dominated by those colourful daisies.

It is quite easy to fix daisies up with other flower arrangements. They simply fit in right away. Plus, they are low- maintenance. So do not worry about watering them now and then. Daisies are a smart choice for your wedding themed venue.


Carnations are quite affordable if you are looking for something high quality, good appearance, and on budget, then you have come to the right place. Carnations are the perfect addition to almost every event out there. Especially, weddings.

Carnations are available in a variety of shades and colours. You can choose any shade based on the theme of your event and the other plants or flowers involved in the event. It all falls back to your personal preference.

These flowers last way longer than your normal flower. Not to mention, they look extra fancy. Which makes them the perfect fit for your extravagant wedding right there. Did I mention, they are quite affordable?


Fluffy and cute? We got you right here! Look no further, Hydrangea are on the go. Do you want to make your big party a success? Fill it up with flowers? However, you ended up unsure which flower is the perfect fit for your cute party.

Well, Hydrangea is here now, worry no more. It will fill up all that extra space right there. The bouquet, centrepieces, and the décor. Especially, in summer. It comes in different varieties of shades and colours.

They are usually used up along with other flowers to increase the volume and give shape to the flowers as a whole. They greatly add to the look of the overall theme. Hydrangea increases the volume of the bouquets or vases. They will certainly add a magical touch to your event.


Did you mention charming and beautiful? Well, orchids are right here. They represent all the charm and beauty you can look for in one flower. They will most certainly add to your overall look of the theme.

Whether traditional or modern, orchids will do the trick. They look gorgeous on almost every occasion they set foot in. One arrangement or a single stem will look good anyways. The number does not matter as long as it’s orchids.

Delicately sweet orchids come in different varieties and shades. They are the perfect addition to your wedding or event if I may say. A glass vase with orchids in it will look heavenly perfect as a delicate theme.

Garden Flowers

Some flowers are a must-have addition to our gardens. We will demonstrate a few flowers that will add to your garden by just blossoming there. Gardens reflect the beauty of the eye of the beholder.


Angelonia is a beautiful stem flower that has a wide range of varieties. It has different colours and types. There are about 30 types of Angelonia stem flowers out there. Angelmist Lavender Angelonia and Serenita Raspberry Angelonia are two examples. 


Azaleas bloom in spring. They can and would tolerate shade. They often last several weeks. They are found usually near or under trees. Azaleas are flowering shrubs. They come in a variety of different shades and colours.


Begonias are also known as wax begonias or bedding begonias. It is an annual plant that grows quickly and fills up space. They are attractive frilly flowers. Some say they are even deer-resistant.


Calibrachoa is also known as million bells. It is one of the most popular plants that are grown outdoors. It comes in rainbow colours and a variety of shapes. They are best planted in spring. They will grow and bloom throughout the season.


Clematis or as some may call it ‘Queen of the Vines’. Comes in different varieties of colours and shapes. However, it is agreed that it will always give that ‘wow’ addition to the landscape of your garden.

A few Flowers’ Facts

  1. Dandelions are considered weeds
  2. Dandelions’ leaves are a good source of vitamins A and C, you heard that right! They are rich in iron, calcium, and potassium
  3. Roses are related to apples, raspberries, cherries, peaches, plums, nectarines, pears, and almonds
  4. Chrysanthemums are associated with funerals in Malta
  5. Almost 60 % of fresh-cut flowers in the U.S. come from California
  6. The world’s oldest flower is named Archaefructus Sinensis
  7. The world’s oldest flower was found to have bloomed in northeast China
  8. The world’s oldest flower resembles a water lily
  9. Scientists discovered the world’s oldest flower in 2002
  10. Flower buds of Marigold are pickled to substitute for capers

Flowers’ Significance

We have spoken a bit about the importance of flowers, but we haven’t fully covered their significance and the value they add to our relations. Each type of flower, specific number of flowers, and the colour of the flowers as well as their arrangement all matter.

Each one of those has a huge impact and is undeniably significant. We will review some flowers, the months and their relation to flowers, and discuss different styles of flower arrangements in as much detail as possible.

Black-eyed Susan

Black-eyed Susan is bright yellow with daisy-like petals and an almost black centre. It usually flourishes between June and October. They are considered a symbol of encouragement and wisdom. It is an important food and shelter for different animals and insects.

For example, slugs, rabbits, and deer. Even butterflies lay their eggs on it. For example, Silvery Checkerspot. The Black-eyed Susan thrives in the sun. It attracts parasitic insects that lay their eggs on the flower as well. For example, blister beetles.

Black-eyed Susan is also known as Rudbeckia hirta. It is native to Eastern and central North America. Black-eyed Susan is also naturalized in the Western part of the continent as well as China.


Catmint is also known as Catnip, Nepeta Cataria, or Catswort. However, it is not Catnip. Catnip stimulates cats, but catmint does not. They are often mistaken for one another. To the point, people refer to Catmint saying “oh, look Catnip” Na- ah, buddy, those are Catmint. Not Catnip.

Catmint has a long history of being used as a traditional herbal remedy. Usually, it is used to treat digestive system disorders. It stimulates sweating. It is useful in reducing fevers and dealing with them.

Catmint can grow up to 3 feet tall and 4 feet wide. Catmint is actually from the mint plants family. It usually flourishes during summer. It grows quickly and is known as deer-resistant. It can be planted from spring to early fall.


Chrysanthemums are sometimes known as mums or chrysanths. They are native to East Asia and northeastern Europe. Most of the species originated in East Asia. However, they became common in the centre of diversity, China.

Chrysanthemums differ in connotations, depending on the culture. In Malta, they see the flower as a bad omen. It is associated with funerals and death. It is considered bad luck to bring it into the house.

In Japan, however, they see Chrysanthemum as a wonderfully happy and cheerful flower. It is often referred to Chrysanthemum as ‘the Queen of Fall Flowers. Over time, Chrysanthemums became associated with death in European cultures.


Lantana looks pretty unique and colourful. However, it is quite toxic for most livestock. Lantana needs sun to flourish and bloom wonderfully. They are evergreen shrubs. They grow rapidly and spread tall.

They look pretty, but as we already mentioned they are quite toxic. There is a difference between Lantana and Verbena. Lantana is climbing plants. Whereas, Verbena’s maximum reaches between three to six feet tall.


Lavender is native to northern Africa and the regions that are full of mountains on the Mediterranean. It is used, grown, and cultivated for many purposes. One of them is for the production of its essential oil.

Lavender is used for medicinal purposes and so much more. However, its essential oil may cause skin irritation or an allergic reaction. It was reported that in some cases it caused nausea, vomiting, or headache after the usage of lavender.

We are probably all familiar with the song that goes; Lavender’s blue, dilly, dilly

Thanks to Cinderella 2015 movie. Since we are talking about lavender, we should probably mention that this song was also sung by Dinah Shore in 1948. Now, back to talking about the plant, lavender is not all dilly, dilly.

It is quite poisonous to cats and dogs as well, so be careful which bush is your pet playing in, assuming that your pet is either a cat or a dog that is. Lavender has different nationalities. It may be French or English or even otherwise.

Lavender is also known as Lavandula. However, it is commonly known as lavender. Lavender flowers represent purity, silence, devotion, serenity, grace, and calmness. The distinguished purple colour gives off a sense of royalty.

It speaks of elegance, as some may say. The colour purple is associated with the crown chakra. That is the energy centre associated with a higher purpose in life. It represents spiritual connectivity.

Spiritually, lavender symbolizes purity, devotion, and love. Lavender helps out when it comes to the mind. It helps calm the mind and that may be why it is usually used in spiritual healing sessions.

It is known that lavender evokes serenity and a sense of purification. Not only that but also it is considered to have a feminine colour as some believe. Others think it just resembles the ‘grown-up’ pink. What do you think?

Lavender is used in purification rituals. Lavender’s essential oils and perfumes are worn by high priests and nobilities. Of course, we only spoke of lavender’s significance briefly and even its medicinal properties are brief as well. Lavender represents so much more.


Snapdragons represent strength. They grow in rocky and uninhabitable areas. Some say they may represent deviousness and grace. As they are usually used as charms against falsehood as some may call it or ward off evil spirits.

Snapdragons represent grace and virtue. The stems of snapdragons stand up straight looking up to the sky. They carry themselves with excellent posture almost effortlessly. They emit poise and confidence.

Snapdragons are the perfect gift to give to someone you highly appreciate, respect, and may look up to. Especially, if you want to show gratitude. It is the perfect form of expression of appreciation and showing you think highly of someone or hold them in high regard.

Reasons may vary. However, you would certainly give snapdragon to someone you appreciate in your life. It may even be considered a way to express how you see that person. It represents particularly graceful people even in difficult situations.

Sweet Alyssum

Alyssum is also known as sweet Alyssum. It evokes feelings of calmness and sweetness. It attracts beneficial insects to your garden. Whether your garden consists of flowers or vegetables. In the language of flowers, sweet alyssum is known as a flower that is sweet and calm.

You can call it angelic if you may. Some believe that sweet alyssum protects those who wear it from dangerous situations. The name alyssum is derived from the Greek word ‘lyssa’. It translates to ‘anger’ or ‘bitterness’.


Yarrow is also known as the devil’s nettle. As in the devil’s plaything. It was also known as the old man’s pepper due to its pungent flavour. It is used for beer making in Sweden. Yarrow is considered a herb.

It is widely used to make medicine. It helps treat fever, common cold, and hay fever. Not only those, but also helps in dealing with diarrhoea, loss of appetite, and induced sweating. People chew it to relieve toothache.

Yarrow is a beautiful flower that shares both the meanings of healing and love. In many languages, Yarrow is associated with healing. It originated from Ancient Greek mythology. The Yarrow plant is also used for divination in Chinese culture.

Flowers and Months

Each flower represents a month. Each person has a birth flower. There are numerous flowers out there. The pattern and order may differ. However, we will try to provide you with the most common pattern of birth flowers. So, you can successfully choose and determine which your birth flower is? Buckle up!

  • January: Carnations
  • February: Iris and Violet
  • March: Daffodils
  • April: Daisy and Sweet Pea
  • May: Lily of the Valley
  • June: Rose
  • July: Larkspur and Water Lily
  • August: Gladioli
  • September: Aster
  • October: Marigold
  • November: Chrysanthemums
  • December: Narcissus, Holly, and Poinsettia

The Art of Flowers’ Arrangement

Flowers are art because they have artistic features and they inspire art. They make everything look way better. They are used in manufacture and decoration. Mainly, decoration. Because art is meant to be shared.

Flowers share this beauty by existing. They inspire artists to create art. The flowers smell good. The flowers look good. Flowers taste good. Some flowers taste good, but not all. Also, not all flowers look and smell good.

We have already told you about the corpse flower. The ugliest and smelliest flower on the entire Earth. It smells like a rotten corpse. It has been labelled as the ugliest flower in the world. So, no, not all flowers look and smell good.

Especially, not all flowers taste good. Some are toxic and can cause severe damage to our skin if we are not careful. However, flowers are used for many different purposes. We will elaborate on the decorating aspect of flowers.

Flowers have long been used for their different qualities. Especially, beauty. Flowers look pretty, especially if they are arranged in a specific order or shape. Throughout the years, people developed different flower arranging styles.

That brought about the beauty of the flowers used in the flowers’ arrangement even more. People, naturally, admired such beauty. More and more people started doing it. Eventually, it became a daily practice in some countries and an act of elegance in others.

The Egyptian Style

Ancient Egyptians arranged flowers in beautiful patterns. Specific flowers were worshipped and treasured. Let us learn some more about the Egyptian flower arrangement style, together. First off, we must mention the Lotus.

The Lotus was one of the sacred flowers of the Ancient Egyptians. The Ancient Egyptians called flowers ‘garden scent.’ Flowers were a common motif in art. They had bouquets that decorated the places for artists.

In Egyptian homes, there were always flowers to be found. Lotus and Papyrus were the most important plants at the time. Women and men were often depicted holding the Lotus or inhaling the divine fragrance.

In offering depictions of Ancient Egyptians, blue and white lotus were drawn along with papyrus stems. The blue lotus is known as Nymphaea Caerulea Savigny. It was one of the most popular flowers in ancient Egypt.

It has a strong scent. Especially, when it opens.  When the sun shines and its rays reach the flower, the blue lotus opens up revealing its yellow calyx. That is surrounded by petals of beautiful shades of blue. As its scent spreads.

At noon, however, it closes off into a bud and sinks into the water. It repeats the process every day. Eventually, it was associated with the idea of rebirth and creation. The blue lotus possesses hallucinogenic properties. Which is yet another reason for its popularity among the ancient Egyptians.

The white lotus, on the other hand, is named Nymphaea Lotus. It blooms during the night. It eventually became the symbol of continuity and renewal of life. That was so essential to the Ancient Egyptians.

The blue lotus and white lotus are in reality two varieties of water lily. However, they are still called lotus by Egyptologists. The flower arrangement was quite popular during the times of the old and Middle kingdoms.

Sometimes, it would be a bunch of lotuses held in the hand of the person presenting the bouquet. Other times, they may add papyrus stems whether by tying them together or entwining them with the enigmatic lily of the south.

However, all of that changed with the becoming of the New Kingdom. That is when a variety of flowers, grasses, leaves, and fruits began to artfully be a part of the arrangements. They were artistically added to the arrangements of wreaths, garlands, collars, and normal bouquets of various shapes.

Collars that were made with fresh flowers were frequently worn at banquets. Servants were represented tying those onto the guests. Let us keep going and see which flower arrangement style you prefer.  

The English Style

The English flower arrangement style is quite popular. Especially, in Western countries. We can find mostly roses, peonies, dahlias, and even ranunculus. We can even find spikey flowers, like larkspur, delphinium, and snapdragons. We may even find foxglove.

The shape of the English flower arrangements is usually either oval or round. People believe the art of flower arrangement started with the Egyptians, but other people believe it all started with the Japanese.

The Japanese Style

The art of flower arrangement in Japan is known as ikebana. Ikebana is traditionally known as the classic art of Japanese flower arranging. The meaning of the term itself was extended to include various styles of Japanese floral art.

Flower arrangement is considered a form of eloquence in Japan. It is quite important. Ikebana is the art of flower arranging that originated in ancient Japan. It was and is still practised as art that studies where the flowers and other natural elements are placed in specific ways.

Those specific ways are intended to embody harmony, peace, and beauty. A flower arrangement form can tell so much about the house and the people in it. In some regions, it is required of the bride to be extensively involved in the art of flower arrangement and tea preparation.

Those are the conditions for the bride to be considered elegant. Most, if not all, of the facts regarding the Japanese flower arrangement that will follow, are inspired by a book titled “Japanese Etiquette” by the World Fellowship Committee of the Tokyo Young Women’s Christian Association.

Flower arrangement is an art that is considered an indispensable part of the daily everyday life of the Japanese people. Some believe it originated from the custom of offering flowers to Buddha and the Shinto gods.

Regardless of the origin of the custom, it most certainly expresses the love and adoration that the Japanese people have for nature. Flower arrangement is an undeniably essential part of every Japanese home.

Just as modern arts of paintings and sculptures are mostly common in Western homes. By arranging a few flowers, we create a sense of closeness to nature and an impression of natural life. It is an integral part of the Japanese way of life.

The characteristics of the Japanese flower arrangement are found in the beauty of the lines rather than in the harmonization that is found between the colours of the flowers as they do in the West.

The Japanese consider the branch, the placement of the stalk, and the shape first-hand. That is done even before the flower arranging process takes place. That is done to create a sense of beauty. Maybe, that is due to the graceful Japanese architectural designs.

The Japanese even classify the flower arrangement process into three different styles of arrangement. The first style or kind is known as Seika. Seika is a formal Japanese style of flower arrangement.

The second style or kind is known as Nageire. Nageire is an informal and natural Japanese style of flower arrangement. The third and final style or kind is known as Moribana. Moribana is the most modern form of the Japanese style of flower arrangement.

We will elaborate on each style extensively, so sit tight. The Seika style is usually called ry^ugi- bana. This style is expressed by the Koryu and Ikenobo schools. Those two schools follow definite forms of arrangement and therefore are considered to be formal as well as classical schools.

The length and angle of each branch are strictly fixed. In a specific shape of an irregular triangle called ten- chi- jin. The syllable (ten-) in ten- chi- jin, refers to heaven. The syllable (–in-) in ten- chi- jin, refers to the earth. The syllable (-Jin) in ten- chi- jin refers to man.

This specified irregular triangle gives a strong impression of uniformity and equilibrium. On the other hand, the Moribana style is a style that has no special form. The flowers are arranged to reflect natural scenery in miniature.

It falls into place with the harmony it creates with the container itself. In low, flat water- vases or baskets that are similar to a wide-mouthed vessel, the flowers are held together in a place by metal spiked holders.

This style is much more modern and free than the Seika. That is because there is no specified form or shape that the flowers must be kept in. Nigeria is the third and final Japanese flower arrangement style that we will mention.

This style specifically, has no prescriptions. None at all. No rules, no rigid instructions, nothing. However, as the flowers are supported by the rim of the vase, the arrangement should convey at one glance the impression that the flowers have been freely placed in the vase.

In reality, it is conformed to rules and has dignity and harmony. In Moribana and Nageire styles, there are different schools to be followed. Those are Ohara, Adachi, Sogetsu, and so many others, but we will only mention those and leave them here for reference.

Floral Facts

  1. Blue Cohosh is also known as Squaw root or Papoose root
  2. Papoose root was used by Native American women in childbirth
  3. In ancient times, people burned aster leaves to ward off evil spirits and serpents
  4. Chrysanthemums are associated with happiness and joy in Japan
  5. The green florets on broccoli stalks are immature flowers
  6. If the green florets on broccoli are left to grow they will open into tiny yellow flowers
  7. During Victorian times, a pink carnation meant “I’ll never forget you”
  8. During Victorian times, a striped carnation meant “No, I cannot be with you”
  9. During Victorian times, a purple Hyacinth meant “I am sorry”
  10. During Victorian times, a yellow Hyacinth meant “I am jealous”

Deadly Beautiful Flowers

Flowers have many stories to tell. Some are scary. Did you know that many people die every year because of some flowers? Those delicate plants called flowers can be deadly if you are not careful about which flower you’re interacting with.

Do not fear! We have got you. We will list fifteen of the deadliest flowers you should avoid interacting with at all costs for the sake of your safety. Get ready, it will be a fun ride full of some juicy facts about those deadly flowers.

Nerium Oleander

Nerium Oleander may look defenceless and beautiful with a light shade of harmless pink. However, beware of this plant. It carries a deadly poison. It is extremely toxic. It can cause a burning sensation in the mouth and throat. It does not end there. It may even cause nausea and vomiting. The list goes on from diarrhoea, weakness, headache to stomach pain, serious heart problems, and more complications.

It can even cause way more than that and more side effects that you would be lucky enough to not experience by never having to cross paths with this lethal flower. However, Oleander is a common ornamental evergreen shrub that draws you in by its innocent appearance.

Taking in the Oleander leaf, Oleander leaf tea, or Oleander seeds has led many to experience deadly poisonings. A single leaf of this flower is enough to kill an adult. Oleanders contain toxic stuff that survives even burning. So, do not even attempt burning them.

Strange enough Oleander has also been used as a medicine. Specifically, traditional medicine to treat haemorrhoids, ulcers, and other symptoms. Still, if you have no experience handling poisonous plants, we do not recommend you come anywhere near Oleanders.    


Aconitum is also known as aconite, monkshood, wolfsbane, leopard’s bane, mouse bane, women’s bane, devil’s helmet, queen of poisons, or blue rocket. This plant is dangerous and you should keep your distance at all costs.

It contains a strong, fast-acting poison that causes severe side effects such as nausea, vomiting, breathing problems, hearing problems, and death eventually. Even when applied to the skin, it is very unsafe.

It can be absorbed through the skin and causes respiratory problems and cardiac problems. So do not handle or pick this plant, unless you are wearing gloves. Especially, the roots. A 2 mg dosage of aconite can and will cause death within 4 hours.

Castor Oil

Castor oil may have many benefits that make you die to use it and apply it. In reality, it is banned. What a bummer. However, it is for your own sake that it is banned. Or else, you would be truly literally dying because of using it.

Castor oil contains Lectin which is a highly potent toxin produced in the seeds of the castor oil plant. 22 micrograms per kilogram are the lethal dosage for mice. We are not saying you should kill mice. No, do not kill them. Just set them free in the wild, back where they belong.

It is just an example for reference. As we emphasized, ricin is a naturally found poison that is found in castor beans. If they are chewed and swallowed, the released ricin can cause injury. Ricin can be made from the waste material that is leftover from processing castor beans.


Here is another deadly plant that we should add to the list of the ‘do not come near. All parts of the plant are poisonous. The large palmate leaves, the cream flecks, the veins, and the stem that is very distinctive with dark-green- to black and white markings.


Abrus is another plant in the flowering plants in the pea family. It is highly toxic. The highly toxic seed of that species is used to make jewellery. It does have medicinal properties just like many other poisonous plants do.

You can create the antidote by using the poison, but when dealing with this plant, we advise you to not come near it as long as you are not cautious while using it. It can be used to treat tetanus or prevent rabies.

The leaves are used to treat and cure fever, cough, and cold. It may even be used to treat scratches, wounds, and sores caused by dogs, cats, or mice. It is also used as an ingredient in curing Leucoderma.


Drosera or as it is generally known as sundews are plants that capture and digest insects by using their stalked mucilaginous glands that cover their leaf surfaces. In normal cases, a sundew plant is not toxic.

However, do not exceed the prescribed dose. That is our recommendation. Doing so may result in side effects that start from irritating the lining of the digestive tract and that can cause stomach pain or gastritis.

However, just as we are mentioning its side effect, we should also mention its medicinal properties as well. Sundew or Drosera if you may, is used to treat asthma, coughs, lung infections, and stomach ulcers.


Cicuta is commonly known as water hemlock. It is very poisonous. It is considered one of North America’s most toxic plants. It can lead to severe poisoning and death. Even though it is quite poisonous, it still has a few medicinal properties.

It can be used to treat migraine headaches, painful menstruation, and worms in the intestine. Some people also use it as a traditional treatment for swelling and redness by applying it directly to the skin or the infected area.

Atropa Belladonna

Atropa Belladonna is also known as the deadly nightshade. It is very poisonous. Its roots, leaves, and fruits. All of it is extremely poisonous. It is even considered to be illegal. It is a drug that is obtained from the plant ‘Atropine’ and it can even be a medicinal herb. It can mostly be found in Native America.

Taxus Baccata

Taxus Baccata is native to Western, Central, Southern Europe, Northwest Africa, Northern Iran, and Southwest Asia. It is also known as the English Yew. The tree on which the English Yew grows is known as the yew tree.

Some may know it as the tree of death. It is one of the trees that the Druids held sacred in pre- Christian times. Drooping branches of old yew trees can root and form new trunks where they touched the ground.

So, yew came to symbolize death and resurrection in Celtic culture. We get the resurrection part, but why death? Well, to answer your question. Yew is simply put, is another deadly plant. It may look cute and all and the colour is sweet, but believe us when we tell you to keep away.

The English Yew or Taxus baccata is a poison that causes cardiac arrhythmias and it can even result in death from cardiogenic shock. So, yeah, as we said earlier. Keep away from this deadly cute plant.

Hippomane Mancinelli

Hippomane Mancinelli is another greenish flowering tree that you should not attempt getting close to. In other words, when you encounter one, turn the opposite way and start walking. Do not turn back or touch it.

It is one more deadly tree. That has been known as the tree of death as well. It is known as the deadliest tree ever known. Touching it is enough to get your body worked up and it affects a person almost instantly.

If touched, it irritates the skin because of the irritants that are found in the manchineel sap. That sap produces inflammation and painful blisters on the skin as if you got burned. Not only the sap or plant, but even the bark of the tree itself is toxic.

Do not burn it! You will not be getting rid of it. You will be only making matters worse. A burning manchineel bark has always been known to cause irritation and blindness. That is because of the airborne poison ash present and found in it.

We only scratched the surface of the iceberg of the dangers of Manchineel. The burn is not that of hot pepper or super-hot pepper. It is much worse and believes me when I say much worse. The manchineel fruit will cause intense burning and severe swelling of the throat.

That is assuming you tried to eat it. That is not even the end of it. The area surrounding your mouth may and probably will get all blistered and inflamed.  It will most definitely even cause severe digestive problems that is assuming it reached the stomach with its burning sap.

However, such a dangerous plant requires tropical conditions to survive and thrive. It can be found in tropical southern North America to northern South America. The manchineel excretes an extremely toxic white sap.

If your curiosity takes over and you attempt touching the plant’s leaves or branches or if you even touch it by mistake, it is very well-known that you will suffer from skin irritation, and blisters, and it may even close off your airways if you inhale the fumes from the sap.

A normal hefty shrub can grow up to 50 feet tall. It produces toxic timber that has a long Caribbean carpenter. Even though people came to know the dangers that the manchineel fruit may and will most certainly cause, they still used it in making furniture.

They carefully cut the wood and then, dry it in the sun to neutralize its poisonous sap. Then, finally, they use it to make furniture as they may use any other normal wood. The Manchineel tree is native to the Caribbean, Florida, Bahamas, Mexico, and Central and South America. 

The tree can be found on coastal beaches and in brackish swamps where it grows among other mangroves. Some people call them the death apples in paradise. People who attempted eating it noted that they felt a peppery taste in their mouths.

Followed by a tearing sensation. Finally, there was a tightening in their throats until they could barely swallow. The manchineel tree is so poisonous. Even the Guinness Book of World Records has recorded it to be one of the most dangerous trees in the world in 2011.

It is the most dangerous tree in the world. That poisonous sap is in every part of that plant. In its bark, leaves, and even fruit. You should not try and remove the manchineel tree on your own. Especially, after all, that we have been saying.

Even the fire will not help. The burning tree as we previously said and mentioned numerously will produce smoke that will contain the toxins and you will not be able to get rid of it without help. So, please contact someone who can.

As for what it exactly looks like, it is an evergreen tree. It has a reddish-grey bark. There are small greenish-yellow flowers and bright shiny green leaves. The leaves are simply alternate and very finely serrated or if you may say toothed. The leaves are about 2- 4 inches long.

The spikes of the small greenish flowers are followed by fruits that are similar in their appearance to an apple. I hope this shows you how dangerous this plant can be and that you have decided to not ever under any conditions touch it, not even ‘accidentally’.

Datura Stramonium

Datura Stramonium is also known as Jimsonweed, thorn apple, devil’s snare, or devil’s trumpet. It is related to the nightshade family. The origin of the plant is in Central America. However, it has been introduced in many world regions.

As you may have already guessed, it is one more poisonous plant. However, its poison affects the brain more than any other part of the body. It does not kill it or make you crazy. Well, it does make you a little crazy. Simply, causing hallucinations.

That is why it is known as a hallucinogenic plant. It is found in urban and rural areas. It does not only affect the brain. It is still a poisonous plant as we said. Its poison varies and can be highly unpredictable.

Even if this plant was usually used to cure many human ailments, like ulcers, wounds, inflammation, rheumatism, gout, sciatica, bruises, swelling, fever, asthma, bronchitis, and toothache, it is still poisonous.

It is one of the oldest plants that have been used throughout history. It is quite an invasive species that has spread throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The poison varies throughout the plant parts. The seeds and flowers are poisonous. In addition to that, it has so many side effects.

Those may include respiratory depression, arrhythmias, fever, delirium, hallucinations, anticholinergic syndrome, psychosis, and even death if in the case it was taken internally. It can cause mental side effects on the brain of amnesia, confusion, psychosis, and hallucinations.

Those will lead to emotional expression that will eventually follow. If the person takes too much, but not enough to kill them as an overdose, they will experience a feeling that is similar to a hangover as the drug itself metabolizes.

White Snake Root

The White Snake Root is also known as Ageratina altissima, richweed, and white sanicle. It is native to eastern and central North America. It is a sporadically toxic plant. It causes trembles in livestock and milk sickness in humans that drink the tainted milk.

It can cause tremetol poisoning. It is not edible under any conditions. The leaves and stem of the white snakeroot contain tremetol. That is a poison to both animals and humans. It is an accumulative toxin. This means that it will take time to build up to toxic levels.

Root tea is used to treat ague, kidney stones, and fever. As for the root poultice, it is used to treat snake bites. The smoke from the burning green leaves is used to revive the people who have fallen unconscious.

There is no cure to treat white snakeroot toxicity. If your horse ate some by mistake, the veterinarian can offer them supportive therapies that are essentially needed till the toxin is completely flushed out of its system.

That is in the case that there was a chance of survival and not death which is also one available option. The white snakeroot poison comes from the ingestion of the plant itself. So, keep your furry friend, including your dog, away as you keep away as well.

Nepenthes Tunicata 

The Nepenthes Tunicata is known as a tropical pitcher that is native to the Philippines. It is very well known in the islands of Dinagat, Leyte, and Mindanao. It is an endangered plant. It grows at the elevation of 0- 1500 m above sea level.

It is a carnivorous plant. This plant is not that poisonous and most pitcher plants are not poisonous. I know what you are thinking. Why is it on the list? Well, it is thought to be deadly because it eats insects and no it does not eat humans.

It is used to treat digestive disorders and constipation. It is also considered a cure for smallpox and it even prevents scar formation. Also, there will not be any danger if you approach this plant, but remember to be cautious.

Lily of The Valley

Lily of The Valley. This adorable-looking plant is so tempting to touch. Well, do not touch it, inhale its scent, or even eat it, not even by accident. This plant is deadly. Not only does it look sweet and innocent, but it leads to fatal outcomes.

This flower may symbolize purity, youth, sincerity, and discretion, but it will surely kill you. People believe it symbolizes happiness and joy. It is even considered an important gesture to give someone you love a bunch of lilies of the valley on the 1st of May.

However, before you do that, let us tell you just how dangerous this innocent plant is. That put aside, this plant is known to be an invasive plant that tends to form large colonies that threaten other native plants.

So, it is not only dangerous for humans but also for other plants. Lily of the valley is extremely poisonous and can cause severe dermatitis if touched. So, sure go ahead and give that ‘someone’ a bunch and hope for the best.

Lily of the valley is used to handle and prevent heart problems. That may include heart failure and irregular heartbeats. It is also widely used to treat urinary tract infections and kidney stones. It is even used during weak contractions in labour or with epilepsy. Sometimes it is used to prevent fluid retention and strokes, that result in paralysis. It can even treat eye infections and leprosy.

It is quite the medicine. Still, it can be very poisonous when ingestion takes place. The leaves, flowers, or even roots. All of them are poisonous. They all contain cardiac glycosides and gastrointestinal irritants.

Those are most likely responsible for a variety of cardiac arrhythmias and can lead to fatal consequences. So, yeah it is beautiful and graceful looking; has lots of benefits and can cure many symptoms; still, it is a deadly poison.


The last poison, I mean to say, the plant we are talking about in our deadly section is Tobacco. Yes, that plant exists within a cigarette. We will review its benefits, effects, and origin. It affects us in different ways, but one thing for sure is that it is poisonous in the long run.

Tobacco leaves are applied on cuts and wounds to stop the bleeding and as an antiseptic. The ground tobacco leaves are used as a snuff for medicinal and ritualistic purposes. The tobacco is sometimes smoked and blown into the ear to treat earaches.

Tobacco is used in the production of many stuff. Such as cigarettes and cigars. Some people smoke raw loose tobacco in a pipe. Tobacco affects us in many different ways. However, there is a clear reason we put it on the list of our deadly plants.

That is because Tobacco is poison in many ways. It may cause cancer, breathing problems, chronic respiratory conditions, heart disease, stroke, blood circulation problems, diabetes, infections, dental problems, hearing loss, and even vision loss.

That being said, let us tell you more about the types of tobacco. There is no safe form of tobacco. So, it all screams danger. Tobacco contains nicotine. No matter what form tobacco may take, it will still contain this poisonous material.

Nicotine causes addiction and eventually heart problems. There are about seven types of well-known tobacco. Those are Chew- see Smokeless Tobacco, Cigars, Cigarillos, and Little Cigars, Dip- see Smokeless Tobacco, Electronic cigarette or E-Cigarette.

There is also Hookah, Kreteks, and Pipe. All of those are the types of Tobacco products that people are most familiar with. Originally, Native Americans used it in religious ceremonies and for medicinal purposes.

It was used as a cure for all remedies. Dressing wounds, reducing pain, or toothaches. You name it and tobacco is used to cure it. In the late 15th century, Christopher Columbus was said to be given tobacco as a gift from the Native Americans.

You can certainly guess what happened next. Tobacco was always thought of as a medicinal plant. It was claimed to have antiseptic, sedative, emetic, and purgative properties. That came in useful in relieving pain.

In other words, it is not tobacco’s fault. It has always been a herbal medicinal plant. Some people invented a harmful usage for it. That is smoking. Smoking does help with avoiding obesity, but it is certainly not your best option.

We do not trade something for another. Every part of our bodies is important and precious. So, we cannot destroy our lungs using tobacco, in exchange for staying thin. It causes lung cancer. The lungs are the organ responsible for taking care of your respiratory cycle.

Smoking causes heart disease, strokes, asthma, diabetes, and so much more. Tobacco may be poisonous, but it is how we chose to use it that will determine the outcome. This plant, just like any other was used as medicine.

Flowers’ Facts on the go

  1. Catnip contains a compound called nepetalactone
  2. Nepetalactone is what cats love and makes them eat the leaves of the plant
  3. Catnip gives cats an euphoric high effect
  4. Morning Glories bloom only in the morning
  5. Flowers were popular girls’ names in the Victorian times
  6. You can make a flower necklace by weaving sunflowers or daisies together
  7. Vincent Van Gogh loved sunflowers
  8. Vincent Van Gogh completed 11 paintings capturing sunflowers
  9. Sunflowers produce toxic substances to plants near them causing them to die slowly
  10. Mimosa Punica is known as a sensitive plant

Rare Flowers

Some flowers are pretty rare to find. They are pretty, tasty, fragrant, deadly, poisonous, and some are even rare. Let us explore some of the rarest flowers in the world. So, next time you see one of those, you should take a picture!

We will name a few rare flowers, mention the reasons that led to them being rare, and then will name about four unusual flowers you probably never heard of. So, buckle up it will be a fun ride.

Ghost Orchid

It is certainly no ghost, but it is the ghost orchid. Let us tell you some more about the ghost orchid, my friend. It is a very rare plant that is on the endangered species list. It is native to Southwest Florida and Cuba.

The ghost orchid is believed to be extremely rare to the point that it is estimated that there are only 100 or so plants that still exist. They are very secretive about the locations of those few orchids. Do not worry. We already tried finding out.

Sadly, we had no luck. Maybe you would have better luck searching more into it. Who knows? Maybe you would find out something we did not mention or discuss ghost orchids. As to why their locations are kept secret, well it is simply to avoid poachers from taking them from their natural environment.

The ghost orchid is also known as Dendrophylax lindenii. It has quite a distinctive feature when it comes to appearance. This may be the reason that led to its naming as the ghost orchid. It is an endangered plant species and does not flower reliably.

Corpse Lily

The corpse lily is our second endangered plant on the list. It is also known as Rafflesia arnoldii, the corpse flower, giant Padma. It is special for producing the largest individual flower on Earth. It has a strong and unpleasant odour.

It smells as if it is a corpse. This is partially why it was named the corpse flower. However, we need to make sure you know that this corpse lily does smell and stink the odour of decaying flesh. It is quite rare.

It is a flower that is native to the rainforests of Sumatra and Borneo. Some even know it as the monster flower. It is also known as the Titan Arum. Yup! The one we kept mentioning in our facts. You probably noticed.

To attract pollinators it produces a rotting- meat scent. Again, that is probably the reason it earned the name the corpse flower. Why is it so rare you ask? Well, it is because it takes about seven to ten years for a single flower of the corpse flower to muster up enough energy that may be considered enough to begin its bloom cycle.

It is said that the Garden began collecting Titan Arums in 2003. It was a part of the worldwide conservation effort to preserve this specific species. The flower of the corpse lily emits a foul odour that draws carrion beetles and flies into the centre bowl where the pollen is located.

As the insects fly away from the flower, they have pollen all over them. It may cling onto their feet or bodies. That way they spread the pollen. Minimus is known as the only corpse flower plant in the Philippines that is known to inhabit a montane forest ecosystem.

Specifically, in PCWFR which is on Luzon Island. The three known populations of the plant are each about fewer than 50 mature individuals. Those were observed to be flowering between May and June.

Parrot’s Beak

Parrot’s beak, lotus vine, or as some may know it lotus berthelotii is a flower that looks similar to a parrot’s beak. This is obviously why it is known as a parrot’s beak. It is known as quite the great plant. It fills the need for silver, soft-foliaged plants.

However, sadly, the flower part is short-lived. It depends on how fast the temperature rises and where you live. This beautiful plant thrives in full sun and well-drained soil. It may also tolerate some shade on hot summer days or in hot areas.

However, you should be considerate of how much water you provide the plant with because too little water or too much water may and usually does cause foliage to drop. This plant thrives even more and performs best with evenly divided moistures.

However, remember to allow the top of the soil to mostly dry out before re-watering. This plant is also known as the trailing lotus. It is native to the Canary Islands. The Canary Islands are that of Spain.

This plant is also known as the pelican beak and some may know it as the coral gem. It has beautiful colours and even more a beautiful shape. It is quite the mesmerizing scenery. You cannot help but admire it.

Yellow & Purple Lady Slippers

Lady’s- slipper orchid is also known as Cypripedium Calceolus. It is native to Europe and Asia. It can live up to be twenty years old or even more. However, it is quite rare and endangered.

That is why it is illegal to pick them up because the plant takes many years to grow from seed to maturity. That is why they set special rules to ensure its survival. This beautiful flower is also known as the moccasin flower.

It is one of North America’s own much admired and often misunderstood wild native orchids.

This plant became increasingly rare. Due to the over collecting and habitat reduction. It has a tall, leafy stem. That bears 1 or 2 white- petals with flowers that are a brilliant pink pouch.

Sometimes it is yellow. It blooms in late June and into July. It may look like a lady’s slipper which is maybe the reason behind its naming as the lady’s slipper. Most flowers are named after their appearance.

Kadupul Flower

The kadupul flower is also known as the queen of the night. Some may know it as the princess of the night. It is known as the Dutchman’s pipe cactus. Its scientific name is epiphyllum oxypetalum.

It belongs to the species of cactus. It rarely blooms. However, when it does bloom, it only does at night. Then, its flowers wilt before dawn. The kadupul flower is the most expensive in the world.

That is actually because it has never been bought and therefore it is priceless. This little tricky elusive plant is a cactus and it only grows in Sri Lanka. It is known commonly as the ghost flower. It usually blooms only once a year, always at night, and dies before dawn.

Sea Poison Tree

The sea poison tree is also known as the fish poison tree and box fruit tree. Its scientific name is Barrington Asiatica. It is native to the mangrove habitats from the islands of the Indian Ocean in west tropical Asia and islands of the western Pacific Ocean.

All parts of the tree are pretty poisonous. The active poisons include saponins. Box fruits are potent enough to be used as fish poison. The seeds are grounded into a powder that is then used to stun or kill the fish for easy capture.

It suffocates the fish while the flesh is unaffected. That is partially why it is known as the Fish Poison tree. The fruits are used as a fish poison. The heated leaves are used in the Philippines to treat the stomach and rheumatism. Not only that but also the seeds are used to get rid of tapeworms. 


Campion is also known as the red Campion. Its scientific name is silene dioica. Some may even know it as the red catchfly. It is native to central, western, and northern Europe. It is locally found in southern Europe.

It was also introduced in Iceland, Canada, the US, and Argentina. Campions are distributed throughout the world. Several of those are ornamental rock- gardens or border plants. They look really pretty.

Snapdragon’s Skull

Some of the flowers we mentioned are quite rare and others are unique. We are not only mentioning the rare flowers, but also the distinctive ones. That does not by any means, mean that the ones we are mentioning are special or the best because all of the flowers are beautiful.

Every flower is special and distinct. The flowers we are mentioning in this article are either chosen randomly or as best- related to the topic of the section. We just wanted to clarify this before we continue with our special flowers.

The snapdragon skull is officially the most metal flower to exist. When they die, they resemble human skulls. However, when they die, they look like shrivelled little brown skulls all dangling from a stem.

The dragon part of the name is a mere visual metaphor. It appears to have a skull. We know what you are thinking. Super cool! Well, it did not stop only at that, but also the ancient cultures held the snapdragon as a special plant.

They used to believe that it possessed supernatural powers. Those flowers were thought to offer protection from deceit, curses, and witchcraft that is if you plant them in your garden. They are spring or summer flowers.

Happy Alien

The happy alien plant is also scientifically known as calceolaria uniflora. It was given this name because of its unearthly shape. Originally, this flower was discovered by Charles Darwin. It grows in cold climates.

Mostly, it is found near the Sothern tip of South America which is close to Antarctica. Happy alien flowers grow typically near or on rocks. That is due to their distinctively short roots. It is one of the weirdest flowers out there.

Monkey Face Orchid

Just like the name entitles, it is a monkey face-shaped orchid. It is quite special and awesome. So, let us learn some more about it together. It is also known as Dracula time. Some may even know it as monkey-like Dracula.

Its arrangement of columns, petals, and lip strongly resemble a monkey’s face. It can be found on the sides of the high mountains which are probably found in southeastern Ecuador and Peru. At the elevation of about 1000 to 2000 meters.

It is a popular but rare all-time favourite among orchid collectors. That is because it has a distinctively unique monkey or baboon face in its flower. Monkeyface orchids are quite finicky. Yes, and it can be challenging to grow them.

They require very specific living conditions. It does not make it one of the best options to start as a beginner gardener. And no, you cannot grow it by merely fertilizing it with bananas. It needs a bit more than that.

Bat Plant

The bat plant or as some may know it the white bat- the flower is native to the tropical and subtropical rainforests of Central Asia. It was first described by the English botanist John Bellenden Ker Gawler in 1812.

Its scientific name is tacca integrifolia. It is also a plant that can be quite tricky to grow. You have to regularly ensure that your soil is well-draining and composted. You need to provide regular water. Especially, in the hot months, but allow them to dry out.

Especially, in winter and cold times. You have to fertilize it regularly and lightly during its growing season. Black bat plants need high humidity to grow and thrive. It is quite an exotic plant. It has flowers that look quite similar to a bat in flight.

It is deep purple with ruffled wings, and long, hanging filaments. They may appear in spring and may last until early autumn. They can grow up to 2 or 3 feet tall. The bat plant’s appearance is probably what earned it its name.

Moth Orchid

Moth orchids are a mere nickname for the enchanting phalaenopsis Blume. Phalaenopsis comes from the Latin word ‘phal’ which means moth. No, it is no coincidence. The plant looks like a moth which is probably why it was given that name.

It was named after Carl Ludwig Blume. Based on its resemblance to a moth in appearance. It is a plant that is native to southeastern Asia and parts of Australia. They are commonly grown indoors. They can grow as big as 6 to 12 inches.

Quick Flowers’ Facts

  1. Mimosa Punica closes its petals off when touched
  2. Dandelions are believed to represent three celestial bodies
  3. The yellow flower of the dandelions represents the sun
  4. The ball of pollen of the dandelions represents the moon
  5. The white seeds of dandelions represent the stars
  6. The English name of dandelion flowers is originally French
  7. Dandelions refer to the French sent de lion which means lion teeth
  8. Dandelions were named after the lion’s teeth because of the shape of their leaves
  9. Colombia has the most orchid species in the world
  10. Colombia has about 2,010 species of orchids

How to Grow a Flower?

Now that we know all about flowers, we are nearly experts. Let us tell you how to plant and take care of a few flowers in the comfort of your home. It is quite easy. All you need to do is to follow the following simple steps that explain how to grow each of the following flowers.


We will learn how to grow a sunflower together step by step. To grow sunflowers, you need a sunny, sheltered spot and good soil. You will also need plenty of well-rotted manure or garden compost before planting if you can, that is.

Protect the young plants from slugs and snails. Yes, slugs and snails are friends, but sunflowers are our babies that need protection. Water your sunflowers regularly. You may need to stake them. That is in case they are in an exposed position.

There are various varieties of sunflowers. Each one of those will grow at a different rate from the other. However, the average time that is estimated for our sunflowers to grow is about 80 to 120 days. That is for the plant to mature and develop seeds.


On the other hand, we can also try growing marigolds. Tagetes marigold can be grown from the seed. They are bought as seedlings and planted to grow. They can be bought as seedlings (Plug plants) or garden-ready plants.

Plant them in beds or pots. It does not matter. The important thing is to plant them. Make sure that you do so after all risk of frost has been eliminated. Put them in good soil and a sunny spot. Make sure to water them during dry spells.

Remove the dead heads to extend the flowering. Make sure to feed it constantly. That is in case you have grown it in pots. Marigolds love the sun. They do tolerate some shade, but the more sun, the better.


The third on the list is begonias. You should grow begonias in peat-free, multi-purpose compost that is dappled in plenty of sunshine. Maybe partial shade. Only plant begonias outside. That is in May. However, you should make sure no more frosts are happening.

Watch the forecast. Water them regularly. Feed them weekly. Use high-potash fertilizer. Maybe tomato feed to feed them. They are ideal for containers and are easy to care for. Their blooming is one sign of summer.


Frost has passed and you are sure. Then, it is probably time to plant out snapdragons. Early autumn sowings will produce in about early May. Sow the seeds thinly on the surface of the compost. Water and seal in a propagator. Maybe a plastic bag.

Transfer the seeds when they are large enough to pot and grow in a sheltered spot. They are easy to grow, do not fear. Make sure you grow them in well-drained garden soil. In southern California, people sow their snapdragon seeds in fall or winter for spring blooming.


Growing Daffodils needs extra care and love. Pick a spot in your garden that has well-draining soil and gets full sun or partial shade. Plant the daffodil bulbs about 3- 6 deep and 4- 5 apart. Place them on the ground with their pointy ends up.

Water them well once and wait for spring. However, after the daffodils bloom, do not cut off the foliage. Daffodil bulbs are best planted in September or November. Especially, in well-drained soil. They will most definitely grow well in sun or part shade.

Fun Flowery Facts

  1. Puya raimondii is the largest flower in the world
  2. The largest flower in the world can grow up to 50 feet high
  3. Puya raimondii is also known as the Queen of the Andes
  4. The Queen of the Andes is also known as titanka
  5. Titanka bears over 8000 white flowers
  6. Titanka is native to the high Andes of Bolivia and Peru
  7. Roses normally have 5 petals
  8. The only roses that have 4 four petals are from the species called Rosa Sericea
  9. The Bird of Paradise is a flower
  10. The flower of the Bird of Paradise is only white

Flowers and Occasions

Flowers are so full of stories. We cannot get enough of hearing them out. Their adventures are ongoing as we discover more and more. We will discuss a few occasions on which we mostly use flowers in.

Some people use flowers when there is a happy occasion. Others associate flowers with sad occasions and events. The same as a white lily in a funeral. There is also the flower bouquet that the bride holds onto during her wedding to throw off to the next bride-to-be.

Different colours of flowers and different types of flowers are associated with different connotations depending on the culture and occasion. However, we all agree that flowers are pretty and quite mesmerizing at times.

Some flowers may be deadly as we saw in our previous list, but others are rare and are innocently used for decoration. Other flowers may hold different meanings depending on the language of flowers in which country. We will observe the Japanese culture for example. Vases during a Japanese occasion should be regularly shaped and pleasing to the eye.

They may take on the colour of silver or bronze. They may even take on the colour of summer earthenware that is glazed in cool colours of green and white. They may also be set on stands. Flower arrangements that combine pine, bamboo, and flowering plum.

Those are called sho- chikubai. However, when the plum blossoms are not in season, we use Omoto (rhodea), Kiku (chrysanthemums), or ran (orchid) may be used instead. White flowers or naturally coloured flowers are used in funeral and memorial services occasions.

Easy Facts about Flowers

  1. The Corkscrew vine is an oddly shaped flower
  2. Corkscrew resembles nautilus shells
  3. Corkscrew is also known as Cochliasanthus Caracalla
  4. Caracalla means snail and there is a flower species named as such
  5. The global sales for flower bouquets exported were totalled $9 billion in 2018
  6. Bamboo flowers are rare
  7. Some Bamboo species develop flowers after 65 or 120 years
  8. Agave is known as the century plant
  9. Agave spends its life cycle without growing flowers and it grows a single bloom just before it dies
  10. Shenzhen Nongke Orchid is the most expensive flower ever

Concluding our Flowery Journey

We have successfully reached the end of our journey. We managed to grasp the essence of flowers, their history in different countries, and the national flower of each country. We defined what flowers are and the pollinators that are responsible for the spreading of flowers.

We discovered that there are four different pollination techniques that plants use to multiply. Some use wind and water. Others use insects and animals. We learned different facts about plants and flowers during our journey.

We spoke the flowers’ language as we delved into the history of flowers. Each country favours a different flower for a different reason. We learned some of the common types of flowers. We discussed the importance and significance of flowers in our lives.

We even investigated some of the deadliest flowers on Earth. In addition to the other flowers that are quite rare to find. We also learned together how to plant a few of the different types of flowers.

Until we reached the special part of occasions and learned when to give which flower. This journey was fruitful, indeed. Now, we know even more about flowers. We still have so many stories we’d love to share with you, so stay tuned and keep on visiting Learning Mole. Remember, the world is full of wonders!

Hindi Alphabet, 46 Letters, Pronunciation. An Extensive Guide

Hindi is the mother tongue of India. Although Hindi is an easy language to learn, it is not easy to remember. It’s quite complicated compared to other languages. The Hindi alphabet is called Hindi Varnamala. Hindi letters are pronounced the same way they are written in. To fully understand any language it is always important to learn the alphabet, today we are going to focus on learning the Hindi alphabet.

Hindi Alphabet for Kids
Hindi Alphabet for Kids

Hindi is also classified as consonants and vowels. The official Hindi alphabet has 46 letters divided into 11 vowels and 35 consonants. On the other hand, the traditional Hindi alphabet has 46 letters including 13 vowels and 33 consonants. The horizontal line placed on top of letters plays an important role in Hindi. Words formed by different letters are connected by this line.

24 out of the 36 consonants have a vertical right stroke. It is used to refer to a full stop. A dot above 24 out of the 36 consonants use a vertical right stroke. It is used to represent a full stop. A dot above letters works for nasal sounds. Some of the Hindi letters have the same phonetic transcription as the English letters, however, they have a different pronunciation. In this article we are going to focus on all Hindi letters pronunciation with some history of the language as well.

How Many Letters Are in Hindi Alphabet?

The Hindi alphabet has 45 letters according to pronunciation. There are 10 vowels and 35 consonants. There are 52 letters based on writing. It has 13 vowels, 35 consonants, 4 combined consonants, and 2 binary consonants.

The Hindi alphabet according to pronunciation and the Hindi alphabet according to writing has 7 characters difference. These characters’ difference is represented by 3 extra vowels and 4 combined consonants. Hindi vowels are given the name Hindi Swar (स्वर) and Hindi consonants are given the name Hindi Vyanjan (व्यंजन).

vowels are also popular as Vowels (स्वर) in Hindi, pronounced ‘Swine’ as ‘SW’. Let’s have a look at the list of the 13 Hindi vowels and their equivalents in English:

Hindi VowelsEnglish Vowels

Hindi Vowels for Kids
Hindi Vowels for Kids
Hindi Vowels for Kids
Hindi Vowels for Kids

Hindi Consonants are called Hindi Vyannjana. Let’s have a look at the list of the Hindi alphabet:

व्यंजन Vyanjan

Let’s have a look at the chart for the Hindi alphabet:

Hindi Consonants for kids

Hindi Alphabet Pronunciation

Here’s a list of the Hindi alphabet beside the pronunciation and English Example:

Hindi AlphabetEnglish SoundPronunciation Example
aas in apple
aaas in cat
eas in elephant
iias in Wii
eias in bean
eias in mean
aias in fate
ias in victory
oas in Rome
oias in coin
oiias in oil
uuas in moon
ouas in house
uas in umbrella
Bas in ball
Bhaas in Bob Hansen
Caas in Camel
Chhaas in Rich Hansen
Daas in Dam
Dhaas in Edward Hansen
Faas in fan
फ़Fias in Finland
Gaas in gap
Ghaas in Ghana
ग़Ghias in Ghistapo
Haas in hat
Jaas in Jam
Jhaas in jhawani 
Kaas in Kashmir
Khaas in Khan
ख़Khias in blac
Las in life
Lias in lips
Lias in military
Liias in Lima
Liias in Bradley
Maas in man
Naas in Namibia
N’aas in Stan Alan
Niaas in Niagara
Naeas in Nigeria
Nias in Nicaragua
omsas in Tom’s book
Paas in Panama
क़Qias in King
Raas in ran
Rias in ring
Rias in risk
Rias in Brie
Saas in Sam
Shaas in Shanghai
Shhaas in wash hand
Taas in Tamara
T’aas in Matt Alan
Thaas in Thailand
Thaas in Thailand
T’haas in Thailand
Thhaas in Keith Hansen
ड़ugDhaas in drug down
ढ़ugDhhaas in hugged hand
Vaas in vast
Yaas in yard
य़Yias in year
ज़Zaas in Zambia

What is the Origin of the Hindi Language?

The Hindi Language is the Primary Official Language of the Republic of India since January 26, 1965. The Hindi language is among the 22 Official Languages available in India. The Hindi language developed over many centuries. Hindi was derived from the Khariboli dialect. The first time the Hindi language was used in writing was during the 4th century AD.

Hindi was inspired by Persian and Arabic languages. Hindi turned into a national language during the colonial period once the British colonizers needed a fixed language among government officials. Later on, The Constitution of India stated Hindi and English as the two languages of communication for the Central Government.

Hindi is a name taken from the Persian word Hind, which means “Land of the Indus River”. Turkish invaders in the early 11th century named the language of the region Hindi, ‘language of the land of the Indus River’. As mentioned already in this article, Hindi is spoken in countries outside India, such as in Mauritius, Fiji, Suriname, Guyana, Trinidad & Tobago and Nepal – which drive its popularity.

There is no fixed number of Hindi Language Dialects, still, as per Census of India 2001, there are 49 dialects of Hindi. let’s check the list of some other dialects:

            Some of the Hindi Language Dialects
1.  HaryanviHaryana
2. SargujiyaChhattisgarh
3. ChhattisgarhiChhattisgarh
4. AwadhiUttar Pradesh
5. BhojpuriUttar Pradesh
6. KanaujiUttar Pradesh
7. BagheliMadhya Pradesh
8. MalviMadhya Pradesh
9. KangriHimachal Pradesh.
10. BundeliMadhya Pradesh
11. GarhwaliUttaranchal
12. KumaoniUttaranchal
13. Marwari / MerwariRajasthan, Haryana some parts of Gujarat.
14. LambadiMaharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh
15. HarautiRajasthan
16. GodwariRajasthan
16. GodwariRajasthan
17. BagriRajasthan
18. Magadhi / MagahiBihar
19. PahariSikkim, West Bengal,  Nepal,  Pakistan, Tibet, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir
20. MewatiRajasthan and Pakistan; Punjab and Sindh, Mewat region of Haryana 

How to Say Hindi Words in English?

Although 1.2 billion people can speak Hindi, they can’t recognize the Hindi alphabet. These alphabets are also called Hindi Aksharmala or Varnamala in the Hindi language. The smallest units of the Hindi Language are Letters, which means Akshar in Hindi. A mixture of these letters forms words. A mixture of these words forms a sentence.

Let’s have a look at the list of Hindi alphabets in words with their equivalent in English along with pictures to get the meaning:

Hindi AlphabetsPronunciation of Hindi Alphabets in EnglishHindi Alphabets and WordsHindi Words in EnglishImages of Hindi Alphabets’ Words
uउल्लूowlHindi Varnamala
aiएकOneHindi Varnamala
aeऐनकSpecsHindi Varnamala
oओखलokhalHindi Varnamala
auऔरतWoman/LadyHindi Varnamala
अंanअंगूरGrapesHindi Varnamala
अ:ahप्रातः कालMorningHindi Varnamala
hriऋषिSaintHindi Varnamala
KकबूतरPigeonHindi Varnamala
KhखरगोशRabbitHindi Varnamala
GगमलाFlowerpotHindi Varnamala
Ghघड़ीWatchHindi Varnamala
Chचम्मचSpoonHindi Varnamala
ChhछतरीUmbrellaHindi Varnamala
JजहाजShipHindi Varnamala
JhझरनाWaterfallHindi Varnamala
TटमाटरTomatoesHindi Varnamala
ThठेलाTrolleyHindi Varnamala
DडमरूDamruHindi Varnamala
Dhढक्कनLidHindi Varnamala
TaतवाTawaHindi Varnamala
ThथैलीBagHindi Varnamala
DदवाMedicineHindi Varnamala
DhधनुषBowHindi Varnamala
NनलTapHindi Varnamala
PपतंगKiteHindi Varnamala
PhफलFruitHindi Varnamala
Bबत्तखDuckHindi Varnamala
BhभालूBearHindi Varnamala
Mमकड़ीSpiderHindi Varnamala
Yयज्ञYajnaHindi Varnamala
RरथRathHindi Varnamala
Lलट्टूLattoHindi Varnamala
VवटTreeHindi Varnamala
ShशलजमTurnipHindi Varnamala
Shषट्कोणHexagonHindi Varnamala
SसाडीSareeHindi Varnamala
HहलPlowHindi Varnamala
क्षKshक्षत्रियKshatriyaHindi Varnamala
त्रTraत्रिशूलProngHindi Varnamala
ज्ञGyanज्ञान KnowledgeHindi Varnamala

What is Hindi Matra?

Hindi matras are also known as vowel signs. Every Hindi vowel has its own specific signs.

Hindi Vowels and their Signs (Matra)

Vowels(Svar)sign/matraMode of writing
( ◌ी )क्+ईकी
( ◌ु)क्+उकु
( ◌े)क्+एके
अ:( : ) (Visarga)क्+अ:कः


Hindi Matra Name and location:

Martra Namesign/matraWhere is it used?Consonant Shapes formed
AA(-T)क्+आ =का
Iिक्+इ = कि
II( ◌ी )क्+ई = की
U( ◌ु)क्+उ = कु
UU(◌ू)क्+ऊ = कू
VOCALIC R(◌ृ)क्+ऋ = कृ
E( ◌े)क्+ए =के
CANDRA E( ॅ )क्+ॅ= कॅ
AI(◌ै)क्+ऐ = कै
O(◌ो)क्+ओ = को
CANDRA O( ॉ )क्+औ = कौ
AU(-◌ौ)क्+अं =कं

Hindi Vs Bengali Alphabets

Hindi, as well as Bengali, are spoken languages in India. Bengali is the primary language of Bangladesh and India. Hindi is the official language of India. It is also called Hindustani. 13 countries can speak Bengali. Although, six countries only can speak Hindi.

Bengali is divided into five major dialect Bengali is divided into five major dialect groups. There are almost 23 different dialects. On the other hand, Hindi is also divided into a lot of kinds. Hindi dialects are approximately 22 languages. Bengali and Hindi languages have different scripts. They are both different in writing.

The Bengali language has two written groups: Sadhubhasa and Cholitobhasha. While Hindi has only one type of writing which is called Devanagari. In India, Hindi is considered the first spoken language while Bengali is the second one.

Let’s have a look at the list of the Hindi to Bengali alphabets:


Hindi Vs Punjabi Alphabets:

Hindi is the standard language in India while Punjabi is one of the 22 spoken languages in India. Hindi and Punjabi have two different scripts. Hindi is written in Devanagri script. Punjabi is written in Gurumukhi script. 

The number of Hindi speakers all over the world is 341 million whereas the number of Punjabi speakers all around the world is 102 million. The exact number of the Hindi alphabet is 45 while the number of the Punjabi alphabet is 35.

Let’s check the list of the Punjabi alphabet:

ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) Gurmukhi (Punjabi) EnglishPronunciation Example
ਓੂੜਾOo’rhaao’ as in root
ਐੜਾAi’rhaaa’ as in cat
ਈੜੀEe’rheee’ as in egg
ਸੱਸਾsas’saas’ as in see
ਹਾਹਾhaa’haah’ as in home
ਕੱਕਾKak’kaak’ as in Kate, kite, kit
ਖੱਖਾkhakh’khaa‘kh’ as in khan, khaki
ਗੱਗਾgag’gaag’ as in gold
ਘੱਘਾghag’ghaa‘gh’ as in aghast, ghost
ਙੰਙਾNgan’ngaa‘ng’ as in ring
ਚੱਚਾchach’chaach’ as in chat
ਛੱਛਾchhachh’chhaach’ as in cheddar more like ch/sh robustly aspirated
ਜੱਜਾjaj’jaaj’ as in Japan
ਝੱਝਾjhaj’jhaapronounced as harder stressed ‘j’ as in jolt more robustly aspirated
ਞੰਞਾNjan’njaaThere is no English equivalent of this sound
ਟੈਂਕਾtain’kaat’ as in Tip
ਠੱਠਾthath’thaa‘th’ harder th as in river Thames
ਡੱਡਾddad’daad’ as in daddy
ਢੱਢਾdhad’daadd’ as in daddy
ਣਾਣਾnhaa’nhaaPronounced like English ‘n’ with tip of tongue upwards touching palette of mouth
ਤੱਤਾtat’taat’ softer unaspirated t as in Tim
ਥੱਥਾthath’thaa‘th’ as in Thailand
ਦੱਦਾdad’daath’ softer th as in ‘then’
ਧੱਧਾdhad’daa‘th’ stressed th seventh
ਨੱਨਾnan’naan’ as in name
ਪੱਪਾpap’paap’ as in papa
ਫੱਫਾphaph’phaa‘ph’ as in philosopher
ਬੱਬਾbab’baab’ as in baby
ਭੱਭਾbhab’baathere is no English equivalent of this sound more like bha combined together
ਮੱਮਾmam’maam’ as in mother
ਯੱਯਾyay’yaay’ as in yellow
ਰਾਰਾra’raar’ as in run
ਲੱਲਾlal’laal’ as in lake
ਵੱਵਾvav’vaav’ as in Victor
ੜਾੜਾrhar’rhaa‘rr’ hard double r
ਸ਼ਸ਼ੱਸ਼ਾshash’shaash’ as in shade
ਖ਼ਖ਼ੱਖ਼ਾkha’khaa‘kh’ as in khan or as ‘ch’ As in the Scottish Loch
ਗ਼ਗ਼ੱਗ਼ਾgag’gaag’ as in good
ਜ਼ਜ਼ੱਜ਼ਾZaz’zaaz’ as in zebra
ਫ਼ਫ਼ੱਫ਼ਾfaf’faa‘ph’ as in philosopher
ਲ਼ਲ਼ੱਲ਼ਾlal’laal’ as in land
Vowel Sign (broken circle represents a alphabet)pronunciationName of vowelexample
invisible is with every consonantaਮੁਕਤਾ muktāਸ sa
āਕੰਨਾ kannāਸਾ sā
ਿIਸਿਹਾਰੀ sihārīਸਿ si
īਬਿਹਾਰੀ bihārīਸੀ sī
uਔਂਕੜ auṅkaṛਸੁ su
ūਦੁਲੈਂਕੜ dulaiṅkaṛਸੂ sū
ēਲਾਂਵਾਂ lāṃvāṃਸੇ sē
aiਦੁਲਾਂਵਾਂ dulāṃvāṃਸੈ sai
ōਹੋੜਾ hōṛāਸੋ sō
auਕਨੌੜਾ kanauṛāਸੌ sau
Nasal signs
 ਬਿੰਦੀ bindīIt’s sound is same as ‘n’ in land, sand
 ਟਿੱਪੀ ṭippīIts sound is same as ‘n’ in punch, lunch
 ਅਧਕ adhakdouble sound to the particular consonant that it is assigned to

Urdu Language Alphabets in Hindi

Urdu alphabets have 52 letters and Hindi Alphabets contain 44 letters. Urdu is written from Right-To-Left, Horizontal, while Hindi is written from  Left-To-Right, Horizontal. Urdu has 10 vowels and 40 consonants. Hindi has 11 vowels and 33 consonants. 

The levels in the Urdu language are 4. It requires 44 weeks to learn the Urdu language. While the Hindi levels are 4. It requires 44 weeks to learn the Hindi language. 

Let’s check the list of the Urdu Vs Hindi alphabet and the equivalent in English:

ɑ: aا‬ 
ṭ ʈ ٹ
cht͡ʃ چ
h, ɦح
kh xخ‬
th ذ‬
zh ʒژ‬
sh ʃ ش‬
‬t tط‬
țh țhظजोय
Eɑː, eːع‬
gh ɣ غ
f ‬ فफ़
q ‬ق
ɡ گ‬
ŋ ن‬
ṉ n ◌̃ں‬याँ

The Most Recommended Hindi Movies:

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Let’s check the list of Arabic Alphabet in Hindi, Pronunciation And Equivalent In English

Arabic LetterEnglish SoundHindi LetterArabic Pronunciation

Gujarati Alphabet In Hindi

Gujarati is one of the 22 spoken languages in India. 46 million people speak Gujarati in India. The Gujarātī script was derived from the Devanāgarī script. Gujarātī is a syllabic alphabet in that consonants all have an inherent vowel. 

Vowels can be written as independent letters, or by using a variety of diacritical marks.These marks are written above, below, before or after the consonant they belong to. Consonants in Gujarati and Hindi are similar except few consonants. 

Here’s a list of the Gujarati alphabet:

Hindi ScriptGujarati ScriptRoman Script
અ                                                     अ                                                                                               a                                       
આ  aa
ઇ    i
  ઈ ee
ઉ   u
ઊ ऊ oo
એ e
ઐ ऐ  ai
ઓ o
औ au
અઃ  अः  aH
ક ka
  ख kha
घ gha
ङ nga
ચ cha
જ ज  ja
ઞ ञ nya
ડ Da
ढ Dha
ण Na
त  ta
थ  tha
દ  da
ન na
प pa
फ pha
ब ba
ભ भ  bha
મ म ma
ય  य  ya
र ra
ल la
વ व va
શ sha
સ Sa 
હ ha
ક્ષ  क्षkSha
જ્ઞ ज्ञ  Gya

Hindi vs Telugu Alphabets

Hindi alphabets contain 44 letters and Telugu Alphabets contain 60 letters. Both Hindi and Telugu are written from Left-To-Right, Horizontal. Hindi consists of 11 vowels and 33 consonants while Telugu consists of 19 vowels and 41 consonants. Hindi language is 4 levels and it takes 44 weeks while Telugu is 3 levels and it takes 44 weeks to be learnt.

Here is a list of the Hindi alphabet vs the Telugu alphabet:

Telugu AlphabetEnglish SoundPronunciation Example
kas in kill
cas in car
as in tomb
tas in task
pas in pool
yas in you
śas in sweet
khas in Scottish Loch
chas in charm
ṭhas in that
thas in think
phas in stop her
ras in rooster
as in sold
gas in game
jas in pleasure
as in door
das in day
bas in baby
las in life
sas in sweet
ghas in Ghana
jhas in Bridge hop
ḍhas in speed hump
dhas in speed hump
bhas in bulb holder
vas in vast
as in rainbow
as in noon
ñas in New York
as in nice
nas in night
mas in map
as in life
has in home
Vowels (when independent)With క (k)Sound


Assamese Vs Hindi Alphabets

The Assamese script has 41 consonants and 11 vowels. It is similar to the Devnagari script. Most of the Assamese Alphabets written same as Bengali. The Assamese Alphabets are divided into two groups 1. স্বৰবৰ্ণ. (Swarborno) 2. Byonjonborno(ব্যঞ্জনবৰ্ণ). 

স্বৰবৰ্ণ (Swarborno) represents the 8 main vowel sounds of Assamese, along with a number of vowel diphthongs. Byanjanbarna ব্যঞ্জন বৰ্ণ Represents the consonant letters in the Assamese alphabet. 

Here is al list of the Assamese Vowels:

LetterName of letterVowel sign with [kɔ] (ক)Name of vowel signTransliteration
oক (none)(none)ko
অ or অʼóক (none) or কʼurdho-comma
hroswo iকিhôrswôikarki
dirgho iকীdirghoikarki
hroswo uকুhroswoukarku
dirgho uকূdirghoukarku
eকেekarkê and ke

Here’s a list of the Assamese consonants:

LetterName of LetterTransliteration
prothom sos
ditio sos
borgiya zoz
murdhoinno tot
murdhoinno thoth
murdhoinno dod
murdhoinno dhodh
murdhoinnya non
dontia tot
dontia thoth
dontia dod
dontia dhodh
dontia non
phoph and f
bhobh and vh
ontostho zoz
taloibbo xox and s
murdhoinno xox and s
dontia xox and s
ক্ষkhyokhy, kkh
ড়dore ror
ঢ়dhore rorh
য়ontostho yôy

Hindi Kannada Alphabet

Kannada language is one of the 22 languages used in India. Kannada alphabet consist of 49 letters. There are 14 vowels and 35 consonants. The letters are classified into three categories: ಸ್ವರ svara (vowels), ವ್ಯಂಜನ vyañjana (consonants), and ಯೋಗವಾಹಕ yōgavāhaka (semi consonants).

Here is a list of the Kannada alphabet Vs Hindi alphabet:

ಅ nonenone
ಆ ಾ ā
ಇ ಿi  
ಈ ī
ೆ e
ೇ ēएॅ
auanusvara: ಅಂ (aṁ)visarga: ಅಃ (aḥ) अं

Here is a list of consonants:

KannadaHindi Transliteration
क k
ಖ kh
ಗ g
ಘ gh
ಙ n
ಚ ch
ಛ chh
ಝ jh
ಟ t
ಠ th
ಡ d
ಢ dh
ಣ n
ತ त t
ಥ th
ದ d
ಧ ध dh
ನ n
ಪ p
ಬ b
ಭ bh
ಮ m
ಯ y
ರ r
ಱ ಲl
ವ v
ಶ sh
ಷ sh
ಸ s
ಹ h
ಳ l
ೞ ḻal

Hindi Malayalam Alphabets 

Malayalam language is one of the 22 spoken language in India. It consists of 15 vowels and 41 consonants. Malayalam consonants  are called `vyanjan (व्यंजन). 

Vowels and diphthongs are marked in two ways. The first one is an independent vowel, which is used at the beginning of a syllable. The second one is dependent vowel, which is used when the vowel follows a consonant.

Here is a list of the alphabet with the pronunciation:

LetterVowel signVowel with [p]Unicode nameIPANote
 (pa)Aashort ‘a’
പാ(pā)AAlong ‘a’
ിപി(pi)Iishort ‘i’
പീ(pī)IIlong ‘i’
പു(pu)Uushort ‘u’
പൂ(pu)UUlong ‘u’
പൃ(pr̥)VOCALIC R 
   VOCALIC L obsolete/rarely used
പെ(pe)Eeshort ‘e’
പേ(pē)Elong ‘e’
പൊ(po)Ooshort ‘o’
പോ(pō)OOlong ‘o’
MalayalamUnicode NameTransliterationIPA
NGAn̄ or ngŋ
NYAñ or nyɲ
TTAṭ or ttʈ
TTHAṭh or tthʈh
DDAḍ or ddɖ
DDHAḍh or ddhɖɦ
NNAṇ or nnɳ
SHAś or shɕ
SSAṣ or ssʃ
LLAḷ or llɭ
LLLAḻ or lllɹ
RRAṟ or rr

Persian Hindi Alphabet

Persian is a member of the Western Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. Hindi alphabets contain 44 letters and Persian Alphabets contain 32 letters. The writing direction of both Hindi and Persian is Left-To-Right, Horizontal.

Persian is spoken by about 110 million people. Persian has six vowel sounds and two diphthongs: â (/ɒː/), a (/æ/), e (/e/), I (/iː/), o (/o/), u (/uː/), ey (/ej/) and ow (/ow/). ح (he) is also known as ی جیمی (ye-jimi), and ﻩ (he) is also known as ی دوچش (ye-docešma). 

Here is a list of some words in Persian and Hindi:

man(adult male)mardaadamee
man(human being)ensAnaadamee
fat (n.)charbivasa
hairmu (mo)kesh
swimsheno kardantairana
fly (v.)paridanudana
walkrAh raftanchalana
liedurogh goftanjhooth bolana

Hindi Alphabet in Sinhala

Sinhalese alphabets contain 54 letters and Hindi Alphabets contain 44 letters. Sinhala has 18 vowels and 36 consonants. The writing direction for both languages is Left-To-Right, Horizontal.

Here is a list of Sinhala Vowels:

vowelHindiSinhala IPAAmerican English IPA
/a/ʌ or ə

Here is a list of Sinhala consonants:

/k/kc in picnic /pʰɪknɪk/.
/k/ (/kʰ/)kh (digraph)Modern: c in picnic /pʰɪknɪk/.Ancient: c in cat cat /kʰæt/.
/ɡ/gg in game /ɡeɪm/.
/ɡ/ (/ɡʰ/)gh (digraph)Modern: g in game /ɡeɪm/.Ancient: no English equivalent. g with a puff of air immediately afterwards.
/ŋ/ng (digraph)ng in sing /sɪŋ/.
/ᵑɡ/ngSimilar to, but not exactly the same as, ng in stronger /stɹɒŋɡə/ where the g has a “hard” sound.
/t͡ʃ/cch in itch /ɪt͡ʃ/.
/t͡ʃ/ (/t͡ʃʰ/)ch (digraph)Modern: ch in itch /ɪt͡ʃ/.Ancient: ch in chin /t͡ʃʰɪn/.
/d͡ʒ/jj in jug /d͡ʒʌɡ/.
/d͡ʒ/ (/d͡ʒʰ/)jh (digraph)Modern: j in jug /d͡ʒʌɡ/.Ancient: no English equivalent. j with a puff of air immediately afterwards.
/ɲ/gn (digraph)ñ in señor (Spanish) /seˈɲoɾ/.
/ᶮd͡ʒ/njSimilar to, but not exactly the same as, ng in orange /ˈɒɹɪnd͡ʒ/.
/ʈ/tSimilar to, but not exactly the same as, t in pat /pʰæt/.
/ʈ/ (/ʈʰ/)th (digraph)Modern: Similar to, but not exactly the same as, t in pat /pʰæt/.Ancient: Similar to, but not exactly the same as, t in tack /tʰæk/.
/ɖ/dSimilar to, but not exactly the same as, d in disc /dɪsk/.
/ɖ/ (/ɖʰ/)dh (digraph)Modern: Similar to, but not exactly the same as, d in disc /dɪsk/.Ancient: no English equivalent. Similar to d with a puff of air immediately afterwards.
/n/nn in net /nɛt/.
/ᶯɖ/ndSimilar to, but not exactly the same as, nd in and /ænd/.
/t̪/th (digraph)द No exact equivalent in English. Somewhat similar to th in teeth /tiːθ/.
/t̪/ (/t̪ʰ/)th (digraph)ढ  Modern: No exact equivalent in English. Somewhat similar to th in teeth /tiːθ/.Ancient: No exact equivalent in English. Somewhat similar to th in thin /θʰɪn/.
/d̪/dन No exact equivalent in English. Somewhat similar to th in this /ðɪs/.
/d̪/ (/d̪ʰ/)th (digraph)प Modern: No exact equivalent in English. Somewhat similar to th in this /ðɪs/.Ancient: No exact equivalent in English. Somewhat similar to th in this /ðɪs/ with a puff of air immediately afterwards.
/n/nn in net /nɛt/.
/ⁿd̪/nth (trigraph)No exact equivalent in English. Somewhat similar to n th in when this /wɛnðɪs/.
/p/pp in tap /tæp/.
/p/ (/pʰ/)ph (digraph)Modern: p in tap /tæp/.Ancient: Similar to p in pen /pʰɛn/.
/b/bb in big /bɪɡ/.
/b/ (/bʰ/)bh (digraph)Modern: b in big /bɪɡ/.Ancient: no English equivalent. b with a puff of air immediately afterwards.
/m/mm in mat /mæt/.
/ᵐb/mb (digraph)Similar to, but not exactly the same as, mb in amber /æmbə(ɹ)/.
/j/yy in yet /jɛt/.
/r/rSimilar to r in red /ɹɛd/.
/l/ll in list /lɪst/.
/v~ʋ~w/v, wv in vivid /ˈvɪvɪd/, w in water /ˈwɔːtə(ɹ)/.
/ʃ/sh (digraph)sh in ship /ʃɪp/.
/ʃ/ (/ʂ/)sh (digraph)Modern: sh in ship /ʃɪp/.Ancient: no English equivalent. Somewhat similar to sh in ship /ʃɪp/.
/s/sस s in set /sɛt/.
/h/hh in hat /hæt/.
/l/ll in list /lɪst/.
/f/ff in fin /fɪn/.

Some Useful Everyday Hindi Phrases:

Sentence in EnglishHindi Pronunciation
How are you? (formal)Aap kaise hain?
How are you? (informal)Kya haal hai? /Kaise ho?/sab theek?
I’m fine. You?Main theek hoon. Tum?
What is your name? (formal)Aapka naam kya hai?
What is your name? (informal)Tumhara naam kya hai?
My name is PeterMera naam Peter hai.
Thank youDhanyavad
SorryMaaf kijiye
Excuse meSuniye
See you!Phir milenge
See you tomorrowKal milenge
Let’s go!Chalo
GreatBahut accha
OkayTheek hai
Where are the restrooms?Shauchalay kahan hai?
How much does this cost?Ye kitne ka hai?
How much?Kitna?
Hurry up!Jaldi karo
I’m hungryMujhe bhookh lagi hai
I’m thirstyMujhe pyaas lagi hai
I don’t like thisMujhe pasand nahi hai
I like thisMujhe pasand hai
Good byealvida
Good morningSuprabhaat
Good eveningShubh sundhyaa
welcomeaaiye and padhariye
Nice to meet you Ap se milkar kushi hui
What’s new?Kyaa chal rahaa hai?
Nothing muchZyaada kuch nahi
Formal youAap
Informal youTum
Intimate youtu
MRSri Srimati.
How much is this?Ye kitane ka hai.
I like thisMujhe pasand hai.
I don’t like this Mujhe pasand nahi hai.
To the rightdae
To the leftbae
In the middlebic me, bico bic
triantren, relgari
subwaysabwe, bhumigat paidal par path
Bus stopbas stap
I’m feeling wellMujhe theek nhi lg rha.
Can you help me?Kya aap meri madad kar sakte hain?
Do you speak English?Kya ap angrezi bolte/bolti (m/f) hai?
I don’t speak HindiMujhe hindi nahi ati hair
I can’t speak HindiMai Hindi nai bol sakta hu.
I don’t understandMai samjha/samhi nahi.
Talk more slowelyDhire dhire boliye.
What does it mean?[…]  ka artha/matlab kya hai?
How do you say it?[…] kaise kahate hai?
pilotviman chalak

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  •  Sa Re Ke Sa Re. …
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  • lakdi ki kaati.avi
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  • Agar Tum Saath Ho – Pal Bhar Thahar Jaao
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  • Aisi Lagi Lagan, Meera Ho Gayi Magan
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  • Chal Akela Chal Akela Tera Mela
  • Chalte Chalte Mere Yeh Geet
  • Chalte Chalte Yunhi Koi Mil Gaya Tha – Pakeezah
  • Chalte Chalte Yunhi Ruk Jata Hoon Main
  • Chalti Hai Kya 9 Se 12 – Keyboard Notes
  • Chand Mera Dil Chandni Ho Tum
  • Chand Si Mehbooba Ho Meri
  • Chand Sifarish Jo Karta Hamari
  • Chandi Jaisa Rang Hai Tera, Sone Jaise Baal
  • Chhoti Chhoti Gaiya Chhote Chhote Gwal
  • Chookar Mere Man Ko, Kiya Tune Kya Isharaa – (Notes Corrected)
  • Christmas Song – Jingle Bells
  • Chura Ke Dil Mera Goriya Chali
  • Chura Liya Hai Tumne Jo Dil Ko
  • Children Songs – Nursery Rhymes – Song List


  • Aisa Des Hai Mera – Dharti Sunehri Ambar Neela
  • Aye Watan Tere Liye – Dil Diya Hai Jaan Bhi Denge
  • De Di Hame Azadi – Sabarmati Ke Sant
  • Dekhte Dekhte – Sochta Hoon ke Woh Kitne Masoom
  • Dhoom Machale Dhoom Machale Dhoom
  • Dil Apna Aur Preet Parai
  • Dil Hai Chota Sa Choti Si Asha
  • Dil Hai Ke Manta Nahin
  • Dil Ibadat Kar Raha Hai
  • Dil Ke Jharoke Mein Tujko Bithakar
  • Dil Kya Kare Jab Kisi Se
  • Dil To Bachcha Hai Ji – Rahat Fateh Ali Khan
  • Dil To Pagal Hai, Dil Deewana Hai
  • Do Dil Mil Rahe Hain, Magar Chupke Chupke
  • Do Lafzon Ki Hai Dil Ki Kahani
  • Doston Is Jamane Ko Kya Ho Gaya
  • Patriotic Songs – Deshbhakti Geet – Song List


  • Ehsaan Tera Hoga Mujh Par
  • Ek Ajnabi Haseena Se
  • Ek Din Bik Jayega Mati Ke Mol
  • Ek Haseena Thi Ek Deewana Tha
  • Ek Ladki Bheegi Bhagi Si
  • Ek Pardesi Mera Dil Le Gaya
  • Ek Pyar ka Nagma Hai
  • Jeeta Tha Jiske Liye – Ek Aisi Ladki Thi
  • My Heart Will Go On


  • Galiyan Teri Galiyan
  • Gayatri Mantra – Om Bhur Bhuvah Swaha
  • Geet Gaata Chal O Saathi Gungunata Chal
  • Genda Phool – Badshah – Boro Loker Beti Lo
  • Gerua – Rang De Tu Mohe Geruaa
  • Ghar Se Nikalte Hi – Armaan Malik
  • Gulabi Aankhen Jo Teri Dekhi


  • Hai Apna Dil To Awara
  • Hai Preet Jahan Ki Reet Sada – Bharat Ka Rehne Wala Hoon
  • Hamari Adhuri Kahani
  • Hanuman Chalisa – Version 1
  • Hanuman Chalisa – Version 2
  • Hare Krishna Mantra – Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna
  • Hey Ram Hey Ram
  • Ho Gaya Hai Tujhko To Pyar Sajna – Na Jaane Mere
  • Hothon Se Choo Lo Tum
  • Hum Ko Man Ki Shakti Dena


  • Itni Shakti Hame Dena Data


  • Jaane Jaan Dhoondta Phir Raha
  • Jaane Kahan Gaye Woh Din
  • Jab Koi Baat Bigad Jaye – Updated
  • Jab Se Mera Dil Tera Hua
  • Jag Ghoomeya Thare Jaisa Na Koi
  • Jag Mein Sundar Hain Do Naam
  • Jagat Ke Rang Kya Dekhu – Krishna Bhajan
  • Jahan Daal Daal Par Sone Ki Chidiya
  • Jai Ganesh Deva – Ganesh Aarti
  • Jai Ho – Aaja Aaja Jind Shamiyane Ke Tale
  • Jaise Suraj Ki Garmi Se Jalte Hue Tan Ko
  • Jana Gana Mana – National Anthem
  • Janam Janam Janam Saath Chalna
  • ज़रा सामने तो आओ छलिये – Harmonium Notes
  • Jeena Jeena – Dehleez Pe Mere Dil Ki
  • Jeena Yahan Marna Yahan, Iske Siva Jaana Kahan
  • Jeeta Tha Jiske Liye – Ek Aisi Ladki Thi
  • Jhilmil Sitaron Ka Aangan Hoga
  • Jingle Bell Rock – Keyboard Notes
  • Jyot Se Jyot Jagate Chalo
  • Namo Namo Shankara – Jai Ho Jai Ho Shankara – Kedarnath


  • Kabhi Kabhi Mere Dil Mein Khayal Aata Hai
  • Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham – Meri Saason Mein Tu Hai Samaya
  • Kabhi Ram Banke, Kabhi Shyam Banke
  • Kahin Door Jab Din Dhal Jaye
  • Kal Ho Naa Ho – Har Ghadi Badal Rahi Hai
  • Kar Chale Hum Fida Jan-o Tan Sathiyon
  • Kar Har Maidan Fateh
  • Kaun Hai Jo Sapno Mein Aaya – M. Rafi
  • Keyboard Notes for Old Hindi Songs
  • Kishore Kumar
  • Kisiki Muskurahato Pe Ho Nisar
  • Kuch Kuch Hota Hai – Tum Paas Aaye
  • Kya Hua Tera Wada, Wo Kasam, Wo Irada


  • Lag Ja Gale Ke Phir Ye, Haseen Raat Ho Na Ho
  • Likhe Jo Khat Tujhe


  • Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham – Meri Saason Mein Tu Hai Samaya
  • Madhuban Khushboo Deta Hai
  • Maha Mrityunjaya Mantra – Om Tryambakam Yajamahe
  • Maili Chadar Odh Ke Kaise – Keyboard Notes
  • Main Agar Kahoon – Tumko Paya Hai To
  • Main Shayar To Nahin
  • Man Dole Mera Tan Dole
  • Man Lagyo Mero Yaar Fakiri Mein – Keyboard Notes
  • Mangal Bhavan Amangal Hari – Ramayan Chaupai
  • Mary Had A Little Lamb – Song for Children
  • Mehndi Laga Ke Rakhna
  • Mera Aapki Kripa Se Sab Kaam Ho Raha Hai
  • Mera Bhola Hai Bhandari, Kare Nandi Ki Sawari
  • Mera Dil Bhi Kitna Pagal Hai
  • Mera Dil Ye Pukare Aaja
  • Mera Naam Raju Gharana Anaam – Keyboard Notes
  • Mera Rang De Basanti Chola – Shaheed
  • Mere Desh Ki Dharti Sona Ugle
  • Mere Haath Mein Tera Haath Ho
  • Mere Mehboob Qayamat Hogi
  • Mere Rang Me Rangne Wali
  • Mere Rashke Qamar
  • Mere Samne Wali Khidki Mein
  • Mere Sapno Ki Rani Kab Aayegi Tu
  • Meri Mehbooba – Kisi Roz Tumse Mulakaat Hogi
  • Mile Ho Tum Humko, Bade Naseebon Se
  • Yeh moh moh ke dhaage
  • Musafir Hoon Yaron
  • Muskurane Ki Wajah Tum Ho
  • Phir Bhi Tumko Chaahunga – Main Phir Bhi


  • Ho Gaya Hai Tujhko To Pyar Sajna – Na Jaane Mere
  • Nagin Dhun – Piano Notes
  • Namo Namo Shankara – Jai Ho Jai Ho Shankara – Kedarnath
  • Nand Ke Anand Bhayo – Janmashtami Bhajan
  • Nanha Munna Rahi Hoon, Desh ka Sipaahi Hoon
  • Navkar Mantra – Namokar Mantra
  • Neele Neele Ambar Par
  • Children Songs – Nursery Rhymes – Song List


  • ओ दुनियाँ के रख वाले – Harmonium Notes
  • O Mere Dil Ke Chain
  • O O Jaane Jaana
  • O Palan Hare Nirgun Aur Nyare
  • O Sathi Re Tere Bina Bhi Kya Jeena
  • Old MacDonald Had A Farm
  • Om Gan Ganpataye Namo Namah – Ganesh Mantra
  • Om Jai Jagdish Hare
  • Om Namah Shivay – Har 


  • Pal Pal Dil Ke Paas
  • Panchi Banu Udti Phiru – Keyboard Notes
  • Panghat – Bahut Kathin Hai Dagar Panghat Ki – Roohi (2021)
  • Pardesi Pardesi Jana Nahi
  • Pehla Nasha Pehla Khumar
  • Phir Bhi Tumko Chaahunga – Main Phir Bhi
  • Phoolon Ke Rang Se, Dil Ki Kalam Se
  • Prem Ratan Dhan Payo
  • Pukarta Chala Hoon Main
  • Pyaar Hua Ikraar Hua Hai – Keyboard Notes
  • Pyar Diwana Hota Hai
  • Patriotic Songs – Deshbhakti Geet – Song List


  • Raghupati Raghav Raja Ram
  • Rahi Manva Dukh Ki Chinta
  • Rang Barse Bheege Chunar Wali
  • Rim Jhim Gire Sawan
  • Roja Janeman Tu Hi Mera Dil
  • Row, Row, Row Your Boat – Song for Children
  • Ruk Ja O Dil Deewane


  • De Di Hame Azadi – Sabarmati Ke Sant
  • Dekhte Dekhte – Sochta Hoon ke Woh Kitne Masoom
  • Sach Keh Raha Hai Deewana Dil
  • Sach Mere Yaar Hai
  • Sairat Zaala Ji
  • Sajan Re Jhoot Mat Bolo
  • Sanam Re, Sanam Re
  • Sandese Aate Hai – Border
  • Sare Jahan Se Achha Hindustan Hamara
  • Shape of You – Ed Sheeran
  • Shiv Aarti – Om Jai Shiv Omkara
  • Shiv Shankar Ko Jisne Puja
  • Shri Banke Bihari Teri Aarti Gaun
  • Shri Ramchandra Kripalu Bhajman
  • Shyam Teri Bansi Pukare Radha Naam
  • Slow Motion – Bharat
  • Soch Na Sake – Tere Liye Duniya Chod Di Hai
  • Sooraj Dooba Hai Yaaron
  • Sukhkarta Dukhharta – Jai Dev Jai Mangal Murti
  • Sunn Raha Hai Na Tu – Apne Karam Ki
  • Swag Se Swagat – Swag Se Karenge Sabka Swagat


  • Ae Dil Hai Mushkil – Title Track – Tu Safar Mera
  • Allah Ke Bande – Toota Toota ek Parinda
  • Chahun Main Ya Naa – Tu Hi Ye Mujhko Bata De
  • Kuch Kuch Hota Hai – Tum Paas Aaye
  • Main Agar Kahoon – Tumko Paya Hai To
  • Shiv Tandav Stotram
  • Tere Jaisa Yaar Kahaa
  • Tere Man Mein Ram, Tan Mein Ram
  • Tere Naam Humne Kiya Hai – Tere Naam
  • Teri Duniya Se Door Chale Hoke Majboor
  • Teri Mitti Mein Mil Jawaan
  • Tora Man Darpan Kehlaye
  • Tu Pyar Ka Sagar Hai
  • Tujh mein Rab Dikhta Hai – Tu Hi To Jannat Meri
  • Tujhe Dekha To Ye Jana Sanam – Notes Corrected
  • Tujhse Naraz Nahi Zindagi
  • Tum Hi Ho – Hum Tere Bin Ab Reh Nahi Sakte
  • Tumko Dekha to Yeh Khayal Aaya
  • Twinkle Twinkle Little Star


  • We Wish You A Merry Christmas
  • Woh Pehli Baar Jab Hum Mile
  • Woh Sham Kuchh Ajeeb Thi


  • Yeh moh moh ke dhaage
  • Yamaha Keyboards – List
  • Yashomati Maiya Se Bole Nandlala
  • Ye Sama, Sama Hai Ye Pyaar Ka
  • Ye Sham Mastani Madhosh Kiye Jaye
  • Yeh Jo Mohabbat Hai
  • Yeh Kahan Aa Gaye Hum
  • You Are My Sunshine, My Only Sunshine


  • Zindagi Pyaar Ka Geet Hai, Isse Har Dil Ko Gaana Padega

Hindi Alphabet Conclusion

Hindi is the mother tongue of India. The Hindi alphabet is called Hindi Varnamala. Hindi letters are pronounced the same exact way they are written. Hindi is also classified as consonants and vowels. The standard Hindi alphabet has 11 vowels and 35 consonants. 

What is Hindi Day?

Hindi Day commemorates the adoption of Hindi as an official language by the Indian Constituent Assembly in 1965. It was actually on 14th September 2949 that a comprise was reached while drafting the Constitution of India on what languages would have an official status in India. The Hindi supporters wanted Hindi to be the main or national language of India – but from the South of the country – English was preferred.

The comprise was that Hindi would be the official language of the countries federal government and English would be an associate language for 15 years – while Hind’s formal lexicon would be developed. Hence 1965 was 15 years after this initial agreement, it was then that the Government of India announced that English would continue to be the de facto formal language of India. Now every year on the 14th September Hindi Diwas or National Hindi Day is celebrated around the world.

Would you like to know more about global Alphabets? Check out these amazing articles to understand the basics of each language:

English Alphabet

Latin Alphabet

Arabic Alphabet

Chinese Alphabet

Greek Alphabet

Great Videos on the Hindi Alphabet

We have selected some of the best videos we could find on the Hindi language – with tips and guides on how to write, speak and these will no doubt help you learn this incredible language.

Hindi Language Video
Hindi Language Video
Hindi Language Video
Hindi Language Video

Hopefully you learnt lots on the Hindi Language today. If you found this article in any way useful – why not share it online.

Recycling is a learning experience for the future:

There is an increasing awareness about environmental sustainability among consumers and businesses. And this awareness is also growing when it comes to paper and printing. That’s why we thought that a closer look at the Recycling Paper process might be interesting to our kids to be environmentally conscious and try to make more green choices in the future.

What is Recycling Paper, and why is it important?

Maybe that’s the first question that kids will ask when they are faced with this topic. That is before they even bring themselves to search into the more detailed information related to how Recycling Paper is done.

Teaching children to care for the environment is a learning experience that is an important part of growing up. It gives them several skills in respect of empathy, patience, responsibility, and teaches them about consequences.

But it also teaches them valuable lessons about sustainability and how we want to leave the world for future generations. Showing children how to recycle properly is like passing the baton to them for a cleaner and brighter future.

 Waste is usually divided into several different categories to be sorted out for the recycling phase; paper, plastic, glass, and aluminum. Every single type goes through a different recycling process to bring it back into a new product that we can use again.

Throwing plastic, cans, and paper in the recycling bin is more than just sorting the recyclables. It’s teaching young people about saving money by showing them how they can avoid waste.

With can and bottle recycling, they learn about the benefits of cashing in the household recycling, as well as discovering that taking their recyclables to the Scouts helps to fund the groups. This learned appreciation for the value of money is a lifelong skill best learned young.

Recyclables can be made into crafts, jewelers, paint pots, and papier-Mache. With that in mind, kids also learn that when they recycle newspapers, the paper will turn back into newspapers, and bottles into other bottles. When young people know that the things, they use can become other useful things, it can give them a better incentive to want to recycle.

Who wouldn’t want to be a part of the life cycle of things?

Once kids learn to Recycling Paper at home, they can spread the word and make sure people are sorting recyclables at school, at their sports clubs, and with their friends. A sustainable future depends on what we do today, and good habits can become second nature.

Recycling paper
Recycling paper

Our kids must be involved by:

•      Setting recycling chores

•      They can be in charge of bringing reusable shopping bags to stores

•      They can sort the recycling things

•      Decorate bins in different colors for each recycling category

•      have arts and craft time with recycled materials

•      They can read books about recycling that are appropriate for their age

Finally, learning by example is one of the most important ways to discover. When parents, teachers, and leaders show good habits to children, they pick them up and imitate them. Showing young people how important it is to look after the environment.

Recycling by doing it yourself is the key to a sustainable future. This will create kids that have a healthy attitude towards our world. The skills kids learn by Recycling Paper will create a sustainable world for them to live in.

They’ll have a greater appreciation for the way things work, and a better understanding of our precious ecosystem. Recycling is not a new topic; it has an old history.

 Ancient Recycling

The first recorded use of recycled paper was in the 9th century in Japan. Ancient Japanese people began recycling paper almost as soon as they learned how to produce it. Recycling became part of paper production and consumption.

Japanese culture generally treats Recycling Paper as being more precious than new and recycled paper was often used in paintings and poetry. In the 12th century, a case was recorded of an emperor’s wife: after the emperor died, she recycled all the poems and letters she received from him and wrote a sutra on the recycled paper to wish peace upon his soul.

US Recycling Start

Finally, in 1690, recycling reached the New World. The Rittenhouse Mill in Philadelphia opened and began Recycling Paper linen and cotton rags. The paper produced from these materials was sold to printers to be used in Bibles and newspapers.

World War II

World War II saw a massive, universal collection campaign for tin, rubber, steel, paper, and more to be recycled. More than 400,000 volunteers put in the effort and tens of thousands of tons of material were recycled in order to save money for the war efforts.

That was a national campaign. Posters and newsreels detailing the materials needed (and why) are abounding. All Americans were on board, and most of them were excited to help aid the troops by conserving and recycling.

The 1960s

The first curbside collections of yard waste, metals, and paper start popping up around the county.

The 1970s

Greater emphasis on green movements through government-backed initiatives generates public awareness of conservation efforts. The concept of the flower child emerges. Earth Day is celebrated for the first time on April 22, 1970.

The ‘chasing arrows’ recycling symbol is created by a Southern California architecture student. The first curbside recycling bin “The Tree Saver” is used in Missouri for the collection of paper in 1974.

In 1976, Massachusetts secures the first-ever EPA recycling grants. By the end of the decade, there were approximately 220 programs for recycling.

Did you know recycling has always been a part of the process of making paper? Paper, as we know it today. Paper is made from trees. Mostly, trees that are grown on working forests and from which we recovered paper.

When you Recycling Paper , paper mills use it to make new newspapers, notebooks paper, paper grocery bags, corrugated boxes, envelopes, magazines, cartons, and other paper products.

What are the things we recycle most?

Paper and newspapers. It’s easy to forget that trees are chopped down to make paper and that’s why it’s important that we recycle it. Here are some facts about Recycling Paper:

For each ton of paper that is recycled, around 17 trees are saved. A recycled newspaper is made into a new newspaper within seven days. All of our newspapers are made from 100% recycled paper. Most toilet paper is made from recycled paper

Over 70% less air pollution is created by making new paper from Recycling Paper (rather than making it from raw materials)

Recycling Facts for Kids:

As kids, you might think that grown-ups get to make all of the decisions, but you have a very important job to do. You have to protect the planet. So, it’s a safe and healthy place to live in. Not only for yourself but for future generations too.

There are around 7 billion people living on earth, and as you can imagine, that means a lot of resources like water, wood, energy, and other materials get used. A lot of waste is produced from everything, trash is thrown away, and the cars we drive pollute the atmosphere.

All of this has led to global warming, which is a rise in the earth’s temperature. Global warming is causing ice to melt in the Polar Regions which makes sea levels rise. So, more places are at risk of being flooded.

It also causes extreme weather conditions, like hurricanes and droughts. That can damage the crops that are used to produce the food we eat. Global warming is also driving animals to flee from their natural habitats and that causes some species to become endangered.

To protect the planet, we need to act quickly, and it all starts with you. One of the simplest ways that you can take care of the planet and protect it for future kids is by recycling.

The Advantages of Recycling Paper:

Before throwing that piece of paper in the trash, consider how many trees you could save by starting a recycling program in your office or school. Even recycling newspapers and paper products at home can generate neighborhood interest and help save the earth. The advantages of recycling paper go far beyond saving trees and can start with a single piece of paper.


Recycling paper has several benefits both for humans and the earth. Using Recycling Paper to make new paper reduces the number of trees that are cut down, conserving natural resources. In some instances, recycling services are cheaper than trash-disposal services.

Today, we’re going to tell you how paper is recycled and explain how to make homemade recycled paper. It’s a process that can be useful for special projects if you have a moment to learn it. I think you will be satisfied with something you made by yourself.

We use a lot of paper every day. Cereal boxes, coloring books, storybooks to puzzles, your homework, and even toilet paper are made of paper. Ask your kids Can you name something that is made of paper? They will find a lot.

Reuse paper! Use old newspapers to wrap breakable items. Try making fun and useful crafts from egg cartons and toilet paper rolls! The wasted paper goes through different steps in the process of recycling to come back to paper again!

The start of the Recycling Paper process requires the paper to be separated into types and grades. The paper is then washed to remove any film, glue, ink, and other contaminants using soapy water. Once washed the paper is then transferred to a large container, where it is mixed with water to create a pulp.

What is the use of recycling paper?

Quilling paper art

Using recycled paper to make new paper reduces the number of trees that are cut down, conserving natural resources. In some instances, recycling services are cheaper than trash-disposal services.

Some good ideas for recycling paper for kids

There is no home without paper, whether it is newsprint, magazines, old books, children’s drawing paper, etc. We all have papers everywhere in the house, especially in the presence of young children.

That may cause disorganization in the house sometimes and the garbage may be filled with used papers or papers of newspapers and magazines that were torn by children and became of no importance from your point of view.

But can you imagine the possibility of reusing paper again to make a decoration in your home or a piece of art or to make something that has another use and is made from the remnants of paper?

Paper is one of the easiest materials used in Recycling Paper and gives a great result when adapting and using it. So, continue reading the article with me to learn how to recycle paper in the following lines.

How do you make recycling paper easy for kids? Or What are the steps that kids should follow to recycle?

Step 1: Ask your kids to cut scraps of paper into lots of tiny pieces or help them shred it in a mechanical paper shredder.

 Step.2: Let your kids put the paper in a bowl and cover it with water. Soak it for 2 hours or overnight.

Step 3: Have your kids add the soaked paper to the blender. Finally, the mixture turns into a soft mixture, known as slurry or pulp.

Step 4: Pulp checking and cleaning: To remove contamination from the pulp, the pulp is placed in screens with holes of different sizes and shapes to remove contaminants.

Step 5: Refining, decolorizing, and bleaching: In the refining stage, the pulp is hammered to make the paper fibers swell. Pulping methods also separate the fiber from each other to facilitate the production of a new paper from these fibers.

In the event, coloring is required, discoloring chemicals are added to the fibers to get rid of the dyes in the paper, we get Recycling Paper white.  As the water drains out completely, it then results in a renewed paper sheet. You can then cut this paper sheet into the desired shapes and sizes.

The resultant paper sheets are then trimmed, rolled, and sent to various business outlets or manufacturers that use paper to make their products. Newspaper printing, wrapping papers, and printing papers are a few examples of areas where recycled papers are used.

Recycling Paper

Conversation starters for this paper-making process.

Talk to your children about what they observed versus what they thought was going to happen. Go over the steps of this paper-making process and see if they have any further questions or thoughts.

And last, but not least, have them use the paper that they created in this activity to write someone a letter or draw a picture on! In the same way, the children can make a recycled notebook, this is the perfect gift for someone going back to school or for someone who journals often.

It’s a really personal gift since it is handcrafted and comes with a lot of love. It’s remarkable to be able to create something as beautiful as this from recycled paper and it would make a lovely gift.

How do you Recycling Paper at school?

When paper recycling, there are a lot of ideas you can do to reuse paper instead of throwing it away. Here are some ideas: We can use colorful magazines and catalogs to make Origami art as a form of paper recycling instead of buying new paper.

Printing: Use the paper to print coupons, shopping lists, and more. Make Origami art with your friends at school: You can use wrapping paper, greeting cards, etc. for all kinds of papers to make Origami ships.

Some toys like kid-friendly paper pistols:

This paper pistol shoots paper bullets – how fun! This is the perfect fun project to do with kids and you can teach them about the importance of Recycling Paper at the same time. This is also a great way to use up some paper that you’d otherwise just throw away. Yay! for making things out of nothing.

Now they can also use old paper to make different shapes of animals using Origami art by following clear steps. They can make a face of a cat, a dog, a bear, and many different shapes as shown in the following pictures.

Gift Wrapping: Reuse comics or even plain brown wrapping paper for gift wrapping. Clean windows: Newspaper with vinegar is one of the best ways to get shiny windows. Garden Mulch: Tear up newspaper into strips, and lay a layer around your plants to keep the soil moist and deter weeds.

Recycling Paper making paper dolls: You can cut up hard cards (like the back of greeting cards) to make simple paper dolls. Gift Basket Filling: Tear up colored tissue paper and use it as filler in gift baskets. Help ripen fruit: Put unripe fruit in a paper bag or wrap it in the newspaper, to help it ripen more quickly.

How to make a basket of paper?

  You can make the baskets using strips of magazine paper or newspaper in different patterns, but this may require basket weaving skills.

How to make a wall clock out of paper:

Recycling Paper: by Fold the magazine paper in reverse to give this shape, then fix the end of each paper with another paper until a circular shape is formed, and fix the end of the circle with its beginning well, and using clock hands, fix it from the front and back, then make a holder from the back for easy fixation on the wall.

Or you can roll magazine paper into a thin cylindrical shape, and attach them to the back of a watch case, to give a distinctive look to your home decor.

How to make a paper vase: we can use many ways to make a vase using recycled paper by Origami 3d art, roll papers method, or quelling art. All of that gives us a very beautiful vase in a very easy way.

  Fold the magazine paper and roll each piece of paper into a circle. Make several small circles and hold them together with a wax gun to make the base of the vase. Then, pin the circles to the base to make the body of the vase. Place the circles next to each other in circular rows, until you reach the desired length of the vase.

How to make a paper pen holder?

3D origami (Recycle paper)
3D origami (Recycle paper)

Make a pen holder for your desk, by rolling cylindrical cardboard of different lengths, fixing it around a sturdy base, and then decorating it from the outside with flowers that are made of paper or other materials.

How to make paper entries?

  The paper helps you to make different flowers and combine newspaper and colored paper to make beautiful flowers in different shapes.

How to make paper earrings?

We can also teach children the possibility of making some of their own jewelry. Earrings can be made using thick magazine paper, by folding and rolling it to give a circular shape. Then, fix the metal part of the earrings with it, and it can also be colored to get their favorite color.

And also, you can add so many details to these paper hoop earrings. The centers of these earrings can be made entirely from paper beads so the earrings may look heavy, but they’re made of paper so they wouldn’t be too heavy. You could get as creative as you want with these types of earrings.

How to make a photo frame out of paper?

Another way to teach children how to reuse newspaper and magazine papers in an artistic way is to make different frames for their pictures in an easy and simple way. Make picture frames by pinning cylindrical-rolled magazine sheets to the sides of the frame, while adding some decorative roses to the frame.


 Chandelier Necklace: These necklaces are made from entirely recycled paper. They are so unique and would make a perfect gift. The gifted person can feel good and the kids would love how unique this gift truly is. Better yet, why not try and encourage all kids to make paper beads and create their unique pieces of jewelry?

Also, children can make paper beads:

These different colored paper beads come together to create a beautiful necklace. This would make a great accessory because it’s so unique and the different colors look magnificent together. They could either buy this as a gift or attempt to recreate it by using different colored paper and quilling art.

The children can learn to make a Paper bead necklace: This gorgeous necklace has over one strand of recycled paper beads. This unique necklace is so gorgeous and would definitely make a striking conversation piece at that next cocktail party. You could either leave the beads in that natural paper state or paint them to create interesting cascades of color.

Bead spirals: These paper bead spirals look gorgeous on this bracelet. This is such an interesting piece of jewelry and the fact that it’s made from recycled paper is astonishing. This would make the perfect gift or a sweet gift for your friends whenever you feel like you want to treat your friend or your mum to something awesome.

So, before you throw the paper in the trash, teach children how to think about using this paper with different ideas to recycle and use it for other useful things.

Think carefully about what you can make of paper, and these ideas are sure to help children a lot. Giving a lot of ideas helps their imagination to imagine, create what they love, and learn how to combine paper with other materials to make special things.

Finally, there are some tips that you should remember about reusing things:

This means extending the life of something by finding a way to use it again without buying something completely new. Here are some examples of how you can reuse more:

  1. Remind your parents to take their own shopping bags when you go to the supermarket rather than getting new ones each time you go.
  2. Ask your mum and dad if you can give your old toys and books to charity or to someone in the family or a friend.
  3. Keep jars or plastic containers for storing your things. You can even decorate them and keep them in your bedroom.
  4. Learn how to make different gifts for your friends or even your family from recycled paper instead of throwing them away using paper art, such as Origami and quilling art.

Before we finish this article, let’s get acquainted with some information about the art of Origami and its importance in Japanese culture.

Why is Origami so important for The Japanese culture? Or Why Do They Do Origami?

Origami has been one of the most recreational arts of Japanese culture for centuries. They made it a part of their culture to foster creativity among youngsters. Origami is served as an elegant yet amusing activity of Japanese done during their leisure times.

What is so special about Origami?

At its essence, Origami is the traditional Japanese game of folding elaborately designed paper into a myriad of shapes, typically plants, animals, and other living things. Part of what makes Origami unique is the fact that it simply requires a piece of paper and creative imagination.

Why is Origami good for the brain?

Origami helps develop hand-eye coordination, fine motor skills, and mental concentration. The use of the hands directly stimulates areas of the brain. … Impulses are sent to the brain activating both left and right hemispheres of the brain.

Tactile, motor and visual areas of the brain are activated and brought into use. The art of paper folding is often associated with Japanese culture. It symbolizes long life, happiness, good luck, and peace.

In Japan, the art of Origami had begun after Buddhist monks brought paper from China in the sixth century. They used to make noshi (little good luck paper charms) attaching them with a gift as a sign of good luck and fortune. It was fully developed during the Edo Period (1603-1868).

Explore the previous examples and facts, and you will find yourself getting the necessary knowledge and information to fully grasp the concept of recycling paper. So, keep on visiting our Learning Mole to get more knowledge and information about all different kinds of stuff.

A tree is a tall plant with a trunk and branches made of wood. Trees are the largest and oldest living things on Earth. There are several parts that make up a tree. The main parts of a tree include roots, trunk, branches and leaves. Trees reproduce through pollination via insects, wind and animals. Trees produce seeds that can grow into a separate adult tree if the conditions are right.

Facts about Trees

  1. According to the fossils, scientists believe that trees have been on Earth for 370 million years.
  2. Trees can live for thousands of years.
  3. The oldest tree ever discovered is approximately 5,000 years old.
  4. There are more than 60,000 species of trees on Earth.
  5. Brazil has the most species of trees. There are 5,776 tree species there.
  6. Trees usually grow to over 90 metres. Some trees can grow to around 100 meters in height.
  7. Plants that are not tall enough to be considered trees are often called shrubs.
  8. A single tree has many roots. The roots usually grow underground. They help the tree to stay upright and alive. They carry water and nutrients from the soil to the tree.
  9. The trunk is the main body of the tree. It is protected by an outside layer of bark.
  10. Branches grow from the trunk. They spread out so that the leaves can get more sunlight.
  11. Trees have growth rings inside their trunk. You can count the tree rings to find out how old it is.
  12. Trees are able to make their own food through the process of photosynthesis. Through photosynthesis, trees take carbon dioxide, water and sunlight and turn them into oxygen and sugars.
  13. Tree leaves are the parts that take in the sunlight that is needed for photosynthesis. The more sunlight they get, the healthier the tree will be.
  14. The leaves of a tree are green most of the time, but they can come in many colors, shapes and sizes. Trees with leaves all year round are called evergreens, and those that shed their leaves are called deciduous. Deciduous trees and shrubs generally lose their leaves in Autumn, and they grow back in Spring.
  15. Trees are able to communicate and defend themselves against attacking insects. They can flood their leaves with chemicals called phenolics when the insects begin their raid. They can also signal danger to other trees so they can start their own defense.
  16. Different parts of a tree grow at different times throughout the year. Typically, most of the foliage growth happens in spring, followed by trunk growth in summer and root growth in fall and winter.

Benefits of Trees

  • Trees provide natural materials such as wood and paper. They are very useful to us and are used for lots of things. The wood from trees is used for building houses, boats, and furniture. The wood can also be used as fuel for a fire, both for warmth and cooking. The paper you use at school is also from trees.
  • Trees provide food. They are sources of food like fruit and nuts. The sap from some trees is used to create syrups.
  • Tree rings can predict climate change. A tree’s rings do not only reveal its age, they can also indicate the occurrence of natural disasters such as volcanoes or a drought event. In the years of good growth and supply of resources, the ring is thick. When resources are scarce in the ecosystem, it becomes thin.
  • Trees help reduce the effects of climate change. They produce oxygen and reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. A mature tree can absorb more than 48 pounds of carbon dioxide each year.
  • Planting trees can help reduce your energy costs. A shade of a tree can help cool your home in the summertime. Not only do they provide shade in the summer, but serve as a windbreak in the winter, too.
  • Trees can help reduce stress. Research suggests that being around trees is good for our mental and social well-being. Research also suggests that nature experiences help us feel kinder toward others. This is partly because trees release chemicals called phytoncides. When we breathe them in, it can reduce blood pressure, lower anxiety levels, and increase pain threshold.
  • Trees block noise by reducing sound waves. They reduce noise through a phenomenon called sound attenuation, which is the reduction of sound intensity. Leaves, twigs, and branches on trees absorb and deflect sound waves to mask unwanted noise.
  • Trees improve water quality. As rain falls to the Earth, it is slowed and filtered by trees, helping it soak into the soil. Trees then serve as natural sponges, collecting and filtering rainwater and releasing it slowly into streams and rivers. They also prevent soil from eroding into our waterways, reduce stormwater runoff, and lessen flood damage.

Species of Trees

Trees include a huge variety of species. In this lesson, we are going to know 4 of them, which are:

  1. Palm Trees
  2. Banyan Trees
  3. Dogwood Trees
  4. Cherry Blossom Trees

Palm Trees

Palm trees are one of the most common planted trees all over the world. Throughout history, palms have had important roles in humans’ lives. Many common products and foods come from palms. There are about 2600 species of palm trees all around the world, from the desert to the rainforest. Most palms live in tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate climates.

Most palms are a straight, unbranched stem. They have two different types of evergreen leaves: palmate and pinnate. Palmate leaves grow in a bunch at the end of a stem. Pinnate leaves are like feathers, growing all along one side of a stem. The fruit of the palm is usually a single seed surrounded by flesh. Some kinds may contain two or more seeds in each fruit. Well known palm trees are Coconut palm, Date palm and Oil palm.

Palm Trees

Facts about Palm Trees

  1. Some palms can live for more than a century. Indeed, palms may be the oldest living trees because their cells are not replaced with new cells.
  2. Some palms are skyscrapers. The tallest palm tree can grow up to 197 feet tall.
  3. The smallest palm in the world is the Dypsis Minuta in Madagascar that rarely grows over 12 inches.
  4. The “Coco de Mer” palm tree has the largest seeds of any plant on earth. They can reach 20 inches in diameter and 66 pounds weight.
  5. Young palm trees prefer shade because it protects its delicate leaves until they are strong enough to handle the heat.
  6. Not all palms have edible fruit. Some palms, such as coconuts and dates, have delicious fruits. Others, such as sago, have poisonous fruits to humans and animals.

Benefits and Significance of Palms

  1. There are many kinds of food from palms, such as coconuts and dates.
  2. Palm oil is used in everything, from cosmetics to food ingredients.
  3. The palm branch was a symbol of triumph and victory in Roman times. The Romans rewarded champions of the games and celebrated success in war with palm branches.
  4. Jews had a tradition of carrying palm branches during festive times.
  5. Palm stems represented long life to the Ancient Egyptians.
  6. The palm represents rest and hospitality in many cultures of the Middle East.
  7. Early Christians used the palm branch to symbolize the victory of the faithful over enemies of the soul.

Banyan Trees

Banyan is a fig tree that begins its life as an epiphyte. An epiphyte is a plant that grows on another plant. The branches of the banyan produce aerial roots. These roots descend and take root in the soil to become new trunk. Banyan is an evergreen tree that grows in tropical climate and in almost any soil.

Banyan Trees

Facts about Banyan Trees

  1. The banyan is the national tree of India. It is important in the Hindu religion and mythology.
  2. The banyan is able to survive hundreds of years.
  3. It can grow up to 30 meters in height.
  4. Banyans are the biggest trees in the world in terms of the area they cover. Some of the banyan trees can shelter around 20,000 people.
  5. For thousands of years, people have used banyans as source of medicines.

Benefits of Banyan Trees

  1. Banyan tree can cure chronic diarrhea. Taking the small budding leaves and soaking them in water creates a powerful medicine for healing diarrhea.
  2. The aerial roots of the banyan are like a natural toothpaste. Chewing on them makes the teeth strong and prevents gum disease, tooth decay and bleeding gum.
  3. The bark of the banyan tree is good for boosting immunity.
  4. The bark of the banyan tree is good for lowering the bad cholesterol level in the body while keeping the good cholesterol level high.
  5. The sap of the banyan leaves have anti-inflammatory properties, so it can be helpful against conditions like arthritis.
  6. Making an infusion of the roots of the banyan is helpful in treating high blood sugar levels. (What is an infectious disease?)

Dogwood Trees

Dogwood is a shrub or small tree that grows in north temperate regions. Dogwood can be found in the evergreen forests or on the edges of deciduous forests. It grows on fertile, loamy soil in areas that provide enough moisture and shade. The scientific name for the dogwood tree is Cornus Florida. The common name for the dogwood tree is flowering dogwood.

Dogwood Trees

Facts about Dogwood Trees

  1. The dogwood tree is a deciduous tree, which means it loses its leaves seasonally.
  2. Dogwood can grow as a bush or a small tree. Its height does not exceed 15 to 25 feet.
  3. Dogwood can survive from 25 to 30 years in the best conditions.
  4. The maximum lifespan of dogwood is about 80 years.
  5. The leaves of the dogwood are simple, green with wavy edges. They are usually arranged oppositely on the branches.
  6. Dogwood trees have an alligator skin.
  7. Dogwood is a four-season tree. It has showy flowers in spring, leaves in summer and fall, fruits in fall and growing branches in winter.
  8. The dogwood tree contains both male and female reproductive organs. This means it can produce seeds on its own and pollinate itself.
  9. Flowering dogwoods produce red fruit in autumn.
  10. The fruit of the dogwood tree is red to yellowish red.
  11. The flowers of the dogwood tree can be red, pink or white.

Benefits of Dogwood Trees

  1. The roots and bark of the dogwood tree were used by Native Americans to treat malaria.
  2. The hard wood of dogwood trees can be used to make weaving shuttles and golf club heads. It can also be used for making some products such as spools, jewelry boxes, roller skates and tool handles.
  3. Bark-free branches of dogwood were used as toothbrushes in the past.
  4. Tea made of bark of the dogwood can be used to treat pain and fever.
  5. In traditional Chinese medicine, dogwood is used to treat dizziness, weakness and pain in the knees and back.
  6. Fruit of some species of dogwood are used in human diet, such as dogwood berries.
  7. Fruit and seed of dogwoods are important sources of food for wild birds and mammals.
  8. People cultivate flowering dogwood for ornamental purposes, such as decorating gardens.

Cherry Blossom Trees

A cherry blossom tree is a tree species in the Prunus genus that produces cherry blossom flowers. It is the national flower of Japan, and it is known as Japanese Cherry and “Sakura” in Japanese. Cherry Blossom Trees are deciduous trees. They grow in temperate climate. They need lots of sunlight and soil that is rich and fertile. They grow in different shapes and sizes. Some bloom early in the spring, while others are late bloomers. There are hundreds of types of cherry trees, and the most popular one is Yoshino cherry tree.

Cherry Blossom Trees

Facts about Cherry Blossoms

  1. Cherry blossom trees first appeared around 44.3 million years ago.
  2. The cherry blossom tree is a perennial flowering plant.
  3. Most cherry blossom trees have a lifespan between 30 and 40 years. However, the black cherry blossom tree can live up to 250 years.
  4. Most cherry blossom trees reach an average height between 40 and 50 feet, with a canopy just as wide.
  5. Most cherry blossom trees produce flowers that are between white and light pink color. There are some species that produce yellow or green flowers.
  6. In autumn, Cherry Blossom Trees offer colorful leaves, handsome bark, and quick growth while requiring little care, which makes them ideal for home gardens.
  7. Cherry blossoms do not bloom for long. A cherry tree might only remain in bloom for one to two weeks.
  8. Both the blossoms and leaves of cherry blossom trees are edible. In Japan, the leaves are often used as mochi wrappers, and the flowers are used as flavoring for a variety of foods and drinks. However, not all cherry blossom trees bear edible fruit; only some varieties do.
  9. In 1912, Japan gave 3,020 cherry blossom trees to the United States as a gift. For this reason, cherry blossoms are a symbol of friendship between the U.S. and Japan. This symbol of friendship is celebrated to this day with the annual National Cherry Blossom Festival in Washington.
  10. The National Cherry Blossom Festival in Washington is the largest springtime celebration in the United States. Over 1.5 million people visit Washington D.C. every year to see the cherry blossoms.
  11. The Japanese celebrate cherry blossoms as a symbol of renewal and the beauty of life. During the short blooming season, people in Japan have outdoor parties with family and friends. This custom is called Hanami, which means “watching blossoms.”
  12. The city of Macon in Georgia is the “Cherry Blossom Capital of the World”. It has more than 350,000 Yoshino cherry trees, and it hosts the International Cherry Blossom Festival.
  13. In Washington, you can get arrested for picking cherry blossoms. It is considered an act of vandalism of federal property. It is also illegal to climb the trees.
Cherry Blossoms
American Flag ” 50 states “

Great stories of real people are retold to know their challenges, successes, and conflicts. That means, history is not just dated, but it is a series of challenges and successes, as well as difficulties. 

The United States now has 50 states. If you look at the United States flag, you will see the 50 stars for each state. Many years ago there were just thirteen stars that represented the thirteen colonies. The history of the United States began with the arrival of Native Americans in North America around 15,000 BC. In the 16th century, many indigenous cultures formed, and many disappeared.

Who’s Christopher Columbus?

Christopher Columbus was born in 1451, and he died on 20 May 1506. He was an Italian explorer and navigator who completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean, opening the way for the widespread European exploration and colonization of the Americas. In 1492, Christopher Columbus discovered the Americas.

Why is America called America?

Amerigo Vespucci was born on March 9, 1454. He was an explorer, and navigator from the Republic of Florence, Italy. He was fond of books and maps. America is named after Amerigo Vespucci.

Christopher Columbus found the new world, but Amerigo Vespucci was the man who recognized that it was a new world.

History of America

When Christopher Columbus arrived from Spain in 1492, he changed the history of America forever. He completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean, opening the way for the widespread European exploration and colonization of the Americas. The continents of North and South America and the nearby islands became known as the New World. 

When Columbus was founded, the king and queen of Spain got the idea to claim new lands. The Spanish established colonies in the West Indies, Mexico, Central America, and South America.

 In 1513, Juan Ponce de Leon visited Florida, he was the first Spanish explorer to reach the shores of the United States and claimed it for his country.  

France and England also became involved in the New Land:

– In 1497, John Cabot explored eastern Canada. “England”
– In 1524, Giovanni de Verrazzano explored the coast of North America from North Carolina northward to Canada. “French expedition – France” 

What is a Colony?

A colony is a place where a group of people settle in a new place and work together for a common goal. People come from different places to claim lands. Spain, France, and the Netherlands all came searching for new places for fishing, hunting, trapping animals, and trading.

The 13 Colonies of America

The thirteen colonies were British settlements on the Atlantic coast of America in the 17th and 18th centuries. Each of these colonies has its regions and locations. Let’s see:

Colonial America

The New England Colonies consisted of Four Colonies:

  • New Hampshire
  • Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • Rhode Island
  • Connecticut

The Middle Colonies also consisted of Four Colonies:

  • New York
  • New Jersey
  • Pennsylvania
  • Delaware

The Southern Colonies consisted of Five Colonies:

  • Maryland
  • Virginia
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Georgia

The New England Colonies

The New England Colonies

Most people in England were farmers. A few nobles owned the land and they rented their land to farmers. Landowners made fortunes from raising sheep rather than renting to farmers. Some farmers had no opportunities in their regions so they decided to immigrate.

In 1606 King James of England gave two companies the right to settle the Atlantic coast (The Virginia Company and The Plymouth Company).

In 1607, an Englishman John Smith founded the first permanent settlement at Jamestown, Virginia. In 1619 the people of Virginia organized the first representative assembly in America. This was the House of Burgesses. Virginia became a royal colony in 1624. The Jamestown colony suffered a lot but eventually flourished.

Who are Pilgrims?


They were a group of Puritans who were fleeing England because of religious persecution. 

In 1620, Pilgrims sailed to the New World, they chose Plymouth as the site of their colony. They crossed the Atlantic Ocean in a ship called the Mayflower. They established their colony near Plymouth.

John Winthrop led a large group of Puritans to New England in 1629. They founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The first governor was Winthrop. By 1640 more than 20,000 settlers were living around Boston. Colonists developed a democratic government in Massachusetts.

Roger Williams was a protester against the Puritans. He founded Providence, which became the colony of Rhode Island. Meanwhile, another group from Massachusetts settled on the Connecticut River. They established the colonies of Connecticut in 1635. 

In 1622, the king gave the right for Sir Ferdinando Gorges and John Mason to settle farther north. They divided the land. Gorges took the Maine section. Mason took New Hampshire. They built farms and villages.

New Hampshire became a separate colony in 1679. Maine never became a colony.

The Middle Colonies

The Middle Colonies

Henry Hudson sailed to America in 1609. He was an Englishman who had been hired by the Dutch. In 1624, Dutch settlers founded a colony called New Netherland in the area of the Hudson River. In 1664 an Englishman fleet seized the Dutch colony. They changed its name from New Netherland to New York.

Swedish settlers sailed into the Delaware River in 1638. They built a fort called Fort Christina. But this colony lasted only a few years. Later, Dutch troops seized the Swedish settlements.

An English fleet sailed into New Amsterdam. The Duke of York received New Netherland as a gift, it was renamed New York. The city of New York soon became a large seaport. He broke off the land into two pieces and gave them to two of his friends. These were the foundation for New Jersey.

Jersey was sold, in two parts, to Quakers. They were called East and West Jersey.

William Penn founded Pennsylvania in 1681. He was an English Quaker. He built the colony so people can practice their worship freely in the government. In 1682, the Colony of Delaware was a piece of land south of Pennsylvania that was given to William Penn by his grandfather.

Quaker meaning: Quakers are people who belong to a historically Protestant Christian set of denominations known formally as the Religious Society of Friends.

The Southern Colonies

The Southern Colonies

George Calvert was a Roman Catholic. He wanted to build a colony for all Christians, including Catholics. King of England “King Charles I” granted him land north of Virginia in 1632.  A group of settlers landed in Maryland. They built large farms for their families and for profit. Lord Baltimore saw an opportunity for profit in the Maryland colony. Tobacco became their cash crop.

Virginians had been moving south. They lived on hunting, raising crops, and fishing in the forest. They also planted tobacco. They sold forest products to shipbuilders in England. The king of England named this region Carolina. Afterward, the king granted the land as a gift to some noblemen. They sent people to colonize the area, because of the strife in the colony. After that, the noblemen sold the colony. Later, the colony was divided into two royal colonies, South Carolina in 1721, and North Carolina in 1729.

The Georgia Colony was the last of the 13 original colonies. The Georgia Colony was named after King George II of England. It was founded in 1732 by James Oglethorpe. It was founded 50 years after the other 12 colonies. 

Most of the colonists were farmers, they had to grow their food. In New England, people worked in raising livestock, shipbuilding, and fishing industries. The Middle colonies colonists grew grains for their use and export to other colonies. In the South, colonists grew rice, tobacco, and indigo, and also they traded with other colonies.

These American colonists believed that they had a right to command themselves. They didn’t serve in the English government, so they believed that they shouldn’t have to pay taxes to England. Not all colonists participated in the revolution.

The American Revolution

The American Revolution

New life has been started by building colonies. From here, a new nation has begun “The United States”. Most of the colonists created good relations with the British but after years the good relation turned to conflict. The British had governed the colonies only lightly. The British decided that the colonies should help pay for the cost of the war and their future defense. The British Parliament imposed so many taxes on colonial trade. Most colonists refused to pay the taxes and organized protests.

Boston Massacre: The Boston Massacre was one of the events that led to the American Revolution. A group of British soldiers was trying to quiet an angry crowd, so they shot their muskets into them. Five of the colonists were killed.   

Boston Tea Party: The Boston Tea Party was one of the events that led to the American Revolution. The colonies were ruled by Great Britain. The British government imposed many taxes on goods that were shipped to them. The colonists refused to pay taxes, so the British imposed several laws to punish them.

The colonists still had to pay a tax on tea, however. And there was only one company that was allowed to ship tea to the colonies and sell it there. Colonists in New York City and Philadelphia refused to allow the ships to unload their cargo. 

In Massachusetts, however, the governor was loyal to the British. He allowed the ships to enter Boston Harbor and unload their cargo. He also made merchants pay the tax on the tea. The British government soon imposed several new laws that were meant to punish the colonists. One of the new laws closed Boston’s harbor until the colonists paid for taxes on tea.  

In 1773, a group of about 60 colonists decided to protest the tax. They dressed as Native Americans and went aboard the ships in Boston Harbor. They dumped many chests of tea into the harbor. This event was called the Boston Tea Party.

First Continental Congress

The colonies had been developing their economy, society, and self-rule. In 1774 each colony had its government and each of them elected officials to represent them at the First Continental Congress. Representatives from all colonies except Georgia met in Pennsylvania to discuss their situation with the British government. 

The representatives tried to put pressure on the British government by refusing to trade with them, but this attempt failed. In 1775 fighting broke out between colonists and British troops, from here the American Revolution had begun.

Second Continental Congress

The Second Continental Congress was also in Pennsylvania, where colonists held meetings. The representatives chose George Washington to command the colonial troops, they chose George Washington.

Declaration of Independence

Declaration of Independence

It was a document adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1776.

The Second Continental Congress announced the independence of the United States from Great Britain. 

The Independence of Colonies

Independence is not easy, it takes time, money, and an honest army. At first, the war for independence did not go well for the colonists. They had been arguing for many years. 

On July 4, 1776, the Continental Congress of the British colonies in North America announced the declaration of Independence. The declaration of Independence document proclaimed that the 13 original colonies of America were independent states. It was the first Independence Day of the United States of America. 

Articles of Confederation

Articles of Confederation

The Second Continental Congress drafted a plan of government called the Articles of Confederation. The Articles of Confederation was the first written constitution of the United States written by the representatives of the American colonies which explained how the government works. 

At the beginning of the American Revolution, Congress felt that Great Britain needed a powerful government to defeat it.

Congress had power over military and foreign affairs but not over the affairs of each state. It could not enforce its powers or collect taxes. Because of these problems, the states started to write a new constitution in 1787. The new constitution strengthened the federal government.

The United States started working on the constitution during the first elections which were held in 1789. George Washington became the first president.

Who are Federalists and Anti-Federalists?

Federalists are the supporters of the constitution and a stronger national republic. Anti-Federalists are opposed to the constitution.

The secretary of the treasury “Alexander Hamilton”, and other federalists. Thomas Jefferson and his followers were “Anti-Federalists”. These groups marked the beginning of political parties in the United States.

After independence, The first states created in the west were Kentucky and Tennessee. Most of the people there were farmers. 

What is Louisiana Purchase?

Louisiana Purchase

In 1800, Thomas Jefferson became president. He decided that the United States needed to strengthen its land by buying nearby lands. The surrounding areas were French territories. France agreed to sell all of its land west of the Mississippi to the United States. It was about twice the size of the United States. This land was known as the Louisiana Territory, and the agreement was called the Louisiana Purchase.

After the United States expanded to the West. The United States was also ambitious to the South. Florida was given to the United States after the agreement between Spain and the United States.

Early 1800s

During the early 1800s, the United States put foreign affairs under its eyes. The wars between France and Britain affected the United States’ trade. The United States announced war on Britain in 1812. Neither the United States nor Britain won the war. In 1814 a peace treaty was signed between the two countries. 

Who was James Monroe?

James Monroe was elected the fifth president of the United States in 1817. He was the last American President of Virginia and chosen a member of the governor’s council. President James Monroe was one of George Washington’s supporters.

What was Monroe Doctrine?

The Monroe Doctrine was a foreign policy announced by the United States during James Monroe’s rule toward the Western Hemisphere. It said that the United States would prevent European powers from interfering in North and South America to keep the area independent.

Industry and Transportation Revolution

In the 1800s, there was great industrial growth in the United States:

  1. The Cotton Gin: it was invented by Eli Whitney. This machine was speeding up the process of removing seeds from cotton fiber.  
  2. Cyrus McCormick’s mechanical reaper was invented by Cyrus McCormick. This machine was used by farmers to harvest crops mechanically.
  3. Many Iron factories were set up to manufacture farm tools, factory machines, and other items that helped in rising the industrial revolution.

In the 1800s, There was great transportation development in the United States:

The railways, roads, and canals were important factors of transportation. People used all of them to transport goods. Because of the industrial and transportation revolution, the United States saw development in its economy.

There were new Roads and Canals were built such as:

The Erie Canal: it opened in 1825, connecting Lake Erie with the Hudson River Albany. It allowed shipping between New York City and the Great Lakes region. 

The Steam Engine: it was invented by Thomas Savery in 1698, he was an engineer who patented a machine that could absorb water from flooded mines using steam pressure. 

The Steamboat: it was built by Robert Fulton. In 1807, the steamboat was steaming upriver from New York to Albany.  

Manifest Destiny

Manifest Destiny was an idea that the Americans had a duty to expand their territory. James Knox Polk was elected President in 1845. He strongly believed in the Manifest Destiny idea.  

In the mid-1800s many Americans worked hard to expand their territory from westward to the Pacific Ocean, and even beyond. But when they moved toward the Pacific coast, the conflict with foreign powers had begun.

The Mexican-American War

Mexico owned Texas, California, and much of the Southwest. Americans decided to add Mexico to American territory. James K. Polk sent the United States military to take over Mexico. They fought for more than two years.

After Mexico was defeated, the United States took Texas, California, and all of the Southwest. 

What was the Missouri Compromise?

The Missouri Compromise was an agreement passed by Congress in 1820. It stated that Missouri would become the 24th state in the United States. Meanwhile, there were 11 free states and 11 slave states in the United States. 

Also, Congress agreed to declare Maine as a free state and Missouri as a slave state. The compromise also banned slavery from any future territories or states north of Missouri’s southern border.

What’s the meaning of Slave and Slavery?

  • Slave is a person who is legally owned by someone else and has to work for that person.
  • Slavery is the condition of being a slave.

Growth of the United States 

  • Original Thirteen States: 1776. 
  • Western Cessions: 1783-1802.  
  • Louisiana Purchase: 1803.
  • Florida and other areas from Spain: 1810-1819.
  • Texas:1845.
  • Oregon Country:1846.
  • Mexican Cession:1848.
  • Gadsden Purchase:1853.

The Civil War

The Civil War

The Southern and Northern of the United States went to war with each other in 1861 which was known as the Civil War. 

Slavery was the main problem in the United States that led to the Civil War.

Abraham Lincoln was elected the president of the United States. He was antislavery in the Republican Party. 


After Lincoln’s election, the Southern states began to withdraw from the Union. They formed the Confederate States of America. The Confederacy was made up of 11 southern states. 

They elected Jefferson Davis of Mississippi as president. The Southern economy was based on cotton and tobacco, which were grown on large farms called plantations.


The southern states are called Union. The Northern states are bigger than the southern states. It consists of 25 states. They had a large navy. They won at the end of the war.

South Carolina was the first state to withdraw from the Union before the Civil War. More than 600,000 men died in the Civil War. Lincoln was assassinated after the war, and Vice President Andrew Johnson became president. 

The South after the Civil War lived in a hard period during the war. The rebuilding after the war was known as Reconstruction.


The reconstruction lasted about 12 years from 1861 to 1677. It announced the newly freed slaves (black people). That means black people took the same civil rights as white people, guaranteed by three new constitutional amendments “13th, 14th, and 15th”. The new constitutional amendments  known as the “Reconstruction Amendments”.


The population of the United States increased due to millions of immigrants in 1880. Some came from northern or western Europe, some from Greece, Italy, Poland, and Italy. They searched for new homes, jobs, and countries. The Americans also moved from farms to cities. Most Americans moved to the west. 

The Expansion of the United States

The United States still expanded its territories by taking over more land:

  • Russia sold Alaska to the United States: in 1867. 
  • The United States claimed possession of the Hawaiian Islands: in 1898 .
  • Alaska and Hawaii: in 1959.
  • Puerto Rico and the island of Guam: in 1898. 
  • Spain sold the Philippines to the United States: in 1898.

The Panama Canal

The Panama Canal in 1912

The United States looked ahead to build a canal across the Central American country of Panama. Colombia at that time ruled Panama. The Panama Canal was built to decrease the distance between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. The Panama Canal is a 48-mile-long man-made waterway. The construction began in 1904, and it opened in 1914.

World War I

World War I was also known as the Great War. World War I began in 1914 and ended in 1918. Europe at that time had split into two large countries: 

  • The Allied Powers: Russia, Great Britain, Japan, France, and the United States. 
  • The Central Powers: Germany, Bulgaria, Austria, Turkey, and Hungary. 

World War I

What was the cause of World War I?

There were 5 major causes of World War I:  

  1. Militarism: Militarism in Europe had a great impact on the start of World War I. The naval race between Britain and Germany for naval supremacy. Britain had the largest navy in the world and Germany sought to develop its navy to correspond.
  2. Alliances: Alliance was Britain, France, and Russia. They are associated for different reasons such as trade, investment, financial issues, and military support. 
  3. Nationalism: Nationalism means loyalty to one’s country. France, Germany, and Russia each tried to prove their nation’s importance to the world by building up armies and weapons.
  4. Imperialism: Imperialism means the expansion of European nations as empires. Britain and France expanded their empires, and that increased the tensions among European countries.
  5. Assassination: The war was declared on Serbia after the assassination of Austrian “Archduke Franz Ferdinand” by South Slav nationalist Gavrilo Princip on June 28, 1914.

The War:

World War I was between the Allied Powers and the Central Powers. The United States tried at the beginning to be neutral. In 1916 Woodrow Wilson was elected as a president, he had kept the country out of the war.

After German submarines began sinking the United States ships, the United States found it impossible to be outside the fight. The United States announced war on the Central Powers. The United States soldiers helped the Allies to victory on the battlefields of Europe. 

Most fighting took place in Europe along two fronts “the western front and the eastern front”:

  1. The western front was a long line of trenches that ran from the coast of Belgium to Switzerland. 
  2. The eastern front was between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Bulgaria on one side and Russia and Romania on the other. 

How did the war start?

  • After the assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Austria declared war on Serbia.
  • Germany declared war on Russia to protect Austria. 
  • France declared war on Germany to protect its ally Russia.
  • Britain declared war on Germany. 

All of those wars happened in just a few days. During the war, many battles happened such as the First Battle of the Marne, Battle of the Somme, Battle of Tannenberg, Battle of Gallipoli, and the Battle of Verdun.

Battle of the Somme: One of the bloodiest battles of World War I, about one million soldiers died during the battle. It was fought by the French and British against the Germans on both sides of the River Somme in France.

When did the Fighting end?

The fighting ended on November 11, 1918, by deafening the Central Powers. 

Treaty of Versailles

What was the Treaty of Versailles?

It was a peace treaty that ended the war, it was signed in Versailles, France on Jun 28, 1919. It was between Germany and the Allied Powers. Germany was blamed for starting the war, so Germans should accept guilt for the war. The Germans had to surrender some of their territories and colonies and limit the size of their military. The Treaty of Versailles formed the League of Nations. 

Treaty of Versailles

What was the League of Nations?

It was formed to prevent future wars. Woodrow Wilson, the American President at that time, wanted the League to be a place where countries could settle disagreements by talking instead of fighting. The United States refused to join the league. Germans resented the conditions in the Treaty of Versailles, and Germany withdrew from the League of Nations in 1933. After that, Japan and Italy withdrew.

In the end, Germany, Italy, and Japan expanded their power. The League of Nations couldn’t stop the expansion of fighting which led to World War II.

Events between World War I and World War II

  • Nov. 2, 1917 start of the Soviet Union.
  • World War I ended in 1918, with the defeat of Central Power.
  • Treaty of Versailles on Jun 28, 1919. 
  • Rise of totalitarianism, Fascism on May 2, 1920.
  • Mussolini took over in 1922. 
  • Beer Hall Putsch, Mein Kampf in 1923.
  • Stalin gained power in 1929.
  • Jan 30, 1933, Hitler became Chancellor of Germany.
  • Reichstag Fire in 1933.
  • Nuremberg laws in 1935.

Who was the Soviet Union?

The United Socialist Soviet Republic or U.S.S.R. was made up of 15 soviet republics: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.

The Soviet Role in World War II


On 9 November 1938, there was a night of terrible violence against Jewish people. It became known as Kristallnacht.

A lot of smashed glass covered the streets from shops that were raided. That night was known as “the night of broken glass”. Many Jews were murdered, and others were arrested and sent to concentration camps.

On 1 September 1939, Germany invaded Poland which was the flame to begin World War II.

World War II

World War II was the biggest and deadliest war in history. There were two sides fought:

1- The Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, and Japan

2- The Allied Powers: the United States, the Soviet Union, Great Britain, and France. 

How did World War II begin?

World War II began in Europe on September 1, 1939. It was between the Axis Powers and the Allied Powers. It was the deadliest war in the world.

When Germany attacked Poland. Great Britain and France responded by declaring war on Germany on September 3. Germany was led at the time by the Nazi party of Adolf Hitler.

German Invasion

1- Poland:

In 1939 Germany attacked Poland. 

2- Scandinavia and the Low Countries:

– In 1940 the Germans took over Norway and Denmark.

– In the same year, they moved into the Low Countries: Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands.

3- France:

In 1940 Germany invaded France. 

4- Great Britain: 

In 1940 Germany started to attack Great Britain by warplanes. The British had a new invention at that time called radar. The radar warned the British when the warplanes came near. The British succeeded in shooting down most of the German attackers. So the German attempt to invade Great Britain failed.

5- Soviet Union: 

The war between the U.S.S.R. and Germany began on June 22, 1941, during the German invasion of the Soviet Union. In 1942 Germany wanted to invade the Soviet city of Stalingrad. The battle began between the U.S.S.R. and German. It was the largest battle in World War II. About 2 million died on both sides. After Stalingrad, the Soviets evicted the Germans.


Adolf Hitler

Germany was led at the time by the Nazi party of Adolf Hitler. The Nazis hated Jewish people and treated them very poorly. During World War II (1939-1945), they decided to kill as many Jews as possible.

This process became known as the Holocaust. It took the lives of about 6 million Jewish men, women, and children. Jewish people were not only ones who died in the Holocaust but also Pole, Slavic, and Roman people.

Japan Invasion 

Japan at that time was a small country, it wanted to vast its country and dominate all of Southeast Asia. Japan invaded China and they joined the Axis Alliance with Germany and Italy in 1940.

Pearl Harbor: On December 7, 1941, Japanese planes attacked the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The United States declared war on Japan the next day. After a short time, Germany and Italy declared war on the United States.

The Philippines: The Japanese were able to capture the Philippines which were United States possessions. The Japanese invaded other Pacific islands.

The Coral Sea and Midway: In June 1942,  Allied forces defeated the Japanese on Midway Island. This battle was the turning point of the war in the Pacific.

End of the War with Germany

The United States fought with Allied troops in Europe and North Africa. Italy surrendered in September 1943, leaving Germany to fight alone in Europe. 

“D-Day invasion”

D-Day was the name given to the first day of Operation Overlord. It took place during World War II. In 1944 over 150,000 troops of Allied power had landed on five beaches of Normandy.

Germans had invaded and occupied Belgium, the Netherlands, and a large part of France. The Allied Powers wanted to find a plan to free these lands. About 3,000 landing craft, 2,500 other ships, and 500 naval vessels began to head for France. 

The Americans broke through the German defenses and defeated the Germans troops. It was a deadly fought end with many deaths of Allied Powers and Germans. Not only those but also French civilians were killed. 

“Battle of the Bulge”

Battle of the Bulge is also known as the Battle of the Ardennes because it took place in the wooded Ardennes region of Belgium. In 1944 the Allied Power fought German troops. It was the biggest battle American soldiers have ever entered. Hundreds of Americans and Germans lost their lives.

For months Germany fought a losing battle against advancing Soviet armies in the east and Allied armies in the west. Germany surrendered on May 8, 1945, and Hitler killed himself on April 30. The war ended in Europe. The Allies divided Germany among themselves after the war. They also punished Nazi leaders after putting them on trial.

End of War with Japan

1- The Pacific Ocean

In the Pacific Ocean, the United States troops captured island after island from the Japanese. In February 1943, The United States troops drove the Japanese from Guadalcanal, one of the Solomon Islands, and captured Saipan in the Mariana Islands in July 1944.

The United States captured the Philippine capital of Manila in March 1945.

The United States also captured Iwo Jima and Okinawa, both Japanese islands. 

2- Hiroshima and Nagasaki

President Harry S. Truman the president of the United States at that time saw the Japanese surrender wasn’t easy for them. So the United States had invented the atomic bomb, a new weapon of immense power.

On August 6, 1945, a U.S. airplane dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan. About 70 thousand people died from the explosion. On August 9 another United States plane dropped an atomic bomb on the city of Nagasaki.

Japan surrendered on September 2, 1945. The United States punished Japan’s wartime prime minister, Tojo Hideki. This ended the war.

The United Nations

Even before the end of the war, Allied leaders had taken steps to ensure the future peace of the world. In April 1945 representatives from 50 countries met in San Francisco to plan the organization of the United Nations (UN). The purpose of the United Nations was to elevate peace in the world. 

After the war, the United States and the Soviet Union were the most powerful countries in the world. Despite having been Allies, the two countries soon began a long struggle called the Cold War.

The Cold War (1945 – 1991)

The Cold War

During World War II the United States and the Soviet Union worked together to fight any enemy. The United States and the Soviet Union never fought. 

After the peace” end of World War II”, a dispute began to appear between the United States and the Soviet Union.

The United States

The Soviet Union

  • Became the leader of the Western nations.
  • Had democratic governments.
  • Wanted to stop Communism from spreading.
  • Became the leader of Eastern Europe.
  • Had communist government.
  • Encouraged the rise of Communism.

The tense competition between the United States and the Soviet Union became known as the Cold War. It was known as the “Cold War”, which means that there wasn’t a physical war. The Cold War took about 46 years to end.

The counties which involved in the Cold War:

Who was NATO? ( The West )

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was the military alliance of the West during the Cold War that was established in 1949.

The members of NATO are the United States, the United Kingdom, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, Canada, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Denmark, and Iceland. Later, Turkey and Greece joined.

Who was The Warsaw Pact “the Iron Curtain”? ( The East )

The Warsaw Pact was the Soviet Union’s response to the NATO treaty at the start of the Cold War. The Warsaw Pact was a defense treaty among eight communists of Eastern Europe dominated by the Soviet Union during the Cold War.

The members of the Warsaw Pact: were Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union.

Main events of the Cold War:

The Arms Race

The Arms Race was between the United States and the Soviet Union, both of them tried to show the world who is stronger by developing the atomic bomb, hydrogen bomb, powerful weapons, and nuclear weapons.

The Space Race

The Cold War was a competition between the United States and the Soviet Union that expanded into space exploration in 1957. The Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite to orbit the Earth in 1957. 

The United States was surprised and in response encouraged space research in the United States and established the Space Administration (NASA) in 1958. The first United States satellite, Explorer 1, was launched in January 1958. 

In 1969 the United States landed the first man on the moon and successfully sent a manned spacecraft to orbit the moon “Apollo 8”. 

Korean War

In 1950 war broke out in Asia. The Communist government of North Korea invaded South Korea. They wanted to put the country under Communist rule. The United Nations Security Council voted to help South Korea, and the United States and other United Nations countries sent troops. Chinese Communist troops went to the aid of North Korea. This conflict became known as the Korean War. The war ended in 1953 with the establishment of a neutral zone between North and South Korea.

Cuban Missile Crisis

Nuclear weapons were one of the serious issues that appeared after World War II.  

Both the United States and the Soviet Union competed to manufacture such weapons. Tensions between the two powers often led to fears of nuclear inhibition. 

The Soviet Union placed missiles on the island of Cuba, the two major countries came to the brink of nuclear war. Communists had taken control of Cuba in 1959.

The President Of The United States at that time was “John F. Kennedy”. He claimed that the missiles would be removed. Many people feared war. After two weeks, the Soviet Union agreed to remove the missiles. This conflict is known as the Cuban missile crisis.

The Vietnam War 

The Vietnam War took place during the President Johnson era. The Vietnam War became a big problem under his rule. Johnson became unpopular and chose not to run for reelection in 1968.

The Communist government of North Vietnam had been trying to overthrow the anti-Communist government of South Vietnam. President Johnson Kennedy had sent military and supplies to the South Vietnamese. The United States entered the Vietnam War in an attempt to prevent the spread of communism.

The United States sent soldiers and began bombing the North. By the end of 1967, about 500,000 United States troops were in South Vietnam. The United States military reported 58,220 American casualties

On April 30, 1975, the North Vietnamese Army (NVA) tanks rolled through the gate of the Presidential Palace in Saigon, effectively ending the war. 

Richard M. Nixon became the President after Johnson. He continued supporting the war. But after that, he began to pull the United States troops out of Vietnam. In 1973  a peace treaty was signed but the fighting never stopped. 


In 1972 Nixon visited Communist China, which led to the establishment of official relations between the United States and China. At the end of the year, Nixion was reelected but he used illegal activities to win. This scandal is known as Watergate. In 1974 Nixon resigned from the presidency. Vice President Gerald R. Ford became president.

The United States faced many economic problems during Ford’s presidency. Jimmy Carter came after Ford. Not only Ford’s presidency but also Jimmy’s presidency faced economic problems.

Panama Canal

The Panama Canal

The Panama Canal is a waterway that connects the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The canal took 10 years to build. The United States took the right to build Canal in Panama. Although the Canal was in Panama, the United States ruled it. This situation created many troubles between the United States and Panama. In 1999 the United States turned over the canal and the Canal Zone to Panama.

Reagan Administrations

Reagan Administrations

Ronald Reagan, an American actor, and politician became the 40th President of the United States serving from 1981 to 1989. He is known as the “Great Communicator” because he was a good public speaker. He was reelected in 1984.

Reagan tried to create new political and economic ideas. Reagan’s economic policy lowered tax rates. He worked on ending the Cold War in 1986. He ordered to bomb Libya.

In his second term, Reagan supported Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev’s effort in the Soviet Union. The two leaders signed the intermediate-range nuclear forces “INF” treaty in 1987. The treaty was a step to decrease the nuclear weapons in the two countries.

George Bush was the vice president. At first, Bush worked with Congress to resolve the federal government’s economic problems. He was good at foreign affairs. He signed two nuclear arms treaties, one with Soviet leader Gorbachev and the second with Russian President Boris Yeltsin.

In December 1989, Bush ordered the capture of Manuel Noriega “Panama leader”. He was involved in international sales of illegal drugs. After being captured, he was put on trial in the United States. 

Persian Gulf War

Iraqi president Saddam Hussein ordered the invasion and occupation of neighboring Kuwait in early August 1990. The United States led a group of countries in a war against Iraq.  

The War began on January 16, 1991, and ended with an Iraqi defeat and retreat from Kuwait on February 28, 1991.

The Clinton Administration

The Clinton Administration

The United States became the world’s only superpower after the breakup of the Soviet Union. William Jefferson Clinton, also known as Bill Clinton defeated Bush in the election of 1992. He became the 42nd president of the United States (1993 –  2001). 

Bill Clinton was from Arkansas. He was a lawyer and law professor at the University of Arkansas. A member of the Democrat Party.

Under Clinton’s rule, the economy improved dramatically. While the economy remained strong, his presidency oscillated dramatically from high to low and back again. Let’s see:

First Term (1993-1996)

Second Term (1997-2001)

  • Health Security: The purpose is to provide universal health care for all Americans.   
  • AmeriCorps: The agency’s mission is to improve lives, and strengthen communities.
  • NAFTA: an agreement signed by the Clinton government “the North American Free Trade”, which encouraged trade between the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
  • 1994 Crime Bill: is an act of Congress dealing with crime and law enforcement.
  • One America Initiative: The main thrust was convening and encouraging community dialogue throughout the country. 

Clinton Impeached

Bill Clinton denied the sexual relationship between him and Monica Lewinsky. He was accused of lying about this affair and impeached (put on trial) by Congress, which had the power to remove him from office. Clinton was not found guilty of the charges against him and remained in office. He was only the second president in United States history to be impeached.

The Bush Administration

George W. Bush

George W. Bush is an American politician and businessman. He was the 43rd president of the United States (2001- 2009). He is Bush’s son. He is from Texas. A member of the Republican Party. 

First Term 

Second Term

  • September 11 attacks: a series of coordinated terrorist attacks killing 2,977 people using four aircraft hijacked by 19 members of al-Qaeda against the United States.
  • Hurricane Katrina: It was the most horrible natural disaster in US history, causing destruction along the Gulf coast from Florida to Texas. Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath claimed more than 1,800 lives. George Bush’s administration’s slow response to the disaster remains a source of deep resentment in the city. 
  • Iraq War in 2003.
  • Dismissal of U.S. attorneys controversy.
  • Great Recession: refers to the economic downturn from 2007 to 2009 after the bursting of the U.S. housing bubble and the global financial crisis.

In 2008 the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan were still going on. Several candidates campaigned to become the next president. The two main candidates were Barack Obama, of the Democratic Party, and John McCain, of the Republican Party. In the election held on November 4, Obama defeated McCain.

The Obama Administration

President Obama

Obama was the first African American to be elected president of the United States. He was the 44th president of the United States. A member of the Democratic Party. He was a lawyer and law professor at the University of Chicago. 

First Term (2009-2012)

Second Term (2013-2017)

  • First 100 days: the period is considered a benchmark to measure the early success of President Obama. 
  • Recovery Act: was a massive round of federal spending intended to create new jobs and recover jobs lost in the Great Recession of 2008.
  • Russia nuclear treaty: an agreement to prevent the nuclear war.
  • Affordable Care Act: designed to extend health coverage to millions of uninsured Americans.
  • Anti-ISIL campaign: In 2014 an extremist Islamic group, often known as ISIL, emerged in Iraq and took over important cities in Iraq and Syria. The United States began airstrikes against ISIL

In 2012 Obama ran for a second term as president. His opponent was Mitt Romney, a wealthy businessman who had been the governor of Massachusetts. The election was close, but Obama was reelected in November.

In 2016 The candidates for the presidential election were a former first lady and senator Hillary Clinton and businessman Donald Trump. After a close election, Trump emerged the winner.

Donald Trump Administration

Donald Trump

Donald Trump was the 45th president of the United States. He became the first president without government or military experience. He was a businessman and former reality TV show star. He ruled the United States only for one period (January 20, 2017-January 20, 2021). Trump is from New York City. A member of the Republican Party. Trump made an unprecedented number of false or misleading statements during his campaign and presidency. 

His presidency went through many stages:  

  • Proclamations: Donald Trump signed a total of 570 proclamations throughout his tenure.
  • Trips internationally: Donald Trump made 19 international trips to 24 countries during his presidency.
  • North Korea summits: were initiated to resolve the Korean conflict and denuclearize Korea. International concern about North Korea’s nuclear weapons came to a head in 2017, when they posed a direct threat to the United States. The summits failed to make substantial progress towards denuclearization or a peace treaty.
  • Riyadh summit: On May 20, 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump signed an arms deal with the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The arms deal was the largest in world history.
  • Helsinki summit: was a summit meeting between United States President Donald Trump and Russian President Vladimir Putin on July 16, 2018, in Helsinki. Trump and Putin met privately for two hours, without aides or note-takers. The meeting had been scheduled for 90 minutes but lasted two hours. Trump defended Russia over claims of interference in the 2016 presidential election.
  • Federal government shutdown: started at midnight EST on Saturday, January 20, 2018, and ended on the evening of Monday, January 22. The shutdown began after a failure to pass legislation to fund government operations and agencies. About 692,900 workers were furloughed during the shutdown.
  • Lawsuits: there were many lawsuits involving former president Donald Trump.
  • Federal law enforcement deployment: In June 2020, the Trump administration began deploying federal law enforcement forces to select cities in the United States in response to rioting and monument removals amid the George Floyd protests. The deployment was met with lawsuits, rebukes, and concerns over constitutionality.
  • Tweeter: Donald Trump’s use of social media attracted attention worldwide since he joined Twitter in May 2009. Trump tweeted around 25,000 times during his presidency. Twitter permanently banned Trump from the platform in January 2021 during the final days of his term because of his controversial and false statements.
  • Veracity of statements: Donald Trump made tens of thousands of false or misleading claims.


Trump became the first president ever to be impeached twice:

First impeachment: The first impeachment of Donald Trump, the 45th President of the United States, began on September 24, 2019, after a whistleblower alleged that Trump had pressured foreign leaders. The scandal was about Trump telling Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky to investigate Hunter Biden and his father Joe Biden, a former vice-president and a candidate for the 2020 presidential election. It ended on February 5, 2020.

Second impeachment: After the 2021 storming of the United States Capitol by Donald Trump’s supporters on January 6, 2021, many government officials said that Trump had told them to do it during the certification of the election he lost. Because of this, Members of Congress from both the Democratic Party wanted to remove Trump from his office as President of the United States. He was impeached for a second time by the United States House of Representatives on January 13, 2021. 

His presidency ended with his defeat in the 2020 presidential election by Democrat Joe Biden after one term in office.

Joe Biden

Joe Biden is an American politician who is the 46th and current president of the United States. A member of the Democratic Party, he served as the 47th vice president from 2009 to 2017 under Barack Obama and represented Delaware in the United States Senate from 1973 to 2009.

List of the Presidents of the United States and their Political Parties:

  1. George Washington: No party.
  2. John Adams: Federalist Party.
  3. Thomas Jefferson: Democratic-Republican Party.
  4. James Madison: Democratic-Republican Party. 
  5. James Monroe: Democratic-Republican Party.
  6. John Quincy Adams: Democratic-Republican Party.
  7. Andrew Jackson: Democrat Party.
  8. Martin Van Buren: Democrat Party.
  9. William Henry Harrison: Whig Party.
  10. John Tyler: Whig Party. 
  11. James Knox Polk: Democrat Party.
  12. Zachary Taylor: Whig Party.
  13. Millard Fillmore: Whig Party.
  14. Franklin Pierce: Democrat Party.
  15. James Buchanan: Democrat Party.
  16. Abraham Lincoln: Republican Party.
  17. Andrew Johnson: Democrat Party.
  18. Ulysses S. Grant: Republican Party.
  19. Rutherford B. Hayes: Republican Party.
  20. James Garfield: Republican Party.
  21. Chester Alan Arthur: Republican Party.
  22. Grover Cleveland: Democrat Party.
  23. Benjamin Harrison: Republican Party.
  24. Grover Cleveland: Democrat Party.
  25. William McKinley: Republican Party.
  26. Theodore Roosevelt: Republican Party.
  27. William Howard Taft: Republican Party.
  28. Woodrow Wilson: Democrat Party.
  29. Warren Harding: Republican Party.
  30. Calvin Coolidge: Republican Party.
  31. Herbert Hoover: Republican Party.
  32. Franklin D. Roosevelt: Democrat Party.
  33. Harry S Truman: Democrat Party.
  34. Dwight David Eisenhower: Republican Party.
  35. John F. Kennedy: Democrat Party.
  36. Lyndon B. Johnson: Democrat Party.
  37. Richard Nixon: Republican Party.
  38. Gerald Ford: Republican Party.
  39. James Earl Carter: Democrat Party.
  40. Ronald Reagan: Republican Party.
  41. George H.W. Bush: Republican Party.
  42. William Jefferson Clinton: Democrat Party.
  43. George W. Bush: Republican Party.
  44. Barack Obama: Democrat Party. 
  45. Donald Trump: Republican Party.
  46. Joe Biden: Democrat Party.